NSW RURAL FIRE SERVICE FIREFIGHT

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					      NSW
RURAL FIRE SERVICE




  FIREFIGHTERS’
  POCKET BOOK
     December 2004
Foreword
In the field there are a number of important things all firefighters need to
know; from basic safety to vehicle and officer recognition. This pocketbook is
designed to provide you with a fast, easy reference guide to these and other
important facts you will need at your fingertips.
Whilst some of the information contained is in summary form and is ‘rule of
thumb’, it is sufficient for you to make operational decisions. It has been
developed by firefighters, for firefighters and is concise, relevant and rugged
enough for you to take with you anywhere.
I would encourage you to keep this pocketbook with you at all times; you never
know when the information may be of use to you and your crewmates.
The pocketbook is also available on the internet at http://www.rfs.nsw.gov.au
This pocketbook will also be reviewed periodically, so any suggestions for
improvements should be forwarded to Chief Superintendent, Alan Brinkworth,
Manager Operations, Policy and Standards at alan.brinkworth@rfs.nsw.gov.au

Phil Koperberg AO, AFSM, BEM
Commissioner




 December 2004 ~ Version 1.0                    NSW Rural Fire Service
   Index 1                                                                                       NSW Rural Fire Service


Index 1
Accident . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51,76,77            Colour Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36,50,72
Acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1,2,3         Combat Agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95
AFFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54    Combat Agency Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94,95
Agency Liaison Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75                   Communications Colour Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
Aircraft Callsigns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43          Communications Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
Aircraft Hand Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44,45,46                   Communications Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
Aircraft Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42         Construction Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87
Aircraft Water Bombing Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40                       Conversion Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
Alphabet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71        Convoy Driving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
ARSO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2     CPR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Assessing Fine Fuel Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85                   Crimes Act 1900 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Australian Road Rules 1999 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13,14                       Critical Incident Support Services (CISS) . . . . . .78
Authority Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15          Curing Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
Authority of Officers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15,16,17                 Dangerous Goods Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Beaufort Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47            Date Time Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Bee Sting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34       Dead Man Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
BFFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54    Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73,80,81
Biological Terrorism Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22                     Dehydration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Bleeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33      Displan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94,95
Brassards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102,103            Divisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67,68
Briefing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3   DRABC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30,31,32,33,34
Bulldozers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87      Draughting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
Burns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32     Driving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12,13,14,70
Bush Fire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82     DTG – Date Time Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Bush Fire Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38              EAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Bush Fire Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80,81                Electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24,25,26,27,28,29
Bush Fire Mapping Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62,63                        Emergency Procedure, Bush or Structure Fire . . .6
Bush Fire Personal Protective Equipment . . . . . . .4                            Epaulettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96,97
Bush Fire Survival if in a Building . . . . . . . . . . . . .9                    Estimating Degree of Slope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
Bush Fire Survival if in a Vehicle . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7                   Estimating Fuel Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
Bush Fire Survival if on Foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8                Explosive Devices & Suspicious Packages . . . . .23
Callsigns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43     Extinguishers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
Category 1,2,7,9, Pumper . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106,107                       FDI/FDR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
Chaplaincy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79        Finding North/South . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105
Chemical Terrorism Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23                       Fire Area Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88
CISS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78    Fire Bombing Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
Classes of Fire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37,38            Fire Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37,38
Index 2
Fire Danger Index and Rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39                   Incident Management Team (IMT) . . . . . . . . . . .68
Fire Extinguishers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37           LACES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Firefighter Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48       Large Incident . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
Fire Investigation and Scene Preservation . . . . .35                            Lateral Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30,34
Fire Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38      Log Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
First Aid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30,31,32,33,34            Low Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90,91
Foam Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54           Machine Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87
Fractures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33    Magnetic North . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
Frequencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74,75         Map (State) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65,88
Friction Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58      Map Marking Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
Fronts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91   Mapping Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62,63
Fuel Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85            Map Referencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
Fuel Containers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36          Map Scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
Fuel Moisture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84        Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64
Funnel Web Bite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33            Medium Incident . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
Graders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87    MVA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51,76,77
Grassland Curing Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83                 North . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105
Grid and Magnetic North . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60                  Nozzle Pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58,59
Grid Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61         NSW Fire Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88,89
Ground to Air Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41              Offensive Personal Protective Equipment . . . . . . .5
Guiding Vehicle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52,53           Operations Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
Hand Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44,45,46,52,53,57                    Organisational Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
HazChem Scale for Fire or Spillage . . . . . . . . . . .18                       Parts of a Bush Fire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
HazMat/Terrorism Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . .20,21                       Personal Protective Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4,5
Heart Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31       Phoenetic Alphabet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
Heat Exhaustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31            Pole Top Fires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Heat Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31        Powers of Officers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15,16,17
Heat Stroke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32        PPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4,5
Helicopter Marshalling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44,45,46                   Pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58,59
Helicopter Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42          Pumper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
Helmet Colours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98,99,100,101                    Pump Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
High Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90        Radioactive Terrorism Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Hoses and Pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58,59                 Radio Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Hydrant Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56            Radio Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
ICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66,67,68      Ranking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96,97
I’M SAFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1    Recovery Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30,34
Incident Control System (ICS) . . . . . . . . . .66,67,68                        Redback Spider Bite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34

   Index 2                                                                                      NSW Rural Fire Service
   Index 3                                                                                        NSW Rural Fire Service


Index 3
Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65      Structural Fires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
Resource Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48              Structural Personal Protective Equipment . . . . . . .5
Responding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12,13            Substations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
Response Team Coordinator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69                        Survival if in a Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Road Transport (Safety and Traffic                                                 Survival if in a Vehicle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Management) Act 1999 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14                     Survival if on Foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
RRAPID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2      Suspicious Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Rural Fires Act, September 1997 . . . . . . . .16,17,38                            SWS Marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
Rural Fire Service Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92,93                  Tabards and Brassards . . . . .51,78,79,102,103,104
Safe Driving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12,13,14             Tactical Aircraft Callsigns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Safe Working on Roads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51                    Tanker Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106,107
Safety Vests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51,104             Tanker Protection System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
Scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71     Task Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
Scene Preservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35               T Card Colour Coding Identification . . . . . . . . . . .50
Sectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67,68         T Card Resource Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
Seizure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34      T Card Single Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Service Vehicle Involved in an Accident . . . . . . .77                            Terrorism Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20,21,22,23
Severe Bleeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33              Toban Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88,89
Severed Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33          Traffic Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13,14
Shock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32      Trail Construction Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87
Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41,44,45,46,52,53,57                    Transmission Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
SitRep/Situation Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11                  Two Piece Uniform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48   Urine Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Slope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86    USAR Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108,109
Small Incident . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66           Vehicle Accident . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
SMEACS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3        Vehicle Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50,106,107
Snake and Spider Bites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33,34                    Vehicle Checking Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
South . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105       Very Large Incident . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
Spider Bites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33,34            Volume of Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
State Assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69             Wasp Sting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
State Emergency and Rescue Management                                              Water Bombing Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
Act 1989 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94       Water Supply Hand Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
State Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65,88           Weather . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90,91
Step Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28           Winds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47,90,91
Storm Damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25             Wind Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
Strike Team . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69          Working on Roads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
Stroke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
I’M SAFE – should I respond to an incident?
Illness or Injury Am I sufficiently recovered?
Medication        Am I under the effect of any medication?
Stress            Am I under severe stress from work or personal worries?
Alcohol or Drugs Am I under the influence or badly hung over?
Fatigue           Am I tired and not adequately rested?
Expertise         Am I currently competent?

LACES
Firefighter
Lookouts       Everybody looks out for everybody else
               Everybody is aware of the current and anticipated behaviour
Awareness
               of the fire and other incident hazards and precautions
Communications Everybody speaks up about what is happening and their
               concerns at the incident and everybody listens
Escape Route Everybody has an ‘out’ planned and agreed
               Everybody helps everybody to survive. Everybody supports
Safety Refuge the decision to get clear of a hazard

Crew Leader
               Assign a “lookout” to a safe vantage point in communication
Lookouts
               with crew leader
Awareness      Terrain, weather, fire behaviour, the task and nearby activities
Communications Maintain suitable radio or other contact
Escape Route Suitable escape route/s checked and known by all crew
Safety Refuge Suitable, large enough, close enough and free of hazards

 Acronyms ~ I’M SAFE / LACES                    NSW Rural Fire Service        1
 Acronyms ~ RRAPID / ARSO / DTG               NSW Rural Fire Service       2


RRAPID
Reaction           Mobilise resources to incident or staging area
Reconnaissance Collect data about the situation and resources
                   Choose a course of action based on the likely scenario,
Appreciation
                   best and worst case scenario
                   Develop and document a plan based on your chosen
Plan
                   course of action
Issue Orders       Use the SMEACS format
Deployment         Execute and monitor deployment to the plan

ARSO – your priorities at an indicent
Arrival &          What you and your crew do as you arrive at a particular
Approach           type of fire or incident including your own safety
Rescue             What you and your crew do to safely protect people at the
                   fire or incident
                   What you and your crew do to safely protect items of
Suppression
                   economic, environmental, cultural or personal value
                   What you and your crew do to safely help people and the
Overhaul
                   area affected by the fire or incident to return to normal


DTG ~ Date Time Group
Abbreviated Date Time Group uses two digits for the date and 24 hour time
Example: 10:51 on 1 October 2005 would be 01 1051
Full Date Time Group uses date, time, month and year
Example: 10:51 on 26 January 2005 would be 26 1051 JAN 05
SMEACS – a briefing sequence
                    Current and Predicted – incident details, what is at risk,
Situation           topography, weather, fire behaviour, hazard risks, resources
                    deployed, en route or available
                    Objectives – overall or specific, who/what is savable,
Mission
                    where to stop fire/incident
                    Strategy and Tactics – task allocation, timing and safety
Execution
                    considerations
                    Assistance and Logistics – what support is needed,
Administration      staging areas, personnel, fuel, food, water, facilities,
                    information, where/when/quantity
                    Command, Control and Communications – organisation,
Command             divisions, sectors, chain of command, communications plan,
                    channels and procedures
Safety              Safety Hazards LACES checklist


Briefing – at large incidents
Stage Management of Briefing
• Identify the various leaders in command
• Brief all relevant key personnel
• Make sure that everyone can see and hear
• State that questions can be asked at the end
• Effectively manage interruptions
• Handout relevant part/s of Incident Action Plan
• Handout map/s
• Be brief, accurate and confident
• Brief keeping strictly to the SMEACS format

 Acronym ~ SMEAC, Briefing                       NSW Rural Fire Service        3
    PPE 1 ~ Bush Fire                         NSW Rural Fire Service         4


  Personal Protective Equipment 1
  (PPE) Garments are not to be modified or changed
   Bush fire personal protective         It is advisable to carry:
   equipment to be worn:
   • helmet, correctly marked, chin      • personal first aid kit,
     strap and neck protector              medication and sunscreen
   • non synthetic undergarments         • matches
   • overalls or two piece uniform       • knife
   • boots                               • compass
   To be carried and used as required:   • authority card
   • smoke goggles                       • pocket book, note book
   • smoke mask or cloth                   and pen
   • bushfire flash hood                 • personal requirements
   • gloves
   • water bottle
                                                Note: New jackets will
                                                have epaulettes and two
                                                pockets. Name, rank,
                                                qualification/s and brigade
                                                name are to be sewn onto
                                                the pocket flaps.
       Rank Epaulette
                                                          Rank Epaulette
Rural Fire                                                          Rural Fire
Service Patch                                                   Service Patch

                                                                     BF, AF, CL or
                                                                     GL plus VF &
     Rank                                                            1st Aid
                                                                         Brigade
Name                                                                       Name
   Personal Protective Equipment 2
   (PPE) Garments are not to be modified or changed
   Offensive structural personal protective equipment:
   • helmet, correctly marked, chin strap and neck protector
   • structural flash hood
   • non synthetic undergarments
   • trousers of two piece uniform and shirt
   • offensive structural trousers and jacket
   • gloves
   • structural boots
   • personal guideline




     Rank Epaulette                                       Rank Epaulette
                                                                BF, AF, CL or
    Rank                                                        GL plus VF &
                                                                1st Aid

Name                                                                     Brigade
                                                                           Name
Rural Fire                                                              Rural Fire
Service                                                                   Service
Patch                                                                      Patch



    PPE 2 – Offensive Structural               NSW Rural Fire Service        5
 Dead Man Zone / Emergency Procedure                   NSW Rural Fire Service         6


Dead Man Zone
Firefighters engaged on parallel or indirect attack may be working in the
“dead man zone” and must appreciate the time and space required to find a
safe refuge.
                        The distance (metres) a line of fire will travel in 5 minutes
Forest Fire Danger                                    Slope
                                                  o
  Index (FDI)            Level Ground          10 (Up) Slope          20 o (Up) Slope
       20                       87                     174                   348
       40                      170                     340                   680
       60                      258                     510                  1020
       80                      338                     676                  1352
  Based on 12.5 tonnes per hectare – distances may be greater in heavier fuel loads


Emergency Procedure (Bush Fire)
If a danger to the crew is identified:
• Warn those in danger
• Notify the Officer in Charge immediately
• Activate a standard emergency signal
• Activate preplanned emergency action

Emergency Procedure (Structure Fire)
Emergency Signal
• Repeated whistle blasts
• Intermittent blasts of the siren at 5 second intervals
• Repeated tugs on a guideline or hoseline
• “Emergency” radio message
• Crew to evacuate the area and report to Breathing Apparatus Control Officer (BACO)
Bush Fire Survival if in a vehicle
• Full personal protective equipment (PPE) correctly worn and fastened
• Be aware of your surroundings, note areas of little vegetation, natural shelter places,
  escape routes and refuge areas
• Be aware of current weather conditions and fire behaviour
• Assess the risk of fire overrun
• Don’t put yourself in this position in the first place – anticipate and avoid
  hazardous locations – use the LACES checklist

