Document Sample
					                         INTERNATIONAL POTATO CENTER
                         Annual Sub-project Progress Report
                 Reporting Period: January 1, 2005- December 31, 2005

   1. Title of Sub-project: Documentation and assessment of variety development
                            models and uptake pathways

2. Activities included in the report (title and CIPFIS number): 310107 and 720103 (Co-
   funding from GMP): Documentation and assessment of variety development models and
   uptake pathways

3. Sub-project leader/ team leader and team members: Paul Demo
   Collaborators: Wachira Kaguongo (CIP), Berga Lemaga (PRAPACE),William Wagoire
   (NARO), Gebre Medhin Wolde Giorgis (EARO), and Samuel Nderitu (KARI), Raymundo
   Gutierrez, R. Espinoza and M. Bonierbale

4. Main outputs per category, and milestone achievement in 2005 (these are from MTP,
   give reasons for non-achievement)

     Output category*         Output           Milestone 2005        Achievement

    Practices           Variety               Variety              Achieved in
                        development           development          collaboration with
                        schemes               schemes used in      PRAPACE,
                        documented and        Kenya, Uganda        NARS, GMP
                        assessed              and Ethiopia
                                              analyzed and
                        Process of            Method for
                        diffusion and         documenting
                        registration of new   factors and
                        potato varieties in   pathways of
                        Peru described        successful variety
                                              uptake developed
    Capacity            Strengthened          Increased            Achieved in
                        capacity of NARS      awareness of         collaboration with
                        in assessing          NARS                 PRAPACE,
                        variety               researchers in       NARS, GMP
                        development           Kenya, Uganda
                        schemes               and Ethiopia on
                                              importance of
                                              stake holders
                                              perceptions in
                                              variety selection

    Other kinds of
                           Bottlenecks in        Bottlenecks in        Achieved in
                           potato variety        potato variety        collaboration with
                           development and       development and       PRAPACE,
                           in uptake path        in uptake path        NARS, GMP
                           ways assessed         ways in Kenya,
                           and documented        Uganda and
                                                 Ethiopia assessed
                                                 and documented
                           Potato variety        Potato variety        Achieved in
                           characteristics       characteristics       collaboration with
                           preferred by          preferred by          PRAPACE,
                           farmers,              farmers,              NARS, GMP
                           processors and        processors and
                           consumers             consumers in
                           documented            Kenya and
                           Variety uptake        Variety uptake        Achieved in
                           models assessed       models in Kenya,      collaboration with
                           and documented        Uganda and            PRAPACE,
                                                 Ethiopia assessed     NARS, GMP
                                                 and documented
    Policy strategies

   * Output categories are based in the form used for the last year Division Report (see
   attached document with explanation and examples).
   ** If relevant, please indicate if the outputs have been achieved through collaborative work
     with other Division, Partnership Programs or Country Projects.

5. Report of 2005 work

   a) Short description of methods according to outputs reported in section 4.
              A rapid appraisal of the potato sub-sector was conducted in Kenya, Uganda and
              Field visits were carried out in all 3 countries and stake holders were interviewed.
              Potato stake holders interviewed were researchers, informal seed multipliers,
               potato farmers, NGOs, Extension services, potato processors.
              A questionnaire was used to obtained potato variety characteristics preferred by
               stake holders in Kenya and Uganda
              Information on variety development schemes were obtained from scientists in
               charge of variety selection in Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia
              Current variety/seed uptake pathways were documented
              Process of diffusion and registration in Peru documented

It should be recalled that this activity is being executed in Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia in
collaboration with potato scientists in the respective countries.