• Don’t panic or cause others to panic – Warn others who may be in immediate danger
• Send an emergency radio call giving your details, callsign and location
• Don’t drive through dense smoke, you may have an accident or drive off the road
• Park in open space, bare or burnt ground or in an area of least vegetation,
  furthest from the path of the fire
• Stay in your vehicle and operate protective equipment (spray bars)
• Turn on the headlights, emergency lights and hazard warning lights,
   leave engine running and sound horn
• Petrol motors may stop working due to vapour lock
• Close windows and air vents and turn off the air conditioning
• Shelter under a coat or blanket to protect your body from the radiant heat
  and lie down as close as possible to the floor
• When the fire has passed – if vehicle is still safe, remain in the vehicle
                              – if vehicle is hazardous remain together as a crew and
                                seek refuge in a safer location until conditions cool
• The air closest to the ground is the freshest
• Coats or blankets should be taken and worn to provide supplementary protection
  against radiated heat from the burnt out ground
• Don’t touch the interior or exterior parts (particularly metal) of the vehicle, it will
  be very hot and may still be burning


 Survival – in vehicle                                NSW Rural Fire Service          7
 Survival – on foot                                   NSW Rural Fire Service           8


Bush Fire Survival if on foot
• Full personal protective equipment (PPE) correctly worn and fastened
• Be aware of your surroundings, note areas of little vegetation, natural shelter places,
  escape routes and refuge areas
• Be aware of current weather conditions and fire behaviour
• Assess the risk of fire overrun
• Don’t put yourself in this position in the first place – anticipate and avoid
  hazardous locations – use the LACES checklist

• Don’t panic or cause others to panic
• Don’t run through dense smoke, you may run into something, fall down or over a cliff
• Don’t run through a fire which exceeds 1.5 metres high x 1.5 to 3 metres deep
• Don’t try to outrun a fire uphill, for each 10o of slope the fire roughly doubles in the
  rate of forward spread, preferably move across the slope out of the path of the fire
• Seek bare or burnt ground or an area of little vegetation
• Seek shelter by using a track, culvert, drain, wheel rut, cave, rock ledge,
  large rock or fallen tree
• Check that there are no air spaces under rocks, fallen trees, etc. which would
  allow the fire to be channelled underneath
• Shelter may be sought in large dams, rivers and streams
• Avoid elevated water tanks
• If time permits, clear away or burn as much flammable material as possible
• Shelter on the side furthest from the path of the fire
• Lie face down
• Dig into the ground if possible, cover your body as much as possible to protect
  against the radiant heat
• A cloth or handkerchief, placed over your mouth and nose gives further protection
• Limit breathing as much as possible
• The air closest to the ground is the freshest
Bush Fire Survival if in a building
• Full personal protective equipment (PPE) correctly worn and fastened
• Be aware of your surroundings
• Be aware of current weather conditions and fire behaviour
• A substantial building can offer the best shelter during the passage of a bush fire
• Bush Fire Coordinating Committee policy recommends that capable persons
  should not be evacuated from properly prepared dwellings
• Last minute evacuations should be avoided

• Don’t panic or cause others to panic
• Know the whereabouts of all crew and/or family and ensure their safety
• Turn off electrical and gas systems
• Fill bath and sinks with water and strategically place static supplies of water
  externally (for firefighting)
• Ensure gutters are clear, then block and fill with water
• Close all doors and windows and seal gaps with towels or similar material
• If possible have a battery powered radio and torch in working order
• If time permits, clear away from around the building as much flammable material
  as possible
• Stay outside for as long as possible to extinguish small outbreaks
• Shelter in the house away from the approaching fire
• Once the fire has passed, move outside and extinguish any hot spots and check
  the building for any signs of fire, especially the roof and under the house




 Survival – in a building                          NSW Rural Fire Service         9
 Urine Chart                                    NSW Rural Fire Service          10


Urine Chart
HOW DEHYDRATED ARE YOU?
For frontline fire fighting, 1 litre of fluid should be taken every hour

                      Highly Dehydrated
DARK YELLOW           – Drink a large bottle of water
                        immediately!
                      You are still seriously dehydrated
BRIGHT YELLOW         – Drinking more now will make you feel
                        a lot better
                      Moderately dehydrated
YELLOW                – You lose fluid on a regular basis throughout the day
                      – Drink more water to get hydrated
                      Almost there
LIGHT YELLOW          – Get some more water in your system
                      – Stay hydrated and healthy!
                      Great job
CLEAR                 – Now don’t let yourself get dehydrated
                      – Drink at least 8-12 large glasses of water throughout
                        the day

CAFFEINATED AND SUGARY DRINKS AND ALCOHOL
    DEHYDRATE – LIMIT YOUR CONSUMPTION
You can have a sport drink to supplement electrolytes. They should be taken
at the ratio of 1 sports drink to 10 equivalents of water.
Approved by the NSW Ambulance Service
Radio Reports
When responding:
   Call sign, Crew strength and Officer in Charge (OIC)
Incident Controller
   Incident Controller and the name of the incident to be nominated and
   communicated to all at the incident and Fire Com
First arriving appliance
   Callsign
   Priority code (red, blue)
   Give or confirm location
   Give or confirm map name and grid reference
   Give or confirm type of incident (bush, grass, structure, AFA, MVA, false alarm, etc.)
   Advise investigating, commencing attack, standing by, etc.
Later arriving units to communicate with Incident Controller on approach
First arriving appliance also provides detailed SitRep on arrival and as the
situation changes or as additional information is known, when major
benchmarks have been achieved or at least every 30 minutes
   Fire status (going, being controlled, contained, patrol, out)
   Fire behaviour and weather information
   Fuel type, fuel load and topography
   Change of location
   For structure fire – what is involved and what are exposures, etc.
   For MVA – what is involved, traffic situation, road closures, etc.
   Communicate any change of Incident Controller
   Other Agencies in attendance
Further Information
   Any injuries, fatalities, persons trapped, persons missing, persons evacuated
   Any person or asset under immediate threat
   Any person or asset under longer term threat (give timeframe)
   Objectives, strategy and tactics
   Additional firefighting or logistics resources required
   Other services required (rescue, NSWFB for HazMat, Police, Ambulance,
   electricity, heavy plant, aircraft, etc.)
   Any hazard or safety warnings
   Any suspicious circumstances

 Radio Reports                                        NSW Rural Fire Service          11
 Safe Driving 1                                NSW Rural Fire Service       12


Safe Driving 1
Response
 All private vehicles are to observe all Australian Road Rules 1999, NSW Acts
 and Regulations at all times
 If you have an accident en-route you have defeated the purpose for
 which you were responded
 Drivers to have an appropriate current driving licence
 The driver of any RFS vehicle is to comply with the legislated prescribed
 concentration of alcohol (PCA)
 Respond means to drive urgently, but safely, using lights and sirens where
 appropriate (lights are to be used but siren may not be appropriate when
 responding in remote areas or on private lands)
 Note: A driver must give way to emergency vehicles that display flashing
 blue or red lights or sound an alarm
 A driver must not move into the path of emergency vehicles and must move
 out of the path of emergency vehicles that display flashing blue or red lights
 or sound an alarm
 Treat all other road users as though they have not seen you
 Normally RFS vehicles respond for the initial response
 RFS vehicles called out later to assist are to proceed (not respond) to the
 incident unless specifically requested by the district/team/zone manager,
 Incident Controller or other person with delegated authority
 Driver and crew to wear seat belts at all times unless working on
 the fireground (eg. during grassland fire fighting from the rear of tankers)
 Ensure that you do not cause other road users to react and cause an
 accident – you will be responsible
 Ensure that your vehicle, anything attached to it or falling from it does not
 impact with any other vehicle, pedestrian or object
Safe Driving 2
Traffic Rules
  Rule 306 of the Australian Road Rules 1999, provides exemptions for drivers
  of emergency vehicles provided that “reasonable” care is taken, however,
  RFS SOPs require you to:
Come to a complete stop and do not to proceed until safe at:
  Red traffic lights
  Stop sign
  Unguarded level crossing (do not enter if a train is approaching)
  Blind intersection
  Intersection where traffic in some lanes is not visible
  Intersection where RFS vehicle does not have right of way
Slow down to a safe speed, which will allow RFS vehicle to quickly
stop if required at:
  Give way sign
  Pedestrian crossing (unoccupied)
  Bus set down
  In the vicinity of schools when students are arriving or leaving
Comply with the following:
  School zone speed limit
  Speed limit when passing school bus displaying 40 km/h illuminated sign
  Stop at children’s crossing
  Give way at pedestrian crossing
Vehicle Checking Stations
  All vehicles over 4.5 tonnes to enter vehicle checking stations
  (except when responding)
Log Books
  Drivers of “Government Vehicles” are exempt from maintaining a “National
  Drivers Log Book”

 Safe Driving 2                                NSW Rural Fire Service      13
 Safe Driving 3                                 NSW Rural Fire Service          14


Safe Driving 3
Road Transport (Safety and Traffic Management) Act 1999
No exemptions exist for drivers in regard to the provisions of the Road
Transport Act 1999 which include:
  Negligent, furious or reckless driving
  Negligent driving causing death or grievous bodily harm
  Driving at a speed or in a manner dangerous
  Menacing driving
Crimes Act 1900
No exemptions exist for drivers in regard to the provisions of the Crimes Act
which include:
  Predatory driving
  Dangerous driving or aggravated dangerous driving occasioning death
  or grievous bodily harm
  Injuries by furious driving
  Causing grievous bodily harm
    Authority Card Front




    Authority Card Back
Authority Card ~ Front & Back   NSW Rural Fire Service   15
 Authority of Officers 1                       NSW Rural Fire Service       16


Authority of Officers 1
For the legal text refer to the Rural Fires Act, September 1997 as
amended and regulations
s21  Functions of officers of rural fire brigades
s22  General powers of rural fire brigades officers and others
s23  Power to enter premises
s24  Closure of streets and public places
s25  Making premises safe
s26  Use of water and works
     – take and use without any payment any water from any source on any
       land for the purpose of controlling or suppressing a fire
s27 Permission of State Rail Authority or Rail Access Corporation required
     – functions may not be exercised in relation to land or property vested
       in State Rail Authority or Rail Infrastructure Corporation without the
       permision of the Authority or Corporation
s28 Damage to property
s29 Notice of entry
s30 Care to be taken
s31 Use of force (for gaining entry)
s32 Authority to enter premises
s40 Officer in charge may authorise others to exercise functions
s41 Duty (of Police Service and others) to recognise authority of officers
s128 Protection from liability
Authority of Officers 2
Refer to Service Standard 1.3.2 Powers of Officers for further clarification
Service Standard 1.3.2 clause 2.11
The Commissioner has authorised Officers to enter any premises without
notice where it is necessary for the purpose of:
  a. controlling or suppressing a fire;
  b. protecting persons or property from an existing or imminent danger
     arising out of:
     i. a fire;
     ii. an incident; or
     iii. other emergency;
  c. determining if there is a fire on or near the premises; or
  d. investigating the cause or origin of a fire.
Service Standard 1.3.2 clause 2.13
The Commissioner has authorised Officers to use reasonable force for the
purpose of gaining entry to a premises in circumstances where, in the opinion
of the Officer, one or more of the following circumstances exist:
a. it is necessary for the purpose of controlling or suppressing a fire;
b. it is necessary for the purpose of protecting persons or property from an
   existing or imminent danger arising out of:
       i. a fire;
       ii. an incident; or
       iii. other emergency;
c. it is necessary for the purpose of determining if there is a fire on or near the
   premises; or
d. it is necessary for the purpose of investigating the cause or origin of a fire.


 Authority of Officers 2                            NSW Rural Fire Service        17
    HazChem Chart                                  NSW Rural Fire Service      18


HazChem Scale for Fire or Spillage
                    Notes For Guidance
1       Jets
2       Fog         In the absence of fog equipment, a fine spray may be used
3       Foam
4       Dry Agent   Water must not be allowed to come into contact with the
                    substance at risk
                    V       Can be violently or explosively reactive
                    Full    Full body protective clothing with BA
                    BA      Breathing apparatus plus protective gloves
                    BA for  For fires BA essential. If no fire, BA not
                            essential for short exposure
                    Fire Only
                    Dilute  May be washed to drain with large quantities
                            of water
                    Contain Prevent by any means available, spillage from
                            entering drains or water courses


    P     V                               W    V
                    Full                                    Full
    R                                     X
    S               BA                    Y                 BA
          V                      Dilute        V                         Contain
    S         BA for fire only            Y           BA for fire only
    T               BA                    Z                 BA
    T         BA for fire only            Z           BA for fire only

    E         Consider Evacuation
    Dangerous Goods Classes
     Numbers Descriptions and labels

                                             5.1 Oxidizing substances


1      Explosives                            5.2 Organic peroxides


2.1 Flammable gases                          6.1 Toxic substances


2.2 Non-flammable                            6.2 Infectious substances
    non-toxic gases

2.2 Oxidizing gas                            7   Radioactive material
5.1 sub risk (nitrous oxide & oxygen only)       (category I)


2.3 Toxic gases                              7   Radioactive material
                                                 (category II or III)


3      Flammable liquids                     8   Corrosive substances


4.1 Flammable solids                         9   Miscellaneous dangerous
       (and other reactive substances)           goods and articles

4.2 Substances liable
    to spontaneous                           Mixed class label for road
    combustion                               and rail transport

4.3 Substances that in                       Subsidiary risk label to be
    contact with water                       used with elevated temperature
    emit flammable gases                     substances

       Dangerous Goods                              NSW Rural Fire Service    19
    HazMat / Terrorism 1                          NSW Rural Fire Service             20


    HazMat/Terrorism Guidelines
    (Defensive Strategy Only)
1    Safe Approach                      Treat all calls as potential Hazmats
       Don’t become a victim            Always look for HazChem signs
       Don’t eat, drink or smoke if     Safe distance, wind direction, vapour plume,
       contamination suspected,         weather, terrain, run-off, collapse
       until checked                    Be aware of any suspicious activity
                                        or characteristics
                                        Beware of secondary hazards/devices
                                        Minimise exposure time
                                        Maximise shielding
2    Incident Command                   Set up command point
                                        Establish communications
                                        Situation report (combat authority to be called)
                                        Identify a staging area
                                        Maintain incident log
                                        Preserve evidence
3    Rescue/Scene Security              Cordon off danger area
                                        Evacuate any person in close proximity
                                        and keep them together
                                        ONLY rescue victim/s if safe to do so
                                        Victims may need decontamination
                                        Eliminate source of ignition
4    Identify HazMats                   From a safe distance identify (use binoculars)
     (If no hazardous materials          – substance UN code and HazChem code
     information panel, treat as 4WE)    – quantity
                                         – type of spillage (spill, fire, MVA, etc.)
                                         – name of carrier or manufacturer
                                         – location and access
                                         – threat to life (number of victims)
                                         – threat to property or environment
    HazMat/Terrorism Guidelines
    (Defensive Strategy Only) Continued
         NSWFB is the sole combat agency for hazardous materials incidents
            throughout NSW, including all inland waterways.
          The following actions require specialised HazMat Teams
                Rural Fire Service to assist as required
5    Assess potential harm and
     minimise environmental
     contamination
6    Call in resources
7    Monitor information
8    Render safe and decontaminate




               ETHYL METHYL
                  ETHER
             UN No.

                       1039
             HAZCHEM

                       2PE
             IN EMERGENCY DIAL SPECIALIST ADVICE
                                    AUSTRALIAN
                000 POLICE OR     CHEMICALS LTD
                FIRE BRIGADE    MELB. (03) 987 6543



    HazMat / Terrorism 2                          NSW Rural Fire Service     21
Terrorism 1                                    NSW Rural Fire Service     22


Biological Terrorism Guidelines
1  Follow HazMat Guidelines
2  DO NOT DISTURB package
3  Evacuate area
4  Cover package if possible
5  Keep hands away from eyes and mouth
6  Preserve evidence
7  Shut off ventilation
8  Dampen down clothing then remove. Remove outer garments. Wash person
   with soap and water
9 Decontaminate area with 5% bleach and water solution
10 Maintain personal hygiene including washing hands



Radioactive Terrorism Guidelines
          Time                 LIMIT


    Distance
    Shielding
1   Follow HazMat Guidelines
2   Preserve evidence
3   Decontaminate with water and contain run off
4   Maintain personal hygiene including washing hands
Explosive Devices
and Suspicious Packages
    Distance
         &
    Shielding
1   Follow HazMat Guidelines
2   DO NOT TOUCH, TILT or TAMPER
3   Beware of secondary devices
4   Preserve evidence
5   Maintain personal hygiene including washing hands




Chemical Terrorism Guidelines
1   Follow HazMat Guidelines
2   Shut off ventilation
3   Consider use of water spray to knockdown agents
    and contain run off
4   Preserve evidence
5   Remove clothing except underwear
6   Decontaminate with water and contain run off
7   Maintain personal hygiene including washing hands




Terrorism 2                                    NSW Rural Fire Service   23
 Electricity 1                                   NSW Rural Fire Service            24


Electricity 1
Potential hazards:
Approach             Electricity Authority to attend
                     240 volt and over may arc from one wire to another or to ground
                     11,000 volt and over may arc to ground
                     Look out for electrical hazards, wires may fall, point them
                     out to your crew
                     Tell your crew what precautions to take
                     Identify both ends and beware of recoil
                     Note: both ends may be “live” or wires may become live
                     at any time by remote switching gear
                     Do not park under wires
                     Wait until Electricity Authority has declared and shown
                     to be “SAFE”
Bush fire            Poles or cross arms burnt and fallen wires
                     Fallen wires can energise metal or wire fencing
                     Conduction through hose streams
                     High voltage power transmission may arc to ground
                     through smoke and fire
Structure fires      Service to or within the building
                     Conduction through ladder (eg. whilst carry ladder)
                     Note: power (light) may be left on for evacuation of a building
MVA                  Fallen wires due to pole impact
                     Wires dislodged off insulators and touching crossarm or pole
                     may make pole live. Note: vehicle may be electrified
                     Impact and damage to object powered by electricity
                     Note: vehicle may be electrified
                     Wires on vehicle – occupants may be able to drive clear if
                     not have them remain in the vehicle until power isolated
                     If vehicle is on fire – occupants may, as a last resort, jump
                     clear without touching the vehicle and hop until well clear
Electricity 2
Potential hazards:
Storm Damage              Damaged poles or cross arms and fallen wires
                          Low clearance
                          Trees, branches or building debris bringing down wires
                          Trees or branches in contact with wires
Sub Station               Call any intruder to fence or to sit and remain where they
DO NOT ENTER              are – clearance minimum 4m from equipment or wires



NO-GO-ZONE – for up to 200,000 volts
  Use clean water only
  Stand on dry ground
  Keep clear of run off water

Nozzle Size               Pressure          Minimum Disance from Conductor
25mm                      700 kPa           21.5 metres
20mm                      700 kPa           18.5 metres
12mm                      700 kPa           9.0 metres
Diffuser (hollow jet)     700 kPa           9.0 metres
Diffuser (30o spray)      700 kPa           8.0 metres




 Electricity 2                                      NSW Rural Fire Service         25
 Electricity 3                                NSW Rural Fire Service   26


Electricity 3
Pole Top Fires         Pole or wires may fall
                       Stand minimum 8m clear to one side
                       Stand uphill from any wet ground
                       Use approved nozzle only
                       Broken stream with water falling onto fire




                             NO-GO-ZONE



           NO-GO-ZONE refer to table in Electricity 2 (page 25)
 Electricity 4
                                                           HIGH VOLTAGE – 3 lines
                                                           11.000 Volt (may also be
                                                           up to 132.000 Volt)
      6350 v
                   6350 v
                            6350 v




                   LOW VOLTAGE – 4 lines


      Neutral
                   240 v
                            240 v
                                    240 v




TELCO – 1 line
Fibre optic cable for tv
and or telephone                            To commercial or domestic premises
                                            Single Phase 240 v
                                            Three Phase 415 v

 Note: The neutral wire may be either side




   Electricity 4                                         NSW Rural Fire Service       27
 Electricity 5                             NSW Rural Fire Service          28


Electricity 5
Step Potential     When electricity is released into the ground, it will
                   “fan” out from the point of contact and voltage will
                   drop over distance.
                   Avoid the danger of step potential, go no closer than
                   8m from where the conductor touches the ground.
                          Step Potential
                          This man would receive
                          6350v – 5500v = 850 volts




                              6350v
                                                  x          y


                              6250v
                              5500v
                              2750v

         NO-GO-ZONE – WITHIN 8 METRES OF CONDUCTOR
Electricity 6
Transmission             NO-GO-ZONE for vehicles and personnel if fire or smoke
Lines                    within 25 metres of outer wire
                         Flame and smoke may cause arc from one wire to
                         another or to ground
                         Keep hose stream below head height
                         High trees in easement are a hazard
                         Review strategy if within 25 metres


                                                                           3 Transmission
                                                                                   Power
     Proposed                                     NE
                                                ZO                                  Lines
     Control Line – x – x                   -G
                                              O-
                            –x            NO
                                                                                each side
                                 –x                    25m
                                      –
                                          x
                                          x
                                          –x
                                              –
                                              –x
                                               –x–




                   ion
                                                 –




                ect
                                                   x–x–x–x–x




             Dir
          nd
        Wi


                                                                 Rigging Lines




 Electricity 6                                                 NSW Rural Fire Service   29
    First Aid 1                                      NSW Rural Fire Service          30


 First Aid 1
D                 Danger        Assess situation for danger, ensure scene is
                                safe for you, your crew, casualty, and others
R                 Response      Assess level of consciousness, can you hear me, if not
                                responding put in recovery position, call for Ambulance
A                 Airway        Clear the airway, open the airway (Tilt head back
                                and lift jaw except for baby), remove any obstructions
B                 Breathing     Check for breathing, look, listen and feel, if not
                                breathing, 2 effective breaths to casualty
C                 Circulation   Check for a pulse. If pulse, continue EAR,
                                if no pulse commence CPR, continue until pulse and
                                respiration return, check pulse each 2 mins.
                                Put unconscious casualty in the recovery position. Look
                                for and control bleeding. Check for burns and breaks.
                                Don’t remove clothing
                                Don’t give an unconscious casualty food or water
E                 Evacuation
EAR               Expired       15 breaths per minute       12– Adult
                  Air           20 small breaths per minute 1 – 12
                  Resuscitation 20 puffs per minute         Baby
CPR           1 operator    15 compressions/2 breaths
Cardio        or 2 operators– 4 cycles per minute             12– Adult     2 Hands
Pulmonary                   – 6 cycles per minute             1 – 12        1 Hand
Resuscitation 1 operator    5 compressions to 1 breath
                            – 1 cycle each 3 secs             Baby          2 Fingers
         First Aid 2
      Recovery      Roll casualty – Extend casualty’s left arm 90 degrees
      Position      on side       – Place casualty’s right hand on left shoulder
      (see page 34)               – Bend casualty’s right knee up
                                  – Kneel at casualty’s right side, grasp right knee
                                    and shoulder and roll onto left side
                                  – Ensure airways free from blockages
      Heart           Constant dull heavy crushing          – DRABCE
      Attack          chest pain, pain may radiate          – Call for Ambulance
Bm,                   along left arm to ring finger or      – Reassure
                      up neck and jaw, pale or grey         – If conscious – semi-sitting
                      palour, dizziness, nausea, sweaty                      position
                      or short of breath                    – If unconscious – recovery
                                                                               position
      Stroke          Loss of muscle control to one         – DRABCE
                      half of body, facial droop,           – Call for Ambulance
                      loss of balance, slurred mumbled      – Reassure
                      and distorted speech, very bad        – If conscious – semi-sitting
                      headache,unequal or                                    position
                      unresponsive pupils, flushed face     – If unconscious – recovery position
                      anxiety, shock, may lead to seizure   – Loosen tight clothing
      Heat Stress     Headache, drowsiness, fatigue,        – Move to a cool place
                      nausea, urine dark yellow,            – Loosen clothing
                      muscle cramps                         – Drink plenty of water
                      Note: Normal body temp. 37oC
      Heat            Tiredness, hot, sweating,             – Stop work
      Exhaustion      dizziness, nausea, lack of            – Move to a cool place
                      coordination, collapse, shock,        – Remove non essential clothing
                      38oC – 40oC                           – Rest
                                                            – Drink water until urine
                                                              output increases
                                                            – Wet down skin

        First Aid 2                                          NSW Rural Fire Service         31
  First Aid 3                                         NSW Rural Fire Service           32


   First Aid 3
Heat Stroke Very hot (dangerously high               – DRABCE
            temperature), red, dry skin,             – Call for Ambulance/Medivac
            rapid pounding pulse, dizziness,           move casualty to meet
            nausea, headache, confused,                ambulance
            irritable, 40-42oC, may lead             – Reassure
            to seizure                               – Cold compress to neck,
                                                       armpits and groin
                                                     – Cover with wet sheet
                                                     – Continue to cool
Burns           Red, swollen skin, blisters, pain,   – DRABCE
                clear yellow fluid, damaged or       – Call for Ambulance
                missing skin                         – Medivac for burnt airway or
                   Don’t break blisters or             serious burn
                   remove skin                       – Reassure
                   Don’t use ointments               – Cool with running water for
                   or antiseptics                      10 mins (use helmet to catch
                   Don’t remove dirt, particles        water and reuse if in short supply)
                  or clothing from the burn          – Remove loose clothing or
                                                       jewellery from affected limb
                                                     – Cover with loose sterile dressing
Shock           Pale, cold clammy skin, rapid        – DRABCE
                weak pulse, rapid shallow            – Reassure casualty
                breathing, nausea, vomiting,         – Lay down – legs raised
                agitated, thirsty                      (unless fractured)
                                                     – Loosen tight clothing
                                                     – Keep warm
   First Aid 4
Severe          Evident, shock, decreasing level     – DRABCE
Bleeding        of consciousness, may lead to        – Call for Ambulance/Medivac
                seizure                              – Reassure
                                                     – Apply direct pressure
                                                     – Apply dressing
                                                     – Immobilise and raise limb
                                                     – If bleeding continues apply
                                                       further dressings
Fractures       Pain, swelling, deformity, loss of– DRABCE
                function, possible shortening     – Call for Ambulance
                of limb, limb may be at an angle  – Immobilise limb
                or rotated, shock                 – Patient in comfortable position
                                                  – Padding around any splint
                  Don’t straighten fractured limb – Check bandaging tightness
                                                  – Check circulation in limb
Severed           Don’t clean severed, cut or        – DRABCE
Parts             body part                          – Call for Ambulance
                  Attend to casualty first           – Reassure
                                                     – Control bleeding of casualty
                                                     – Place part in plastic bag and seal
                                                     – Keep bag as cool as possible
                                                       in iced water
Snake and Puncture marks, pain, swelling,            – DRABCE
Funnel Web headache, dizziness, muscle               – Call for Ambulance/Medivac
Spider Bite weakness, difficulty breathing,          – Reassure
            shock, may lead to seizure               – Lay down on back or in
              Do attempt identification                comfortable position
              Don’t wash wound                       – Pressure/immobilisation
                                                       bandage over entire limb


  First Aid 4                                         NSW Rural Fire Service         33
       First Aid 5                                        NSW Rural Fire Service            34


        First Aid 5
    Red Back,      Sharp sting, burning pain,            – DRABCE
der other spiders, stinger may be on skin                – Call for Ambulance if required
    scorpion,                                            – Rest and reassure
    centipede,                                           – Cold compress over bite area
    ant, wasp                                              (e.g. ice in bag)
    or bee
    Seizure          Loss of consciousness, rigidity,    – Call for Ambulance
                     spasmodic muscle contraction,       – Remove surrounding items
                     tongue biting, urine incontinence   – Cushion head
                       Don’t restrain casualty           – After seizure maintain airway
                                                         – Place in recovery position
                                                         – Rest and reassure

       1.                                           2.



       3.                                           4.