    b) Results, discussion and conclusions relating to outputs.
b1. Bottlenecks in potato variety development and uptake pathways

i. A relatively long period of time from genotype (clones) introduction to variety naming.
This period varies from 7 to over 10 years in the region. It should be noted that all three
countries as well as many other potato program in SSA rely on CIP for potato germplasm used
in their variety development program. One of the main factors that contribute significantly to
retard variety development process is low initial number of tubers and the low multiplication rate
of potato. With inadequate number of tubers per genotype at the beginning of the selection
program, it generally takes 2 to 3 years to have enough tubers for multi-location trials that are
required for assessing the performance of genotypes in different environments. This implies that
the selection process can be shortened if strategies are developed for rapid increase of
tubers at the beginning of a selection program.

ii. Low participation of farmers, consumers, processors and other stakeholders (clients)
in variety selection process. As a consequence of this, variety selection has been done based
mainly on high tuber yield, resistance to late blight and some tuber characteristics like shape,
eye depth, skin colour. This has implications on the level of adoption and acceptability of
released varieties. It is of paramount importance to involve as many stakeholders as possible in
the selection process.

iii. Researchers’ limited knowledge of key variety characteristics preferred by farmers,
processors, consumers and other stake holders.

iv. Limited ability of national program scientists to design, record and analyze
    stakeholders perceptions in variety selection

v. Looking at the variety development process in the 3 countries, as well as in many
other SSA countries, there is a step on ‘On-farm’ evaluation that is not adequately
handled. This step that normally comes after multi-location trials under researcher management
is supposed to evaluate the agronomic and socio-economic performance of promising
genotypes under farmer managed conditions, using farmers’ cultivars as check. If properly
executed, this step can provide an excellent opportunity to farmers to select their future
varieties. In most cases this step is handled more or less by researchers in farmers’ fields.

vi. Lack of a clear business strategy by national programs to produce enough quantity of
quality seed for launching variety diffusion immediately or shortly after naming of a new
variety. As a consequence, there is generally no seed to diffuse at the time a variety is named.
In some cases it has taken 3 to 4 years after release for farmers to start receiving seed of new

b2. Potato variety characteristics preferred by farmers, processors and consumers
A rapid appraisal of potato production was conducted in Kenya and Uganda in April and July,
2005 respectively. During the survey, potato farmers and other stakeholders were asked to give
weaknesses and strengths of the varieties they grow or consume. Responses obtained
permitted to identify the following criteria and traits that are used by considered in the
choice/adoption of varieties to grow or consume: Market demand, tuber skin colour, high yield,
disease tolerance, taste and dry matter content, tuber shape and eye depth, number of eyes,
size of tubers, leafiness, early maturing, and short dormancy. In both countries as well as in
Ethiopia, market demand appears to be the strongest factor that guides farmers’ decision on

varieties to grow. Below are some notes on different traits considered by farmers/stakeholders
in choosing varieties..

In Uganda

The main consideration of farmers when choosing a variety is marketability, with other traits like
disease resistance and taste following behind. Following are the main characteristics
considered by farmers when choosing the varieties to grow.
Tuber skin colour
Skin colour played a major role in determining the marketability and price of potatoes. White
skinned potatoes are more marketable in Mbale compared to red or pink skinned ones, while in
Kabale farmers preferred red or pink skinned varieties. Although Nakpot1 and Nakpot5 are high
yielding and have some tolerance to late blight, farmers in Kabale do not like them because they
are white in colour.
High yield
Farmers always prefer high yielding varieties. However, the overriding factor is market demand
for ware potato after harvesting. Farmers will not adopt a new variety if they are not assured of a
market even if it is high yielding.
Disease tolerance
Disease tolerance is another factor considered when farmers are selecting potato varieties. The
most common diseases reported by farmers in the country are Late blight and Bacterial wilt.
However, the main concern for farmers is bacterial wilt because they can do very little in terms
of control measure. However, farmers indicated preference of Victoria variety in Kabale because
they considered it to have some degree of tolerance to bacterial wilt. It should be noted that
most farmers can not identify virus symptoms on plants and tubers and as such could not report
on extend of virus diseases.
Taste and dry matter content
Taste is important for potatoes grown for home use, although it varies from one region to
another. Farmers continue to grow Research and Aliga varieties in Sironko and Bumbamagara
in Kabale for home consumption due to their good taste and texture despite of their small tuber
sizes and low market demand. Farmers also showed a liking for varieties becoming powdery on
cooking, such as Nakpot 1.
Tuber shape and eye depth
The shape of the tubers and eye depth are important for processing varieties. A smooth oval or
round shape and shallow eyes are most preferred because of ease of peeling and reduced
waste. Chinigi is liked due to its round shape and shallow eyes.