                            Recovery or stable side position
Fire Investigation and
Scene Preservation
To assist with the investigation of fires, crews need to protect the area of
Origin and forward all information to the District/Team/Zone Manager.
A formal investigation is required for:
  death or serious injury to a firefighter or member of the public
  significant damage or destruction to an appliance, property, stock, etc.
  deliberate ignition if the fire is part of a series or if a suspect is known
  a structural fire where the cause can’t be determined
  declaration of a Section 44
En-Route to fire:
  note smoke colour, columns and weather conditions
  observe and record people and vehicles in the vicinity
On arrival:
 note smoke and flame colour, size and location of the greatest fire activity
 protect objects and evidence related to the cause
Scene preservation:
  cordon off the area first discovered burning, plus 10 metres
  tape and restrict access, minimise disturbance to the area
Structural fires:
  note any external fire source, forced entry, or other evidence
  note internal and external doors and windows, open/closed/locked
Motor vehicle fires:
 note vehicle make and registration
 note doors and windows, open/closed/locked, car stripped/abandoned
 minimise disturbance, the vehicle may be subject of a major crime
           NOTE YOUR OBSERVATIONS IN YOUR NOTEBOOK
 Fire Investigation & Scene Preservation          NSW Rural Fire Service         35
 Fuel Containers       NSW Rural Fire Service   36



KNOW YOUR
FUEL CONTAINERS!



           SIGNAL RED ORANGE




LIME GREEN CANARY           BLUE BELL

  FILLER NECKS AND FILLER CAPS ARE
COLOUR-CODED TO MATCH CONTAINERS.
       Class of Fire                    A                  B                C                 (E)                 F
                                        Ordinary                                       Fire involving        Fire involving
        Type of Fire              combustibles (wood, Flammable and Flammable gases energized electrical      cooking oils
                                   paper, plastics etc.) combustible liquids            equipment               and fats
                     Type of
Indicating Colour Extinguisher                                 Extinguisher Suitability



                    Water             Yes                No                No                No                  No
                                  Most suitable




                    Wet               Yes                No                No                No                 Yes
                  Chemical                                                                                 Most suitable



                     Alcohol                             Yes
                    Resistant         Yes          Most suitable for       No                No                  No
                      Foam                          alcohol fires

                    AFF Type                          Yes Most
                     Foam             Yes            suitable except       No                No                  No
                                                    for alcohol fires
                       AB(E)
                   Dry Chemical       Yes                Yes               Yes               Yes                 No
                     Powder
                       B(E)
                   Dry Chemical        No                Yes               Yes               Yes                 No
                     Powder


                   Carbon
                   Dioxide            Yes                Yes               No                Yes                Yes
                    (C02)


                  Vapourising
                     Liquid
                  (fumes may be
                   dangerous in       Yes                Yes               No                Yes                 No
                     confined
                     spaces)


   Extinguishers                                                        NSW Rural Fire Service                           37
      Fire Status / Bush Fire Classification                   NSW Rural Fire Service               38


  Fire Status
Going                      Any fire spreading on one or more flanks or fronts that
                           does not have control strategies in place for entire perimeter
Being Controlled           Effective strategies are in operation or planned for the entire perimeter
Contained                  Whole of fire perimeter behind identifiable control lines. Active fire
                           may be located inside perimeter
Patrol                     The fire is at a stage where firefighting resources are only required
                           for patrol purposes. Major re-ignition is unlikely
Out                        The fire is at a stage that allows its removal from the list of current fires


  Bush Fire Classification
CLASS ONE                  A bush fire under the control of the responsible fire authority, whether
                           or not incidental/low level assistance is provided by other agencies
CLASS TWO                  A bush fire which by necessity involves more than one agency and where
                           the Bush Fire Management Committee Operational Emergency Executive
                           have appointed a person to take charge of firefighting operations
CLASS THREE                A major bush fire where an appointment has been made or is imminent
                           under provisions of Section 44 of the Rural Fires Act, 1997

  A declaration under s44 of the Rural Fires Act is when the Commissioner takes charge and
  appoints an Incident Controller when a bush fire has assumed or is likely to assume such
  proportions as to be incapable of control or suppression by the local fire fighting authority. It may
  also be declared “pre-emptively” when conditions are conducive to the outbreak of a bush fire
  The area declared may be defined as:
      one or more Rural Fire Districts
      one or more Local Government Areas which would include the Fire District
      an area defined by geographical or man made features
Intensity       Flame
(kw/m)          Height (m)          FDR         Forest Fires

0 – 50          0 – 0.5                         Fires generally self
                                                extinguishing

50 – 500        0.5 – 1.5                       Hand tool lines should
                                                hold the fire. Direct
                                                attack recommended

500 – 2000      1.5 – 3.0                       Fire too intense for
                                                direct attack. Parallel
                                                attack recommended

2000 – 4000     3.0 – 10.0                      Crown fire at upper
                                                intensities. Indirect
                                                attack recommended

over 4000       over 10.0                       Crowning, spotting and major
                                                fire runs likely. Control efforts
                                                probably ineffective. Defensive
                                                strategy recommended
             Fuel loads heavier than 12.5 tonnes per hectare
               may produce more extreme fire behaviour
Fire Danger Index and Rating                NSW Rural Fire Service                  39
 Aircraft Water Bombing Safety                           NSW Rural Fire Service    40

  WARNING: Never allow a situation to develop where the safety of a ground crew
               is dependent on aircraft/water bombing support. Factors outside
               your control could prevent continuing aircraft support.



                             Vehicle-Aircraft
                             Safety Callsign

Be alert, watch and listen for low flying aircraft and communicate with the
Aircraft/Air Attack Supervisor in accordance with the communications plan.



                            Fire Bombing Safety
       • Monitor your PMR/GRN radio
       • Listen for your Vehicle-Aircraft Safety Callsign
       • Await instructions from the Air Attack Supervisor or bombing pilot
       • Move clear and remain clear of the drop zone until directed otherwise
       • Move clear of the area on hearing an aircraft activate its siren

       If caught in an aircraft dropzone:
       •   Move away from the fire line
       •   Do not run or panic
       •   Watch out for falling branches or debris
       •   Place hand tools well clear of you
       •   Secure your helmet with your arms to protect your head
       •   Watch your footing, foams and retardants can make the ground slippery
       •   If hit by foam or retardant, wash off with cold water




The Air Attack Supervisor will warn ground crews of imminent danger, erratic
weather, spot fires and approach of firebombing aircraft.
Provide the Aircraft/Air Attack Supervisor with changed location of ground
crews, flight hazards, wind conditions, unsafe aircraft operation and adverse
effects of aircraft vortex.
Ground to Air Signals
If radio communication fails use the following emergency aircraft signals:
        – Serious injuries

        – Require food and water

        – All Well

        – Indicate direction to proceed

        – Am proceeding in this direction

        – Unable to proceed

        – Probably safe to land

        – No

        – Yes

        – Not understood

When forming signals:
 use wood, stones or other available material
 make symbols at least 2.5 metres high
 provide maximum colour contrast
 attempt to attract attention by other means

The aircraft will indicate signals have been understood by rocking
from side to side

 Ground to Air Signals                          NSW Rural Fire Service       41
    Aircraft Safety                                       NSW Rural Fire Service             42

                                                                    DO NOT approach
                                                                    or leave without the
      PILOT’S FIELD                                                 pilot’s knowledge and
      OF VISION                                                     clearance. Stay in pilot’s
                                                                    field of vision.




                                                                         DANGER AREA



Crouch down as you approach for extra rotor clearance. Helmets must be removed or fastened
securely by a chin strap. DO NOT reach up, run or chase after articles that blow away.




                                                Carry tools horizontally below waist level
                                                – never upright or on shoulder.


On sloping ground always approach or leave on
the down slope for maximum rotor clearance.

                                                If blinded by swirling dust or grit, STOP, sit
                                                down and await assistance.


                                                                     On entering helicopter,
                                                                     fasten and adjust seat belt
DO NOT approach or leave helicopter when                             and leave it fastened until
the engine and rotors are running down or                            pilot signals to get out.
starting up.
Tactical Aircraft Callsigns
Aircraft Type                           Callsign Prefix
Light Helicopter                        Firebird
Medium/Heavy Helicopter                 Helitak
Fixed Wing Bomber                       Bomber
Fixed Wing Reconnaissance Aircraft      Firespotter
Fixed Wing Remote Sensing Aircraft      Firescan
NPWS Aircraft                           Parkair
NSW Police Aircraft                     Polair
NSWFB Aircraft                          Fireair

  Each aircraft will also be allocated a number. Eg Helitak 221 and Bomber
  223. The first numeral of the tactical callsign identifies the state of origin.
  Eg NSW = 2; Victoria = 3
  The callsign number will be visible on the fuselage and must be visible to
  ground crews
  In the interests of safety, all users are requested not to reallocate callsigns
  for particular incidents




 Tactical Aircraft Callsigns                      NSW Rural Fire Service        43
  Standard Helicopter Marshalling Signals 1          NSW Rural Fire Service         44


Standard Helicopter Marshalling Signals 1
You must be trained and competent in marshalling helicopters.
DO NOT complicate a simple aircraft operation




    “Come To Me –               “Move Forward”                    “Stop”
      Land Here”              Arms a little aside, palms       Arms repeatedly
   Arms vertically above       facing backwards and          crossed above head
   the head with palms            repeatedly moved           (the more urgent the
      facing inwards          upwards and backwards            stop, the quicker
                                from shoulder height            the movement)




    “Cut Engine/s”                “Slow Down”                 “Move Back”
 Either arm and hand level     Arms down with palms             Arms by sides,
with shoulder, hand across      towards ground, then        palms facing forward,
  throat, palm down. The         moved up and down           swept forwards and
  hand is moved sideways           several times             upwards repeatedly
with the arm remaining bent                                   to shoulder height
Standard Helicopter Marshalling Signals 2




      “All Clear”                  “Hover”                   “Move Up”
   Right arm raised at           Arms extended         Arms extended horizontally
 elbow with thumb erect       horizontally sideways       to the side, beckoning
                                                       upwards, with palms turned
                                                         up. Speed of movement
                                                         indicates rate of ascent




    “Move Down”                 “Move Left”                 “Move Right”
Arms extended horizontally      Appropriate arm extended horizontally sideways
   to the side, beckoning       in direction of movement and other arm moved
 downwards, with palms               in front of body in same direction, in a
  turned down. Speed of                       reapeating movement
 movement indicates rate
         of descent


  Standard Helicopter Marshalling Signals 2       NSW Rural Fire Service         45
Standard Helicopter Marshalling Signals 3        NSW Rural Fire Service              46


Standard Helicopter Marshalling Signals 3




      “Land”                    “Winch Up”                   “Winch Down”
   Arms crossed and          Left arm horizontal in      Left arm horizontal in front
extended downwards in          front of body, fist       of body, fist clenched, right
     front of body         clenched, right hand with       hand with palm turned
                             palm turned upwards             downwards making
                            making upwards motion            downwards motion




        “Load Not Released”                    “Release Load”
          Right arm held across            Left arm extended forward
         chest, palm facing down.           horizontally, fist clenched,
         Left hand pointing up to         right hand making horizontal
                  form ‘T’                slicing movement below the
                                            left fist, palm downwards
 Beaufort Scale
Beaufort km/h          Land Specification                  Title            Knots
  0      Less than 1   Smoke rises vertically              Calm               0
  1      1 -5          Smoke drifts slowly                 Light Air         1 -3
  2      6 - 11        Wind felt on face                   Light Breeze      4 -6
                       Leaves rustle
                       Flags flap
  3      12 - 19       Leaves and small twigs              Gentle Breeze    7 - 10
                       in constant motion
                       Flags extended
  4      20 - 29       Raises dust and loose paper         Moderate Breeze 11- 16
                       Small branches are moved
  5      30 - 39       Small trees begin to sway           Fresh Breeze     17 - 21
  6      40 - 49       Large branches in motion            Strong Breeze    22 - 27
                       Wires whistle
                       Umbrellas used with difficulty
  7      50 - 61       Whole trees in motion            Near Gale           28 - 33
                       Walking against the wind impeded
  8      62 - 74       Twigs break off trees               Gale             34 - 40
  9      75 - 88       Slight structure damage             Strong Gale      41- 47
 10      89 - 102      Seldom experienced inland           Storm            48 - 55
                       Trees uprooted
                       Much structural damage
 11      103 - 117     Very rare                           Violent Storm    53 - 63
                       Widespread damage
 12      More than 118 Severe & extensive damage           Hurricane        64 - 71

  Beaufort Scale                                   NSW Rural Fire Service      47
 T Card Resource Status and Skills              NSW Rural Fire Service           48


T Card Resource Status
Required          (REQ)    A particular resource is required or requested by a unit
Organised         (ORG)    The required resource has been organised or arranged
Standby           (SB)     The organised resource has been placed on standby
Enroute           (E/R)    Resource dispatched to an incident that has not yet
                           checked in
Available         (AVL)    Resource at an incident and available at short notice
Allocated         (ALC)    Resource working at an incident
Stood Down        (S/D)    Resource stood down from the shift
Unserviceable     (U/S)    Resource at an incident unable to respond for
                           mechanical, rest or personal reasons



Skills
Basic Firefighter                    (BF)
Advanced Firefighter                 (AF)
Village Firefighter                  (VF)
Crew Leader                          (CL)
Group Leader                         (GL)
Senior First Aider                   (SFA)
Rural Fire Driver                    (RFD)
Chain Saw Operator                   (CSO)
Breathing Apparatus Operator         (BAO)
Remote Area Firefighter              (RAF)
                             NOTE: The rear of
                             card provides for the
                             recording of each task,
                             location and date time
                             group (DTG).