Number of eyes
Farmers prefer varieties with many eyes because they produce as many stems hence high
yields. This is one of the reasons why Victoria is preferred in Kabale compared to other
Size of tubers
Big sized tubers are most liked by farmers, processors and consumers in all the districts.
Processing of big tubers is easy compared to small tubers. Labourers also do not like dealing
with varieties with small tubers during harvesting. In Kapchorwa district farmers who grow Cruza
have difficulties in getting casual workers when harvesting due to its small tubers.
Farmers prefer varieties which are less leafy because they require less chemicals during
spraying. Farmers showed dislikes for Cruza in Sironko district and Nakpot3 in Mbale districts
due to their leafiness.

Early maturing
Most farmers prefer early maturing varieties because they enable them get income early and be
able to meet household cash obligations. Farmer in Kapchorwa preferred Victoria because it is
early maturing, with the crop taking 75-90 days. In Kabale early maturing verities are preferred
by valley bottom farmers because they enable them to grow potatoes for three seasons in a
Short dormancy
Farmers prefer short dormancy to ensure at least two crops per year. Farmers in Kapchorwa
rejected Nakpot 5 due to its long dormancy despite of its ability to tolerate late blight. While in
Kabale valley bottom farmers dislike Rusina because it takes long to break dormancy that can
not permit three crops in a year.

In Kenya

Potato varieties grown in each district were based on the traits they have which farmers
consider positive and on market demand. Following are main characteristics considered by
farmers in Kenya when choosing varieties to grow.
Tuber skin colour
Although farmers consistently failed to mention skin colour as one of the criteria of selecting
what varieties to grow, it was evident that skin colour played a major role in determining the
dominantly grown potato varieties in a district. The main colours are white/cream and red. For
example, in Meru district red skinned potatoes are predominantly preferred and any farmer
growing white skinned potatoes are faced with low demand for their ware potato hence low
price. This is mainly because traders visiting the districts reputed for production of red skinned
tubers have market demand for red skinned potatoes.
High yield
Farmers always prefer high yielding varieties. However, the overriding factor is demand for the
ware after harvesting. Farmers will not adopt a new variety if they are not assured of the market
even if it is high yielding. Farmers set aside a small portion of land to grow varieties that are
high yielding but with low market demand for purpose of home consumption and then use the
larger portion for growing varieties with high market demand. This is seen in Bomet district
where Dutch Robyjn is low yielding and is highly susceptible to late blight disease but it is
predominantly grown compared to Asante which is high yielding and more tolerant to late blight.
It should be noted that Asante also produces red skinned tubers like Dutch Robyjn. Dutch
Robyjn had been in cultivation long before the release of Asante and is well known to
consumers and processors. To increase the adoption of new varieties, there is need for
promotion actiovities not only at farmers’ level but at the level of markets, consumers and
Disease tolerance
Disease tolerance is another factor considered when farmers are selecting potato varieties. The
most common diseases in the country are Late blight and Bacterial wilt. Late blight is most
notorious in areas with high rain fall and low temperatures like Meru Central while Bacterial wilt
is becoming important in most parts of the country. Farmers however are less concerned with
Late blight because they can control it using fungicides and planting dates. Their main concern
is bacterial wilt which they have no knowledge of how to control. Although fungicide control
takes a large proportion of production cost farmers felt it was not a big threat compared to
Bacterial wilt which they do not known how to control.
Taste and dry matter content
Taste is important for the potatoes grown for home use. However, taste will vary from one
region to another. A variety described as tasty in one region may appear tasteless in another
region. For example farmers in Meru described Meru Mugaruro as tasteless while the variety is

popular in Mombasa. The dry matter content in the potato affect the taste and majority of
farmers prefer varieties with high dry matter content as opposed to those with a lot of water.

In Meru and Kipipiri divisions Desiree was reported to have bitter taste during drought or when
not well covered by soil.
Shape and eye depth
The shape of the tubers and eye depth are important for processing verities. A smooth shape
and shallow eyes are most preferred because of ease of peeling and reduced waste. Dutch
Robjyn is preferred by processors due to its shallow eyes and round shape.
Size of tubers
Size of tubers depends on the target market and purpose of the potatoes. While Nairobi market
prefers large tubers, Meru North market prefers medium sized potatoes mainly because they
trade in small containers.

Varieties with very big tubers like Asante and Hubathuti were blamed said to be problematic
when it comes to getting seeds thus some farmers don’t like them.
Early maturing
Most farmers prefer early maturing varieties because they enable them get income early and be
able to meet household cash obligations. In Meru district, Bika and Meru mugaruro were
reported to be late maturing which is a disadvantage for many households that use income from
sale of potatoes to pay school fees.

In Kipipiri division in Nyandarua district Desiree was reported to be good for food security for
poor households because it tuberizes very fast. Fast growth also enables a variety to avoid Late
Long storing period / short dormancy
These are conflicting qualities with farmers preferring varieties that don’t take long to sprout
while customers and traders prefer varieties that can store for long before sprouting. Most
farmers do not store potatoes but sell them straight from farm hence don’t worry about storing
period as much as traders and consumers

In Nairobi, Kenya, there is a large demand of potato for processing into crisps and French fries.
However varieties for processing require certain specific quality attributes. Here are
characteristics of varieties required by a crisps processor in Nairobi with capacity of 4 tons
of fresh potato per day: -Distinct, uniform and stable variety, round tuber shape with shallow
eyes, specific gravity greater than 1.080, dry matter greater than 20%, reducing sugar less than
0.15%, white to light yellow or golden yellow flesh colour, tuber size between 45 and 60 mm,
typical flavour with no off flavour.

b3. Analysis of variety uptake models and suggestions of possible strategies to improve
   diffusion so as to provide farmers/consumers with different choices of potato

In the 3 countries (Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia) as well as in other SSA countries, variety
development and production of foundation/basic seed of released varieties is carried out by
national potato programs within National Agricultural Research Institutes. The variety
development and uptake schemes used in Uganda, Ethiopia and Kenya are presented in Table
1 to 3). Shortage or lack of quality seed tubers has been a constant bottleneck for deployment
of improved new varieties. In most potato producing countries in SSA, there is quasi absence of

a clear business plan for multiplication and diffusion of foundation/basic seed. This may be
explained by:
     (iii) The fact that foundation/basic seed production is carried out by researchers/research
           technicians who are evaluated mainly on the basis of their research outputs
           (scientific publications);
ii. The absence of revolving fund systems that can permit seed units within research institutes to
guarantee continuity in production, promotion and diffusion activities through a self-sustainability

In Kenya, certified seed produced by the national potato program is bought by private farmers
most of whom until last year were using the quality seed for table potato production. In 2004,
absence of seed multipliers and weak linkage between the potato program and farmers was
identified as a major bottleneck for promotion and utilization of improved seed. Identification of
potential farmers for multiplication of seed was viewed as a priority activity for improving variety
uptake in Kenya.

In Uganda, basic seed produced by the national potato program is sold to three seed growers
associations (UNSPPA, KASPPA, BUMACOFA), to NGOs, Local Government institutions, and
to private farmers who produce improved seed for table potato production.