T Card Single Resource   NSW Rural Fire Service        49
  T Card Colour Coding                             NSW Rural Fire Service         50


T Card Colour Coding Identification
NOTE: A distinguishing letter (eg. Alpha, Bravo, etc.) shall be used for all vehicles
FIRE APPLIANCE                 AWD                             4x2
– HEAVY                 H Cat 1 3001L – 4000L H Cat 3 3001L – 4000L
                               Cat 5 4001L +                   Cat 6 4001L +
FIRE APPLIANCE          M      AWD                       M     4x2
– MEDIUM                       Cat 2 1601L – 3000L             Cat 4 1601L – 3000L
FIRE APPLIANCE          L      AWD                        L 4x2
– LIGHT                        Cat-7 801L – 1600L              Cat-8 801L – 1600L
FIRE APPLIANCE         MU AWD
– MOP UP                       Cat 9 350L – 800L
NOTE: The callsign for Cat 10 and above uses a single word (as noted in brackets)
      as the description. i.e. Cat 11 is a Pumper
URBAN FIRE                     Pumper                          Pumper
APPLIANCE                      (AWD Cat 11 1601L+)             (4x2 Cat 10 1601L+)
BULK WATER                     Bulk Water (Cat 13)
CARRIER
VEHICLE                        Command (Cat 16)
                               Communication (Cat 19)
PERSONNEL                      Personnel Carrier (Cat 12)
TRANSPORT
MACHINERY                      Dozer                           Grader

AIRCRAFT                       Helicopter                     Fixed Wing
                               H - Heavy                      H - Heavy
                               M - Medium                     M - Medium
                               L - Light                      L - Light
OTHER
Safe Working On Roads
Emergency Operational Work on Roads
 Fire                    Wear full PPE
 Motor Vehicle           Beacons activated
 Accident (MVA)          Sitrep to FireCom
 Storm Damage            Police and required combat agencies to be “called”
 Incident                Park to protect crew and scene
                         Risk and hazard assessment
                         Then as necessary:
                         – Close or partially close road in one or both directions
  RURAL FIRE
   SERVICE               – Control traffic
                         – Roadside signage
                         – Traffic cones
                         – Observer/s and/or traffic controllers with “Safety Tabard”


Non Emergency Operational Work on Roads
General                   Wear full PPE and Safety Tabard as required
                          Risk and hazard assessment
                          Then as necessary:
Filling from             – Beacons activated      – Roadside signage
Hydrants                 – Traffic cones          – Observer/s with Safety Tabard
Mechanical               – Beacons/hazard lights activated
Breakdown                – Breakdown triangles – Traffic cones
                         – Notify FireCom
Hazard Reductions        – Beacons activated      – Roadside signage
                         – Prepared traffic control plan
                         – Advance media publicity
Hydrant Inspections    Refer to Safe Working on Roads SOPs
Installation of Blue   Refer to Safe Working on Roads SOPs
Hydrant Markers

 Safe Working on Roads                            NSW Rural Fire Service                51
Hand Signals for Guiding Vehicle 1                   NSW Rural Fire Service         52


Hand Signals for Guiding Vehicle 1
The driver must only take directions from the nominated guide
Directions may be given from the front or rear of the vehicle
The guide always faces the driver
If the guide is to the rear of the vehicle the driver uses the mirrors
The guide must be in the driver’s field of vision at all times whilst the vehicle
is in motion.
If the guide is not in view OR the driver is unsure of a signal,
the driver must STOP
Drive at a slow constant speed
Turn steering wheel at a slow, constant speed




                 “Stop”                               “Move forward”
    Both arms extended towards the              Both arms raised towards the
    vehicle with hands up and palms            vehicle with hands up and palms
           towards the vehicle                   away from the vehicle, hands
                                                 moved in a beckoning motion
Hand Signals for Guiding Vehicle 2




             “Move back”                             “Hold existing lock”
  Both arms raised towards the vehicle,         Both arms down beside the body.
   hands down with palms away from             The driver stops turning the steering
      the vehicle, hands moved in a             wheel but maintains existing lock
    brushing away, “go away” motion




            “Apply right lock”                          “Apply left lock”
    Left arm (if in front of vehicle): right     Right arm (if in front of vehicle):
     arm (if behind vehicle). The guide          left arm (if behind vehicle). The
    raises arm extended horizontally to             guide raises arm extended
   the side, level with the shoulder. The      horizontally to the side, level with
  driver turns the steering wheel in the        the shoulder. The driver turns the
  direction of the guide’s raised arm.The       steering wheel in the direction of
    driver continues to turn the steering       the guide’s raised arm. The driver
    wheel at a constant speed until the           continues to turn the steering
     raised arm is dropped to the side         wheel at a constant speed until the
                                                raised arm is dropped to the side

Hand Signals for Guiding Vehicle 2                    NSW Rural Fire Service           53
 Foam Application 1                               NSW Rural Fire Service         54


Foam Application 1
Class A Foam          Up to 1% for Class “A” “Ordinary Combustibles” fires
(BFFF)                including wood, paper, etc.
Class B foam      3% or 6% for Class “B” “Flammable and Combustible
(AFFF)            Liquid” fires including oil, petrol, etc. with less than 10%
                  ethanol content
Class B foam      6% for Class “B” “Flammable and Combustible Liquid”
(ATC - Alcohol    fires where ethanol or other water miscible fuels
Resistant Foam)   are involved
Class B foam      6% can also be used at a ratio of up to 1% for Class “A”
(AFFF or ATC)     “Ordinary Combustibles” fires

        Quenchmaster Fire Fighting Foam Proportioning System
               Operating Instructions Model CP 500
 Foam Application 2
 Supply             Open the cap of the foam container 3/4 to 1 turn (Class “A” or “B”)
                    Start the pump and set pressure 600 – 700kPa
                    Open nozzle/branch to provide water flow
                    Turn “Foam Valve” (Tank Recirc) to ‘ON’
                    Set the foam selection valve to Class A or Class B
                    Set metering valve to the appropriate ratio
                    Mop Up                                             0.1% to 0.25%
                    Initial Suppression                                0.25% to 0.5%
                    Back Burning                                       0.5% to 0.75%
                    Exposure Protections/Structural Attack             0.75% to 1.0%
 Standby            Turn “Foam Valve” (Tank Recirc) to ‘OFF’
                    Set metering valve to ‘OFF’
                    Discharge water to clear foam from pump (5 – 10 seconds)
                    Discharge small quantity of water regularly to cool pump
                    When foam required – Turn “Foam Valve” (Tank Recirc) to ‘ON’
                    and reset metering valve to the appropriate ratio
 Shutdown           Set metering valve to 'OFF'
                    Flush pump and hoses until all foam solution is expelled
                    Turn "Foam Valve" (Tank Recirc) to ‘OFF’
                    Reseal foam container

Note: When operating on mains hydrant supply (closed relay pumping), pump inlet
       pressure should provide a reading on the compound gauge at or near “0” but no
       higher than +50 kPa (it would be preferable to connect hydrant to tank filler –
       open relay pumping)
Note: Clean the filter, located in the “Y” strainer in the pressure line to the
      proportioner, on a regular basis particularly if impurities in water


   Foam Application 2                                NSW Rural Fire Service           55
 Hydrant Markers                                   NSW Rural Fire Service            56


Hydrant Markers
How to identify indicator plates for locating hydrants on potable and
recycled water mains.
Primary Indicator Plates
   Potable          Potable          Primary indicator plates are marked
                                     with two sets of numbers. The top
                                     number gives the distance (in metres)
                                     from the plate to the hydrant and the
                                     bottom number gives the size (in
                                     millimetres) of the water main.
                                     Note:     H    –   Hydrant for potable water
  Recycled          Recycled                  RH    –   Hydrant for recycled water
                                               P    –   Pathway
                                               R    –   Roadway
                                               Black line on plate indicates
                                               hydrant is on opposite side
                                               of road
Secondary Indicator Plates
 Potable       Recycled              Secondary indicator plates should face
                                     each direction of approach from which
                                     the primary plates cannot be seen.
                                     Additionally, white or yellow triangles or
                                     arrows may be painted on roads, or blue
                                     markers may be fixed to the road
                                     to one side of the centre line

           Static Water Supply indicator plate fixed in a location to be highly
           visible from the road and may include swimming pools, tanks,
           dams, ponds or creeks.
Hand Signals
Words of command and common hand signals are given below:

                Water On                                    Water Off
                Arm raised above head                       Arm extended
                vertically fist clenched.                   horizontally
                Increase Pressure                           to the side and
                                                            swung across
                Arm raised above head
                                                            the body.
                vertically and dropped
                to side.
                Each signal requires
                pump pressure to be                         Make Up
                increased by 100kpa.                        Equipment
                                                            Both arms
                                                            extended to
                                                            the side
                                                            horizontally
                Decrease Pressure                           and held for
                Arm Extended                                a few seconds.
                horizontally to the side
                and dropped to the side.
                                                            Report to me
                Each signal requires
                pump pressure to be                         Left hand
                reduced by 100kpa.                          placed on
                                                            helmet and
                                                            right hand
                                                            points to
                                                            crew member

 Hand Signals                               NSW Rural Fire Service      57
 Hoses and Pressures 1                             NSW Rural Fire Service   58


Hoses and Pressures 1 (Rough Guide)
Optimum Nozzle Pressures
Standard branch with straight nozzle                     Best at 250kPa
12mm diametre or less
Controllable jet/spray nozzles (Dial-a-jet, AWG, etc.)   Best at 500kPa
Foam making branch                                       Best at 550kPa
Pistol grip fog nozzles (discharge ranges                Best at 700kPa
from 50 - 475 l/min)
Height Loss or Gain
Add 10kPa for each metre the nozzle is above the pump
Subtract 10kPa for each metre the nozzle is below the pump
Friction Loss (rule of thumb adopted by RFS)
Add 100kPa for 30 metre length at typical operating pressure
Pump Pressure Calculation
Hoses 100 kPa for each length                3x38mm = 300kPa
Pressure required at Nozzle                              700kPa
Total                                                    1,000kPa at pump
Tanker Protection System
Optimum pressure to operate Tanker Protection System is 300kPa
Each line of hose to supply water through pump relay should not be
expected to carry more than:
1000 l/min for 65mm hose
250 l/min for 38mm hose
100 l/min for 25mm hose
Hoses and Pressures 2                       (Rough Guide)
Discharge Volumes
(Note: Dial-a-jet 3mm to 8mm, 38mm AWG 8mm and 65mm AWG 15mm)
Nozzle Size (mm)       Pressure at Nozzle 500kPa         Pressure at Nozzle 700kPa
                           Discharge (l/min)                 Discharge (l/min)
        3                          12                                15
        8                          86                               100
       12                         170                               230
       15                         335                               395
       20                         556                               675
Draughting
Pressure at sea level is approximately 100kPa
If a perfect vacuum         Maximum practical             Maximum practical
(10kPa for 1 metre)         lift for vehicle pump         lift for portable pump
maximum lift would           is 7 metres                  is 5 metres
be 10 metres
  3.0 metres                Pump efficiency 70%
  5.0 metres                Pump efficiency 60%
  7.0 metres                Pump efficiency 45 – 50%
Volume of Water in a Dam, etc.
Length (m) x width (m) x average depth (m) = cubic metres x 1,000 litres = volume
Volume of Water in a Cylindrical Tank
3.14 x radius2 (m) x height (m) = cubic metres x 1,000 litres = volume




 Hoses and Pressures 2                              NSW Rural Fire Service          59
 Grid And Magnetic North                         NSW Rural Fire Service         60


Grid and Magnetic North
Topographic maps contain a                            GN        Example
variation diagram depicting the                  TN             MN
relationship between Grid and
Magnetic North and notes:
    The angle between them
    The year when this was correct                              GRID MAGNETIC
    The value and the direction of                                ANGLE 10.7o
                                         GRID
    change over time (Note: the
                                     CONVERGENCE
    change is often in tenths of          1.3o
    degrees for every 3 years)

Examples using 14o as variation


Converting a bearing from                 Converting a bearing from
Grid to Magnetic                          Magnetic to Grid
Grid Bearing 89o – 14o                    Magnetic Bearing 50o + 14o
= 75o Magnetic Bearing                    = 64o Grid Bearing
 G         M                                 G        M



     14o                                     14o            ?
                 ?
                                                                          A
                                                      50o
            o
           89


                              A
O                                        O
Map Referencing
Six Figure Grid Reference
– Firstly quote the easting reference:
  two digit figures along the top or bottom of map
  one digit for the distance between grid lines, divided into 10 equal parts
– Secondly quote the northing reference
  two digit figures on the sides of map
  one digit for the distance between grid lines, divided into 10 equal parts
Example:
Allinga Road and Arizona Road intersection 59 4 21 7




Map Referencing                                 NSW Rural Fire Service         61
     Bush Fire Mapping Symbols                                           NSW Rural Fire Service                      62
  RED – FIRE                          BLACK – CONTROL LINES                     BLUE – WRITING & SYMBOLS
            Strategic or Tactical          Command, Control                   Logistics             Assets to be
            Significance                   & Coordination                     Related               Protected
Name                                   Symbol                                             Notes (DTG = Date Time Group)
PREDICTED (fire edge)                                                         Show DTG
GOING (fire edge)                                                             Show DTG
CONTAINED (fire edge)                                                         Show DTG
PROPOSED (control line)                 –x–x–x–x–x–x–x–x–x–x–x–x–x–           Draw on far side of feature
COMPLETED (control line)               +x+x+x+x+x+x+x+x+x+x+x+x+              Show DTG
PROPOSED (backburn)                                                           Draw on far side of feature
COMPLETED (backburn)                                                          Show DTG
BACKBURN BURNING IN                                                           Lines show depth of burn at DTG
FIRE ORIGIN                            RED                                    Show DTG
FIRE DIRECTION                         BLUE F                                 Show DTG
WIND DIRECTION                         BLUE W                                 Show DTG
SPOT FIRE                              RED                                    Isolated fire ahead of main fire
BURNT AREA                             BLACK                                  Burnt Area (if old, show month & year)
AERIAL IGNITION                        RED                                    Proposed path to be treated
DIVISIONAL BOUNDARY                    BLUE                                   Use geographical names
SECTOR BOUNDARY                        BLUE OOOOO                             Use alphabetical names
REFUGE AREA                            BLUE    R      ESCAPE ROUTE (add arrow to show safe exit) BLUE         E
CONTROL CENTRE                         BLUE CC
(Incident Management Team location)
DIVISIONAL COMMAND                     BLUE     DC        STAGING AREA (where resources are available)   BLUE   SA

SECTOR COMMAND                         BLUE     SC        BASE CAMP                                      BLUE   BC

HELIPAD                                BLUE               AIRBASE (fixed wing and/or helicopter base)    BLUE   AIR

WATER POINT VEHICLE                    BLUE     WV        WATER POINT HELICOPTER                         BLUE   WH
(Firefighting water supply)                               (Helicopter water supply)
AMBULANCE LOCATION BLUE                         AMB       ABORIGINAL SITE OR ARTIFACTS BLUE                     A

THREATENED PROPERTY BLUE                         T        ENDANGERED FLORA             BLUE                     FL

HISTORICAL SITE (building or structures) BLUE   HS        ENDANGERED FAUNA             BLUE                     FA
Map Marking Guide   NSW Rural Fire Service   63
Media                                               NSW Rural Fire Service          64