In Ethiopia, basic seed produced by the national potato program is generally supplied to farming
groups in different potato districts.

It should be noted that both Uganda and Kenya satisfied about 50% of recorded basic seed
demand with their production of 2004 (first and second season crops). This volume of seed
supply to multipliers can only contribute (after one multiplication) for less than 1% of total
planting material used to plant table potato crops in each country. Where do farmers get the
other 99% seed they plant each season? The answer is obvious. They get it from the harvest of
their degenerated table potato crops (self-supply seed). Information from informal seed growers
in Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia, Cameroon, indicate that once most farmers have bought seed
tubers of a new variety, they generally recycle the seed over several generations and do not
think of renewing seed of a variety they already have.

In this context, viable variety diffusion strategies should strongly consider
(i) promotion activities aimed at convincing farmers on the advantages of planting quality seed
as compared to self-supply seed;
(ii) Identification and empowerment of private seed growers in major potato areas in each
country in order to guarantee seed supply to table potato growers;
(iii) Strengthening of capacities in national potato program to manage seed units and produce
quality basic seed needed by farmers’ seed growers.
(iv) Increase of awareness among farmers on need to control important systemic potato
diseases such as bacterial wilt and viruses using integrated methods.

Above all, to make fast contribution to improving farmers’ livelihood using potato, it is strategic
to empower farmers in improving quality of self-supply planting material that represents about
99% of seed planted each season. During the empowerment exercise farmers should be
educated on seed quality and usefulness of renewing/acquiring seed of other varieties being
produced by seed growers in their neighbourhood/country. To achieve this, development of
strong linkages with research institutions, extension services, NGOs, farmers’ groups, and other
potato stakeholders such as buyers/processors is needed.

In Peru the process of diffusion and registration of new potato varieties was documented in
relation to the new variety UNICA. The involvement of enthusiastic seed producers in early
stages of seed multiplication of the new variety in traditional seed areas made the diffusion of
the new variety attractive and innovative. UNICA is an early potato variety and this characteristic
allows farmers to obtain a return on their investment a month earlier than those of traditional
varieties. This characteristic appears to be sufficient advantage over late maturing traditional
varieties for an increased variety adoption. Strategies to improve the diffusion of new varieties
were suggested for Peru.

6. Related Training Activities completed (workshops, individual training, theses,

       Course        Dates and           Type            Trainee          Trainer       Location
     name, topic      duration       (Individual,     (Institution)*
                     (in days)    group), if group
                                  include number
                                   of participants
                                     in brackets
    Seed potato      March        Group (27           Seed              P. Demo, P.     Limuru,
    production       2005 (4      participants)       multipliers in    Gildemacher,    Kenya
                     days)                            Kenya             Collaborators
                                                                        in KARI
    Use of           April 2005   Group (32 )         Extension         P. Demo, P.     Nakuru,
    positive         (2 days)                         staff, MSC        Gildemacher,    Kenya
    selection in                                      students          Collaborators
    improving                                                           in KARI
    quality of
    Identification   August       Group (20)          Researchers,      P. Demo         EARO
    of potato        2005 (1                          technicians                       Holetta,
    diseases for     days)                            and field staff                   Ethiopia
    seed                                              of EARO
    In-vitro         From June    Individual (MSC     2 MSC             P. Demo         KARI-
    propagation      2005         students, BSC       students -one                     Tigoni,
    and                           student)            from Jomo                         PQS in
    conservation                                      Kenyatta                          Kenya;
    of potato                                         University in                     EARO
                                                      Kenya ( Paul                      Holetta in
                                                      Kuria) and                        Ethiopia
                                                      one from the
                                                      University of
                                                      Addis Ababa
                                                      in Ethiopia
                                                      Abebe). One
                                                      BSC student
                                                      University of

   *If group put number of trainees only and the institutions; if individual put name and institutions.