Media
The RFS uses the media to distribute public information during
emergencies and promote the image of the volunteers. The media
is a vital partner in ensuring the media and community are well informed.
A large proportion of media personnel across NSW have been trained by the RFS
to work in and around bush fires. Trained media personnel are aware of how the
RFS manages bush fires and the associated dangers.
Media are required to wear full PPE and carry an identification card when attending
the fireground.
Access to the fireground is at the discretion of the Incident Controller, News crews
should be given all reasonable assistance to accurately inform the community of
incidents of interest.
Media comment may only be made by the Incident Controller in compliance
with Service Standard 1.1.6 Media Relations to ensure accurate information
is provided.
Volunteers must not comment to the media on any issue where those comments
may be perceived as being the view or position of the Service.
All issues relating to media must be brought to the attention of the District/Team/
Zone Manager via the Incident Controller.
  If you are asked to comment on political issues regarding the RFS, refer the
  media to the FCO/District/Team/Zone Manager via the Incident Controller
  If you are asked to comment about the overall strategy for a fire or incident refer
  the media to the Incident Controller
  You may provide general comments on what conditions are like or how you feel
  at an incident, for example ‘It is extremely hot and the winds are erratic’, ‘It’s
  tiring work and we can't wait for the cool change’ or ‘We are raking a trail down
  Blue Gum Valley towards Green Creek’.
                                                                                                             • TWEED HEADS
                                                                                                             • BYRON BAY
                                                                                                   LISMORE •
                                                                                                  • TENTERFIELD
                                                                                  • MOREE




Map (State)
                                                                                   INVERELL •   • GLEN • GRAFTON
                                                BOURKE •      WALGETT •                           INNES
                                                                                Region North            • COFFS HARBOUR

                                                                                    • GUNNEDAH
                                                             COONAMBLE •
                                                                                          • TAMWORTH • KEMPSEY
                                                                                                         • PORT MACQUARIE
                                          • WILCANNIA • COBAR • NYNGAN • GILGANDRA
                                                                                                       • TAREE
                         • BROKEN HILL                                                               • FORSTER
                                           Region West             DUBBO •
                                                                 WELLINGTON • SINGLETON •        • NELSON BAY
                                                                                    NEWCASTLE •
                                                     CONDOBOLIN •      • PARKES
                                                                      BLAYNEY •
                                                                                        Region East
                                                                                   GOSFORD •
                                                  WEST WYALONG • COWRA •                 • SYDNEY
                             • WENTWORTH                • GRIFFITH
                                            HAY •                                        • WOLLONGONG
                              BALRANALD •                               GOULBURN •       • KIAMA
                                                             JUNEE • YASS •     NOWRA •
                                                   WAGGA WAGGA •
                                             Region South                 ACT        • BATEMANS BAY
                                                • MOAMA        • ALBURY
                                                                             • COOMA




NSW Rural Fire Service
                                                                                  • BEGA
                                                                                   • EDEN




65
Incident Control System 1                   NSW Rural Fire Service               66


        Incident Control System 1
       SMALL INCIDENT (up to 5 appliances – 20 personnel)
                      Incident Control
                         Operations       All functions carried out by
                          Planning        one officer at the incident
                          Logistics



      MEDIUM INCIDENT (5 to 10 appliances – 40 personnel)
                                          These functions carried out by one officer
                      Incident Control
                                          located close to the incident liaising with
                          Planning
                                          other agencies (Police, NSWFB,
                          Logistics
                                          Ambulance, Elecricity Authority, etc.)
                                          Operations role delegated to a
                         Operations
                                          second officer at the incident

                   Sector        Sector


      LARGE INCIDENT (10 to 20 appliances – 100 personnel)
                      Incident Control    These functions carried out by three
                                          officers located at the Incident Control
            Operations        Planning    Centre liaising with other agencies. The
                              Logistics   Operations Officer may be at the incident


        Sector       Sector               Sector Commanders at the incident
    Incident Control System 2 (continued)
                                     VERY LARGE INCIDENT
                                         Incident Controller

                        Deputy IC                                     Deputy IC


                                          Media                           Management
 Operations            Safety                               Planning                              Logistics
                                          Liaison                          Support
  Officer              Advisor                               Officer                               Officer
                                          Officer                           Officer

 Divisional Operations Air Operations Community               Situation          Support             Services
Commander Communications Manager          Liaison Officer     Mapping             Supply             Facilities
   Sector                Aircraft Officer                    Resources
                                                                              Ground Support         Catering
Commander                  Air Attack                       Information
                           Supervisor                                            Logistics            Medical
                                                                             Communications
                         Air/Heli Base                                                                Finance
                            Manager                                            Staging Area
                                                                                Coordinator       Accommodation
                          Air Observer
                                                                           Basecamp Coordinator




     Incident Control System 2                                     NSW Rural Fire Service               67
 Incident Control System 3                          NSW Rural Fire Service         68


                          INCIDENT MANAGEMENT TEAM

                                Incident Controller


     Operations Officer          Planning Officer             Logistics Officer


                                                                    Staging Area

        North Division        Air Operations       South Division


 Sector     Sector   Sector                    Sector   Sector    Sector
   A          B        C                         D        E         F




SA




                         Divisions – use geographical names
                          Sectors – use alphabetical names
State Assistance
STRIKE TEAM Five fire fighting appliances that have an established minimum
            number of personnel. Strike teams always have a leader in a
            separate vehicle and a common communication system.
STRIKE TEAM                       Located in the field and responsible for five appliances.
LEADER                            The Strike Team Leader is NOT the Sector Commander
                     STRIKE
                  TEAM LEADER     but is there purely to ensure Strike Team is tasked and
                                  is responsible for their welfare and reports to the
                                  Response Team Coordinator.
TASK FORCE        A combination of units or equipment assembled for a specific task,
                  ie. bulk water carriers or heavy plant. Task forces always have a
                  leader in a separate vehicle and a common communication system.
TASK FORCE        Located in the field and responsible for the units or equipment.
LEADER            The Task Force Leader is there purely to lead the Task Force,
                  be responsible for their welfare and reports to the Response
                  Team Coordinator.
RESPONSE          A Response Team is one of more Strike Teams and/or
TEAM              Task Forces.
RESPONSE                          Located in the Incident Control Centre as part of the
TEAM                              Incident Management Team and responsible for up to
                  RESPONSE TEAM
COORDINATOR        CO-ORDINATOR   five Strike Teams/Task Forces. Must ensure that they
                                  are suitably tasked and is responsible for their welfare.

Each appliance should have:        Each crew member should have:
  single resource T Cards            full bush fire fighting     wet weather gear
  sufficient non-perishable          personal protective         medication & sunscreen
  crew field rations for             equipment (PPE)             sleeping bag or swag
  24 hours                           drink bottle                casual clothes
  sufficient crew drinking           authority card              personal requirements
  water for 24 hours
  an esky

 State Assistance                                         NSW Rural Fire Service              69
 Convoy Driving                                NSW Rural Fire Service   70


Convoy Driving
Task Force Co-ordinator or Strike Team Leader to brief drivers
Strike team of 5 appliances plus Strike Team Leader
Briefing              Departure time
                      Destination
                      Estimated time of arrival
                      Route
                      Stopping points and length of stops
                             Driver changeover
                             Meals
                             Fuel
                      Order of vehicles
                      Stick to that order
                      Communication channel
                      Use of lights and sirens
Spacing of vehicles   Minimum 200m – maximum 500m on open road
                      Minimum 50m in built up or urban areas
                      Minimum 5km between strike teams
                   Phonetic Alphabet
    8 km
    8 cm




                                                            1:50 000
                                                            1:25 000
                                                             SCALE
                  Alpha              November
    7
    7




                                                            0
                                                            0
                  Bravo              Oscar
                  Charlie            Papa
    6
    6




                  Delta              Quebec




                                                            0.5
    5
    5




                                                             1
                  Echo               Romeo
                  Foxtrot            Sierra
    4
    4




                  Golf               Tango
    3
    3




                  Hotel              Uniform
                                                            2
                                                            1
                  India              Victor
    2
    2




                  Juliet             Whiskey                1.5

                  Kilo               X-Ray
    1
    1




                                                             3




                  Lima               Yankee
1:100 000 0
       1:1 0




                  Mike               Zulu
   SCALE




                                                            4 km
                                                            2 km




    Phonetic Alphabet / Map Scales     NSW Rural Fire Service      71
Communications Colour Codes              NSW Rural Fire Service       72


Communications Colour Codes

KNOW YOUR
RADIO
COMMUNICATIONS
PRIORITY CODE!
                              LIFE THREATENING SITUATION
                                Unit or crew in life threatening danger

                                    URGENT FIRE MESSAGE
                                            Urgent assistance needed
                                    but the unit or crew not in danger
                                  GENERAL FIRE MESSAGE
                                      Operational incident related call

                                LOGISTIC OTHER MESSAGE
                                     General non-incident related call



PROWORDS THAT DETERMINE
THE PRIORITY OF MESSAGES
Communications Definitions
Affirmative     Yes/correct
All stations    General call to all stations on a network
Cancel          Ignore my previous instruction or request
Clear           End of my transmission, no reply expected
Clear to you    End of transmission to you, will now transmit to another unit
Confirm         Verify this statement
Copied          Message received and understood
Correction      Incorrect message, the correct message is…
Disregard       Ignore my previous statement or information
ETA             Estimated time of arrival
ETD             Estimated time of departure
Incident call   Report of a new incident
Go ahead        Permission to transmit or reply
Grid            Map grid references to follow
I say again     Repeating my last transmission
Negative        No/incorrect/permission not granted
Nothing heard   No reply to transmission received
Over            Transmission is over, a reply may be transmitted
Read back       I repeat all or part to confirm your last message OR you
                repeat back the key points of the last message I sent you
Roger           Message received and understood
Say again       Repeat all or part of your last transmission to me
SitRep          Situation report to be transmitted
Stand by        I must pause, will transmit when ready
Understood      Message understood
 Communications Definitions                   NSW Rural Fire Service        73
  Communications Networks                              NSW Rural Fire Service           74


Communications Networks
Government Radio Network (GRN) [UHF]
  Trunked radio network. Generally used for Command and Control
  You can communicate if in range of any GRN repeater within the “network”
  Channels 158 – 165 can be allocated by State Operations
  State Operations 166 Region Channels 167 – 174 District Channels 175 – 214
Private Mobile Radio (PMR) [UHF]
  Local radio repeater network
  You can communicate if in range of the repeater
  Repeater Channels 1 – 8 for emergency fireground use
  Channels 18 – 116 + 218 – 224
Strategic Network (STRAT NET) [UHF]
  PMR to provide a point to point network between State Operations, Regional Offices
  and all Fire Control Centres around the State.
  Generally used for communications between Senior Commanders
  Channels 117 – 146
Simplex Channels (Car to Car) [UHF]
  Short range line of sight communication between units
  RFS Channels 9 – 12 Other Agency Liaison Channels 13 – 17 (see next page)
Liaison Channels [UHF]
  For communications between NSW RFS, NSWFB, NSW SES, NSW Ambulance.
  Liaison Channels 147 – 156 can be allocated by State Operations
Fireground Radios [VHF]
  Repeater Channels 1 – 4 for emergency fireground use
  Fireground Channels 1 – 20 allocated by local arrangement
  NOTE: Fireground Channels 10 – 20 within Region East are allocated to specific Districts
CB Radios [UHF]
  Community radio controlled by convention rather than legislation and is a non-
  secure and non controlled network
Communication with Aircraft
  Communication with an individual aircraft or an Air Attack Supervisor where multiple
  aircraft, when approved by the Incident Controller may be on the PMR or GRN
  local network. See also page 43
 Agency Liaison Channels
 NSW RFS            NSWFB             NSW SES          NSW Ambulance
  SIMPLEX          SIMPLEX            SIMPLEX              SIMPLEX
(Z1) 13 SIMP       (Z13) GRN        (S) 211-SIMP-       (Z6) 11 GRN S1
    SHR 1           SMPX 1              SHR-1
(Z1) 14 SIMP       (Z13) GRN        (S) 212-SIMP-        (Z6) 12 GRN S2
    SHR 2           SMPX 2              SHR-2
(Z1) 15 SIMP       (Z13) GRN        (S) 213-SIMP-        (Z6) 13 GRN S3
    SHR 3           SMPX 3              SHR-3
(Z1) 16 SIMP       (Z13) GRN        (S) 214-SIMP-        (Z6) 14 GRN S4
    SHR 4           SMPX 4              SHR-4
(Z1) 17 SIMP       (Z13) GRN        (S) 215-SIMP-        (Z6) 15 GRN S5
    SHR 5           SMPX 5              SHR-5

Remember: other agencies may be using channels. Range can be up to 20km




  Agency Liaison Channels                    NSW Rural Fire Service       75
 Service Vehicle Involved In An Accident 1   NSW Rural Fire Service     76


Service Vehicle Involved In
An Accident 1
Stop, assess damage, any injuries and provide first aid if required
Notify FireCom, Police and other emergency services to be called
if required
Accident with minor damage        Driver is to remain at accident scene
only and no injuries              to exchange particulars – Vehicle
                                  and crew may continue response
                                  with another driver if initial
                                  emergency call was for a potential
                                  life threatening situation
                                  FireCom to arrange transport for driver
Accident with substantial         Driver, crew and vehicle to remain at
damage or any injury              accident scene – another vehicle to be
requiring treatment by            responded to initial emergency call
a health professional
Service Vehicle Involved In
An Accident 2 (checklist)
Record the following:
Date and time of accident
Location of accident
Date, time and details of the incident to which responded
Responding – Lights? Siren?
                                          RFS Vehicle            Other Vehicle/s
                                          & Crew                 and Passengers
Driver’s name, address & licence No.
Officer in Charge – name and rank
Crew /passengers and names
Injuries sustained, names and details
Injured to which Hospital
Vehicle make, type, year,
registration number & roadworthiness
Insurance company
Extent of damage to vehicle
Approximate speed of vehicle/s
Were seatbelts being worn?
Road and weather conditions
Police, Ambulance, Rescue, CSI or
Accident Investigation in attendance
CISS or Chaplaincy required
Witnesses’ names and addresses
Report to Police

 Service Vehicle Involved In An Accident 2           NSW Rural Fire Service        77
 Critical Incident Support Services               NSW Rural Fire Service      78


Critical Incident
Support Services (CISS)                                                CISS
The role of CISS is to provide support to all members, as
individuals or as a group, of the NSW Rural Fire Service,
including Volunteers and Staff who may be experiencing a
critical incident stress reaction following an operational incident.
Members are affected in different ways by incidents and it is the reaction of
the individual, which makes the incident critical.
Support and assistance, 24 hours a day, may be:
  On-scene during protracted incidents
  Less formal defusing soon after the incident
  Debriefing one to seven days after the incident
  Facilitate ongoing support as required
  In person or by telephone
Total confidentiality is maintained and no information regarding name,
personal reactions, feelings, problems or behaviour will be recorded or
disclosed unless requested by that member.

Contact Procedures
The CISS Duty Officer, who is supported by more than 40 specially trained
Volunteers and Staff, may be contacted through State Operations on:

 1800 049 933
Chaplaincy
The role of the Chaplain is to minister to the spiritual
welfare (irrespective of religion or denominational affiliation)
of all members of the NSW Rural Fire Service, including
Volunteers and Staff and their families and includes the provision of morale
and welfare support for:
  The death of any member of the Service in the line of Duty
  Serious injury and hospitalisation of any member whilst on Duty
  Death of any member or member’s next of kin
  A member or a member’s next of kin transferred to Sydney for hospitalisation,
  or to any major Regional hospital within NSW or the ACT
  Members at an incident involving fatalities at the Senior Officer request
  Members at any protracted search and rescue operation involving Rural Fire
  Service Personnel
  Members at extended operations, during s44 bush fire or other emergencies
  at the request of State Operations, the Region or the Incident Controller
  Members at any other incident where Senior Operations Staff require the
  attendance of the Chaplain

Contact Procedures
The Senior Chaplain, Captain Ron Anderson, who
is supported by more than 50 Volunteer Chaplains,
may be contacted through State Operations on:                    CHAPLAIN



 1800 049 933
 Chaplaincy                                     NSW Rural Fire Service        79
 Bush Fire Definitions 1                        NSW Rural Fire Service       80


Bush Fire Definitions 1
Fireground            Area affected or likely to be affected by fire
Strategies            A statement detailing how an objective is to be
                      achieved, determined by the Incident Controller
Tactic                Tasking of personnel and resources to implement the
                      incident strategies. On larger fires normally determined
                      at division or sector level
Ground Fire           A slow burning fire, burning underground in fuels
                      such as peat or humus
Surface Fire          A fire that travels above the surface in grass, low scrub,
                      leaves and litter
Crown Fire            A fire, usually fast moving, burning in the crowns of the
                      trees and supported by fire below in the ground fuel
Spot Fire             Isolated fire started ahead of the main fire by sparks,
                      embers or other ignited material, sometimes a distance
                      of several kilometres
Direct                A method of suppression where wet or dry firefighting
Attack                techniques are used right on the fire edge. The fire edge
                      then becomes the containment line
Parallel              A method of suppression in which the fireline is
Attack                constructed approximately parallel to and just far enough
                      away from the fire edge (heat and smoke) to enable fire
                      fighters and equipment to work effectively and safely
Indirect              A method of suppression where backburning is used
Attack                within an area defined by prepared control lines,
                      generally existing, which may be a considerable
                      distance ahead of the fire
Bush Fire Definitions 2
Backburning           Firefighting strategy, as part of an overall plan. A fire
                      started intentionally along the inner edge of a fireline to
                      consume the fuel in the path of a bush fire, either in a
                      parallel attack or an indirect attack to widen an existing
                      containment line
Hazard                Removal of combustible fuels by hand clearing,
Reduction             machine clearing or prescribed burning
Prescribed            The controlled application of fire under specified
Burning/Burn Off      environmental conditions to a predetermined area and at
                      the time, intensity and rate of spread required to attain
                      planned prescription




 Bush Fire Definitions 2                        NSW Rural Fire Service        81
  Parts of a Bush Fire                           NSW Rural Fire Service        82


 Parts of a Bush Fire
 Within the perimeter there may be burning areas, smouldering areas and
 blackened areas as well as pockets of unburnt fuel. The point of origin may
 readily be identified or it may require fire investigation to determine
 the location.

                  Rear of Heel
Point of origin
                                                           Flanks/sides


                                                                        Finger




  Unburnt
  pocket or island


     Flanks/sides



                         Finger
                                    Finger
                                                                 Spot Fire
Grassland Curing Guide
Cured %             Colour               Physiological changes
0                   Green                From germination to start of seed
                                         head development
20-30               Greenish-yellow      Seed head maturing and
                                         opening from top
40                  Yellow-green
60                  Straw. Odd patch     Seed dropped, half to one third of
                    of green or          most stems green. Some paddocks
                    yellow-green         fully cured, others green
80                  Straw. Very little   Some greenness in lower third of
                    green showing        stalks. Many stalks fully cured
                    anywhere
90                  Straw.               Odd stalks may show
                    Odd green gully      some greenness
100                 Bleached             All stalks fully cured, seed heads
                                         and stalks starting to break easily




    Grassland Curing Guide                      NSW Rural Fire Service         83
 Fuel Moisture Content                             NSW Rural Fire Service             84


Fuel Moisture Content
The Single Leaf Test
Sheltered from any wind, light the end of a dead leaf and once lit, take the
ignition source away. The aim is to discover the angle at which a small flame
neither goes out nor flares up.

                         WET
                         Leaf burns only if straight down or doesn’t burn at all
                         All fuels in area too wet to be burnt


                         MOIST
                         Leaf burns if angled downwards but not if level
                         Fine fuels from area will only burn if on slope or in wind


                         BORDERLINE
                         Leaf burns if level but not angled upwards
                         Fine fuels from this position will burn very slowly unless
                         helped by wind, slope and fuel continuity


                         DRY
                         Leaf can be angled upwards and still burn
                         Fine fuels from area are dry enough to burn


                         TOO DRY
                         Leaf burns if held straight up
                         All fine fuels very dry and flammable, fire will run up
                         stringybark trees. Spotting likely, especially if windy
Assessing Fine Fuel Load
The knee-waist-shoulder method
Fine fuels occur mostly as litter on the ground or standing scrub. To assess fine
fuel load, find a typical site and estimate the percentage cover of litter and
scrub in a 2 metre radius:
1. Estimate ground litter fuels
   Estimate litter cover in %
   Estimate litter depth in cm                             2m
                                                           2m
   Every 10% of cover x 2cm litter depth = 1 tonne/ha
   Example: 90% litter (10% bare) x 4cm
   litter depth = 18 tonnes/ha

2. Estimate scrub fuels              SHOULDER


                                                                 }
                                     1.5m                            Every 20%
   Divide scrub into
                                                                     coverage =
  layers of 0.5m                                                     1 tonne/ha
   Estimate % of cover               WAIST


                                                                 }
                                     1m                              Every 20%
  for each layer
                                                                     coverage =
   Every 20% of cover                                                1 tonne/ha
                                     KNEE
  per layer = 1 tonne/ha


                                                                 }
                                     0.5m                            Every 20%
                                                                     coverage =
                                                                     1 tonne/ha
3. Calculate total fine fuels
  Total fire fuels = ground litter + all 3 scrub layers




 Assessing Fuel Loads                               NSW Rural Fire Service        85
     Estimating Degree of Slope                   NSW Rural Fire Service            86


  Estimating Degree Of Slope
                                                               45o 1 in 1




                                                               30o 1 in 2



                                                               20o 1 in 3



                                                               10o 1 in 6
                                                               5o     1 in 10
                                                               3o     1 in 20
                                                               0o     0 in 0

Degrees                                    Degrees
(approx)   Gradient   Description          (approx) Gradient   Description
45         1 in 1     Very Steep           10       1 in 6     Moderate/Steep
                      A dangerous slope                        Too steep to cycle
30         1 in 2     Steep                5        1 in 10    Moderate
                      Difficult to climb                       Cycling difficult
20         1 in 3     Steep                3        1 in 20    Gradual
                      Steepest of roads    0        0 in 0     Level
Construction Rates
For Handcrews Construction rates will depend on:
                      Size, experience and fitness of crew
                      Environmental conditions such as weather
                      Nature of the fuels
                      Ground and terrain
Time                                           Construction Rates
Worked         Efficiency         12 tonnes per ha       20 tonnes per ha
(hours)                               (m/hour)               (m/hour)
1-2              100%                   250                    100
3                97%                    240                    97
5                69%                    170                    69
8                40%                    100                    40
10               33%                    82                     33

For Machines     Construction rates will depend on:
                   Type and power of machine
                   Experience of operator
                   Nature of the fuels including size and density of standing trees
                   Ground and terrain
                   Construction Rates (in areas with no rocks or hazards)
Bulldozer             12 tonnes per ha             20 tonnes per ha
                           (m/hour)                     (m/hour)
Slope          0o-10o     10o-20o   20o-30o    0o-10o    10o-20o 20o-30o
D4              800         600      300        450        350      200
D6              850         700      400        500        400      250
D7              900         800      600        700        550      400
D8             1000         900      750        850        750      650
Note: grader in grassland with 0-15 o slope 2000-6000m/hour
Observe a safety distance for personnel of 30 metres or more
 Construction Rates                               NSW Rural Fire Service          87
NSW Fire Areas Map   NSW Rural Fire Service             88




                                              NSW Fire Areas
                         NSW Fire Areas Showing Local Government Areas
                         1. Far North Coast   4. Greater Sydney            10. Central Ranges         14.Upper Central
                            Ballina              Region                        Bathurst Regional          West Plains        18. Southern Riverina
                            Byron                All Sydney                    Blayney                    Bogan                  Berrigan
                            Clarence Valley      Metropolitan Councils         Cabonne                    Coonamble              Conargo




NSW Fire Areas
                            Kyogle               Plus Gosford, Blue            Cowra                      Gilgandra              Corowa
                            Lismore              Mountains,                    Lithgow City               Warren                 Deniliquin
                            Richmond Valley      Hawkesbury and                Mid Western Regional   15.Lower Central           Jerilderie
                            Tweed                Wyong                         Oberon                     West Plains            Murray
                         2. North Coast       5. Illawarra/Shoalhaven          Orange                     Bland                  Urana
                            Bellingen            Kiama                         Wellington                 Dubbo                  Wakool
                            Coffs Harbour        Shellharbour              11. New England                Forbes             19. Northern Riverina
                            Gloucester           Shoalhaven                    Armidale Dumaresq          Lachlan                Carrathool
                            Great Lakes          Wingecarribee                 Glen Innes/Severn          Narromine              Griffith
                            Greater Taree        Wollondilly                   Guyra                      Parkes                 Hay
                            Hastings             Wollongong                    Tenterfield                Temora                 Leeton
                            Kempsey           6. Far South Coast               Uralla                     Weddin                 Murrumbidgee
                            Nambucca             Bega Valley                   Walcha                 16. Southern Slopes        Narrandera
                         3. Greater Hunter       Eurobodalla               12. Northern Slopes            Boorowa            20. South Western
                            Cessnock          7. Monaro/Alpine                 Gunnedah                   Cootamundra            Balranald
                            Dungog               Bombala                       Gwydir                     Gundagai               Wentworth
                            Lake Macquarie       Cooma Manaro                  Inverell                   Harden             21. Far Western
                            Maitland             Snowy River                   Liverpool Plains           Tumbarumba             Bourke
                            Muswellbrook      8. ACT                           Tamworth Regional          Tumut                  Brewarrina
                            Newcastle            Australian Capital        13. North Western              Young                  Broken Hill
                            Port Stephens        Territory                     Moree Plains           17. Eastern Riverina       Central Darling
                            Singleton         9. Southern Ranges               Narrabri                   Albury City            Cobar
                            Upper Hunter         Greater Argyle                Walgett                    Coolamon               Unicorporated NSW
                                                 Greater Queanbeyan City       Warumbungles               Greater Hume
                                                 Palerang                                                 Junee




NSW Rural Fire Service
                                                 Upper Lachlan                                            Lockhart
                                                 Yass Valley                                              Wagga Wagga




89
 Weather 1                                          NSW Rural Fire Service         90


Weather 1
High Pressure System
High pressure systems provide dry, warm weather with the possibility of a lead up to
critical fire weather. Winds circulate anti-clockwise.
          Isobars showing a ridge or wedge of high pressure




Low Pressure System
Winds circulate clockwise

                     Isobars and winds of a typical low
Weather 2
Wind Strength
              Wind strength according to pressure gradient




Frontal System
When one air mass moves into an area occupied by another, the two do not mix
substantially unless their temperature and moisture are similar. A boundary zone
known as a front forms between the two.




Weather 2                                         NSW Rural Fire Service           91
    Organisational Chart                                         NSW Rural Fire Service                92

                                             Commissioner

Operations &
                 Operations     Strategic     Commissioner’s Administration    Community       Corporate
  Regional
                  Support      Development       Office       & Finance          Safety      Communications
Management

 Operations                                                                    Community
                 Engineering   Information                       Staff                       Media & Public
  Policy &                                                                      Hazards
                  Services       Services                       Services                        Affairs
 Standards                                                                     Management

                  Learning &    Corporate
                                                              Administrative    Business         Fire
  Aviation       Development    Planning &
                                                                Services       Development   Investigation
                   Systems     Performance

                   Health,      Strategic
  Operational                                                   Financial        Natural      Ministerial
                  Safety &       Project
Communications                                                  Services       Environment     Liaison
                  Welfare        Office

 Operational                    Strategic
                                                               Chaplaincy      Development     Volunteer
 Planning &                      Policy &
                                                                Services         Control       Relations
Development                     Standards


   Region                                                                      Community      Executive
    East                                                                        Education    Committees


                                                                                   Risk
   Region
                                                                               Management
   North
                                                                               Performance


   Region
   South



   Region
    West
                                        Commissioner

Executive Director, Operations and Regional Management, Assistant Commissioner

                                                          Director Regional Management

            State Operations                                        Regions
    (Managers – Chief Superintendents)                  (Managers – Chief Superintendents)

Operations,                               Operational
                          Operational
 Policy &      Aviation                   Planning &     East     North      South     West
                            Comms
Standards                                Development


                     District/Team/Zone Manager – Superintendent

Operations    Community Learning &                                        Inspector
                                          Business
 Officer –      Safety  Development
                                           Officer
 Inspector      Officer   Officer                                     Group Captain

               Fire      Learning &                               Deputy Group Captain
Operations
           Investigation Development
 Support
              Officer      Support                                        Brigades

                                                                          Captain

                                                                  Senior Deputy Captain

                                                                      Deputy Captain

                                                                     Brigade Member

   Operations Chart                                        NSW Rural Fire Service         93
 Combat Agency Functions                          NSW Rural Fire Service         94


Combat Agency Functions
State Emergency and Rescue Management Act, 1989
The State Emergency and Rescue Management Act sets out the State arrangements
for Emergency Management and Rescue Management. Under the provisions of
the SERM Act, the State recognises three levels of management, which are
State, District and Local Levels. All three levels are required to prepare and
maintain a Disaster Plan (Displan) for the Prevention, Preparation, Response and
Recovery of emergency events. The arrangements outlined within these plans
can be used to support Combat Agency Operations or Emergencies.
Local Level (by Local Government Areas)
LEMC              Local Emergency Management Committee chaired by a Local
                  Government Representative
LEOC              Local Emergency Operations Centre
LEOCON            Local Emergency Operations Controller – Senior member of
                  the NSW Police Service in the Local Government Area
LEMO              Local Emergency Management Officer – Executive Support
                  provided by the Council
Local Displan Prepared for each Local Government Area and also includes
              Evacuation and Road Closure sub-plans


Note: The RFS is the combat agency for rural fires (Class 1, 2 or 3) and under the
      SERM Act, assistance from other combat agencies and support agencies
      may be requested and provided.
Combat Agencies
                               Combat agency for all aviation accidents
                               Responsible for all rescues
                               Provide accredited rescue units in defined
Police                         local areas
                               Support other combat agencies when requested
                               Provide SEOCON, DEOCON & LEOCON
                               under SERM Act
                               Combat Agency for urban fires (in the Fire
                               District) and HazMats (State wide)
NSW Fire Brigades
                               Provide accredited rescue units in defined
                               local areas
                               Combat Agency for floods, storms and tempest
State Emergency Service        Provide accredited rescue units in defined
                               local areas

Rural Fire Service             Combat Agency for rural fires (in the Rural
                               Fire District and declarations under s44)
                               Provide accredited rescue units in defined
Volunteer Rescue Association
                               local areas
                               Provide medical treatment and transportation
Ambulance Service of NSW       Provide accredited rescue units in defined
                               local areas
Mines Rescue                   Provide rescue services at designated mines
                               Responsible for clean up operations within
EPA, MSB Port Authority        their area of responsibility
                               Combat Agency for exotic animal and
NSW Agriculture
                               plant diseases

 Combat Agencies                             NSW Rural Fire Service          95
 Epaulettes 1                                     NSW Rural Fire Service                  96




 Commissioner              Assistant               Chief             Superintendent
                         Commissioner          Superintendent




   Inspector                 Group              Deputy Group
                            Captain               Captain




                                                                         RURAL FIRE
                                                                          SERVICE

    Captain              Senior Deputy            Deputy                Member
                            Captain               Captain




    COMMUNICATIONS           COMMUNICATIONS        COMMUNICATIONS        COMMUNICATIONS

Communications         Communications         Communications        Communications
   Captain           Senior Deputy Captain     Deputy Captain          Member
   CATERING         CATERING          CATERING            CATERING

  Catering     Catering Senior       Catering            Catering
  Captain      Deputy Captain     Deputy Captain         Member




    CADETS          CADETS             CADETS                 CADETS

  Cadet         Cadet Deputy          Cadet            Cadet Adult
Coordinator      Coordinator        Instructor          Member




    CADETS          CADETS             CADETS                 CADETS

   Cadet        Cadet Senior      Cadet Deputy            Cadet
  Captain      Deputy Captain       Captain              (Green)
  (Green)         (Green)           (Green)



                  Apart from the epaulettes shown, no other
                  epaulettes shall be used.
   CHAPLAIN       Epaulettes supplied through the Rural Fire
  Chaplain        Service are proban treated.


Epaulettes 2                         NSW Rural Fire Service            97
Helmet Colours 1                   NSW Rural Fire Service       98




                       Assistant                   Chief
    Commissioner     Commissioner              Superintendent




    Superintendent     Inspector                Group Captain




       Deputy                                     Senior
    Group Captain      Captain                 Deputy Captain
    Deputy Captain          Member                   Trainee




                         Communications         Communications
   Training Instructor      Captain           Senior Deputy Captain




   Communications        Communications
    Deputy Captain          Member               Catering Captain



Helmet Colours 2                     NSW Rural Fire Service     99
Helmet Colours 3                       NSW Rural Fire Service      100




   Catering Senior        Catering
   Deputy Captain      Deputy Captain             Catering Member




        Cadet           Cadet Deputy                    Cadet
      Coordinator        Coordinator                  Instructor




 Adult Cadet Member
      and Cadet       RFS Media Officer           RFS Media Liaison
         Media                    Fire Investigation                   Chaplain




   Critical Incident                                                  Surname
   Support Services                                                 Back of Helmet

  Names on helmets are optional but if used, the name shall be placed centrally
  across the back of the helmet as low to the base as possible. Names shall be
  the Surname (Last Name) only in Helvetica Narrow Bold 25mm high x maximum
  140mm long in reflective lettering 3M 680 CR or equivalent. (Black lettering for
  White, Orange and Yellow helmets, White lettering for Red, Black, Blue and
  Purple helmets and Green lettering for Cadets).
  Yellow fluorescent and retroflective tape supplied and affixed to all new
  helmets (bush fire and structural) is not to be removed or obscured.
  Apart from the markings noted above NO other markings shall appear
  on RFS helmets

Helmet Colours 4                                    NSW Rural Fire Service           101
 Tabards & Brassards 1                                             NSW Rural Fire Service                     102

                           INCIDENT MANAGEMENT TEAM


  INCIDENT                    DEPUTY INCIDENT                SAFETY                 RFS MEDIA
 CONTROLLER                     CONTROLLER                   ADVISOR             LIAISON OFFICER

                                                                                                   MEDIA OFFICER



Incident                      Deputy Incident               Safety               RFS Media
Controller                    Controller                    Advisor              Liaison



OPERATIONS                     PLANNING                      LOGISTICS             COMMUNITY
 OFFICER                        OFFICER                       OFFICER            LIAISON OFFICER

                                                                                                     COMMUNITY
              OPERATIONS                        PLANNING                                           LIAISON OFFICER



Operations                    Planning                     Logistics            Community
Officer                       Officer                      Officer              Liaison Officer



                                 SECTOR                    STAGING AREA
                               COMMANDER                   CO-ORDINATOR

                                                                                    MANAGEMENT
                                                                                      SUPPORT




Divisional                    Sector                       Staging Area         Management
Commander                     Commander                    Coordinator          Support Officer



   AIR                                                       BASE CAMP
OPERATIONS                                                  CO-ORDINATOR         SECURITY
 MANAGER
                 AIR
              OPERATIONS




Air Operations                                             Base Camp
Manager                                                    Coordinator           Security
              INCIDENT MANAGEMENT TEAM


 AIR BASE              AIR BASE      RESPONSE TEAM         NSW RURAL FIRE SERVICE
 MANAGER            SAFETY ADVISOR    CO-ORDINATOR         MEDIA LIAISON




Air Base            Air Base         Response Team         RFS Fireground
Manager             Safety Advisor   Coordinator           Media Liaison



 AIRCRAFT            GROUND             STRIKE             NSW RURAL FIRE SERVICE
 OFFICER              CREW           TEAM LEADER           PHOTOGRAPHER




Aircraft            Air Base         Strike Team          RFS
Officer             Ground Crew      Leader               Photographer




                                                               MEDIA ESCORT




                                                           Media
                                                           Escort




 Tabards & Brassards 2                       NSW Rural Fire Service                 103
 Tabards & Brassards 3                         NSW Rural Fire Service                 104

                             OTHER TABARDS


     FIRE              FIRE RESEARCH
INVESTIGATION                            CHAPLAIN                  CISS




Fire                  House Loss        Chaplain             Critical
Investigation         Surveys &                              Incident
                      Research                               Support
                                                             Services



                        INCIDENT         OPERATIONS
BACO                   CONTROLLER         OFFICER
                                                             NSW RURAL FIRE SERVICE
                                                              COMMANDER




Breathing             Fireground        Fireground           RFS
Apparatus             Incident          Operations           Commander
Control Officer       Controller        Officer              for joint agency
                      for Class 1       for Class 1          operations
                      incidents         incidents
                      where RFS is      where NSWFB
                      the primary       is the primary
                      combat agency     combat agency
 RFS LIAISON
  OFFICER
                                        and RFS               RURAL FIRE
                                                               SERVICE
                                        undertakes the
                                        operations role
RFS Liaison                                                  RFS Safety
Officer                                                      Vest

                Apart from the tabards and brassards shown,
                NO other tabards and brassards shall be used.
Finding North by using your watch and the sun
In March and September the sun rises due east and sets due west. At midday,
when the sun is at its highest point in the sky, it can be taken as being due north.
You can quickly find approximate north, whenever the sun is visible, by pointing 12
o’clock on your watch to the sun and north is then halfway between 12 o’clock and
the hour hand.




Finding South by the stars
At night, if the Southern
Cross is visible, you can
locate due south by
drawing imaginary lines in
the sky as shown in the
diagram. The stars revolve
around the “South Pole” in
the sky during the night and
as the seasons progress
but the same construction
of lines will define the
“South Pole”.




 Finding North ~ Finding South                     NSW Rural Fire Service          105
 Vehicle Categories 1            NSW Rural Fire Service          106


Vehicle Categories 1
(nominal weights & dimensions)


                                   Category 1
                                   Heavy Bush Fire Tanker
                                   Weight            13,000kg
                                   Length            7,800mm
                                   Height            3,200mm
                                   Width             2,400mm
                                   Water Capacity 3,001-4,000 litres

                                   Category 2
                                   Medium Bush Fire Tanker
                                   Weight         10,000kg
                                   Length         7,600mm
                                   Height         3,050mm
                                   Width          2,400mm
                                   Water Capacity 1,601-3,000 litres

                                   Category 7
                                   Light Bush Fire Tanker - Single Cab
                                   Weight             6,000kg
                                   Length             5,200mm
                                   Height             2,700mm
                                   Width              2,100mm
                                   Water Capacity 801-1,600 litres
Vehicle Categories 2

                         Category 7
                         Light Bush Fire Tanker - Crew Cab
                         Weight             6,000kg
                         Length             6,150mm
                         Height             2,700mm
                         Width              2,100mm
                         Water Capacity 801-1,600 litres


                         Category 9
                         Striker/Mop-up
                         Weight         Varies
                         Length         4,500mm
                         Height         1,900mm
                         Width          1,950mm
                         Water Capacity 350-800 litres

                         Pumper
                         Category 11 Urban Pumper
                         Weight          10,000kg
                         Length          7,400mm
                         Height          2,900mm
                         Width           2,700mm
                         Water Capacity 1,601+ litres


Vehicle Categories 2   NSW Rural Fire Service        107
USAR Symbols 1                                        NSW Rural Fire Service             108


The International Search and Rescue Advisory Group
(INSARAG)

Urban Search and Rescue (USAR)
Standard Marking System
  An integrated, multi-agency response, to locate, provide initial medical care and
  remove entrapped persons from damaged structures in a safe and expeditious manner
  A hazardous environment where rescuer safety is the primary consideration:
  – DO NOT enter a USAR site unless instructed to do so by an authorised person
  – DO NOT enter confined spaces unless trained and authorised
  – Wear full personal protective equipment including goggles and gloves
  – If entering a site, request dust mask, knee and elbow protection and a head torch
  A site is divided into ‘Hot’, ‘Warm’ and ‘Cold’ Zones




              Hot Zone                                          Warm Zone
      (Collapse Hazard Area)                             (Operational Work Area)
    marked by perimeter fence with                    marked by perimeter fence with a
         crossed barrier tape                           single horizontal barrier tape
  Collapsed structure is divided clockwise into quadrants A to D
  – the centre core (optional) is identified as E
  – multi-storey structures have each floor marked as viewed from the exterior

                           Quadrant B       Quadrant C

                                        E

                           Quadrant A       Quadrant D

                                 Front of Structure
 Structure Assessment Marking




     1m x 1m box at the primary access         When assessment is complete, a circle
   point containing all information required    is drawn around but this does not
               by rescue teams                  mean the rescue task is complete

 Victim Marking




 A large ‘V’ is drawn near the location of       An arrow is drawn beside the ‘V’ to
  known or potential victim/s indicating         indicate location of the victim/s has
      the number of living and dead                         been confirmed




    A line drawn through the ‘L’ or ‘D’          A line is drawn through the ‘V’ when
     indicates the victims that have            extrication is complete. A line through
              been extricated                   the ‘V’ and a circle indicate all victims
                                               removed and rescue team has moved on
USAR Symbols 2                                       NSW Rural Fire Service                 109
Conversion Table
Distance
1km                 =          1,000m             =         0.62 miles
1.61 km                              =                      1 mile


Area
1 hectare           =          100,000 sq m       =         2.47 acres
0.405ha                              =                      1 acre
100ha               =          1 sq km
2.59 sq km                           =                      1 sq mile


Volume (liquids)
4.55 litres                          =                      1 gallon
1,000 litres        =   1 cubic metre    =    1tonne   =    220 gallons
1 litre (water)     =   1 kilogram


Speed
1km/hour            =          0.54 knots/hour    =         0.62 miles/hour
1.85 km/hour        =          1knot/hour         =         1.15 miles/hour


Temperature
o
C x 9/5 + 32 = oF
(oF - 32) x 5/9 = oC

    Conversion Table                             NSW Rural Fire Service       110