7. Potential for Protection of Intellectual Property (optional). None.

8. Activities to Strengthen Team (training, conferences, courses, meetings, etc.).
    Training
    Participation in conferences

9. Comments on impediments to progress (general aspects).
        Insufficient funds
        Shortage of man power in NARS
10. Special projects (Name, donor, comments on progress, reference to project reports
    submitted to donors, status of implementation of the main special project(s) included in the
    sub-project, if any)
        This sub-project was mainly funded by the Global Mountain Program with funds from
           a special project funded by CIDA

11. Proposals submitted.

    Title (or shortened        Donor            Stage (PNM, concept              Submission
    version)                                    note, full proposal)             date                     Status*
    Enhancing informal         ASARECA          Full proposal                    Late 2004                Successful
    seed potato
    production for
    productivity of
    systems in the ECA
    Improving                  The IPM          Full proposal                    July 2005                Not successful
    Livelihoods in the         CRSP
    Great Lakes Region
    of Eastern Africa
    through Integrated
    Management of
    Potato Diseases

    Improving potato           To be            Concept note being               Not yet                  -
    and sweetpotato            submitted to     finalized with collaborating     submitted
    production in              IFAD             partners
    Conservation,              ASARECA          Full proposal (PRAPACE           October 2004             Successful
    multiplication and                          seed project)
    dissemination of
    high quality potato
    and sweet potato

     planting material
     Potato seed tuber       Regional       Full proposal submitted by    July 2005          High
     sprouting and           universities   a collaborator in the                            probability of
     storage                 forum for      University of Nairobi                            success
                             building in

   *If you have some idea of the probability of funding please add.

12. Publications (list all publications differentiating those submitted, accepted or published).

Demo P. and P. Gildemacher. 2005. Improving regional availability of clean potato seed: CIP’s
    strategy in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Paper presented during the Steering Committee
    Meeting of PRAPACE. Mukono, Uganda, 22-24 September 2005.

Wagoire, W. W. (NARO), R. Kakuhenzire (NARO), I.N. Kashaija (NARO), B. Lemaga
    (PRAPACE), P. Demo (CIP) and G. Kimoone (NARO). 2005. Seed Potato Production in
    Uganda: Current status and prospects. Paper submitted for the African crop science
    conference of 4-9 December 2005 in Entebbe, Uganda.

Demo P., P. Gildemacher, G. W. Giorgis, Y. Lema, M. Nyongesa, P. Kinyae and B. Lemaga
    (2005). Improving quality of self-supply seed and potato productivity using positive
    selection techniques in Kenya and Ethiopia. Scientific poster presented during 2005 CIP
    annual meeting in Lima, Peru.

Demo P. (CIP), S. Cumbi (IIAM), C. Dominguez (ICRISAT) and Thomas Walker (IIAM). 2005.
    The Potato Sub-sector and Strategies for sustainable seed production in Mozambique.
    Preliminary findings from a two-week study. End of study presentation. Maputo,
    Mozambique. 2 December 2005.

Gutierez R.O., J.A. Espinoza and M. Bonierbale. Procesos de diffusion e inscripcion de nuevas
      variedades en el Peru: caso variedad UNICA (TO BE SUMBITTED)

Gutierez R.O., J.A. Espinoza and M. Bonierbale. UNICA: Variedad Peruana con ventajas y
      atributos para condiciones adversas (TO BE SUMBITTED)

13. Funding gaps. What priority research needs funding?
    -Documentation of potato variety characteristics preferred by farmers, processors and
    consumers in different countries where CIP germplasm is being introduced for selection (eg:
    Mozambique, Malawi, Angola)
    -Documentation and assessment of variety development model and uptake pathways in
    different countries where CIP germplasm is being introduced for selection.

14. Budget (Include the list of activities in the sub-project, budget in 2005 and indicate your
   needs for 2006 if the activity is going to continue or change, for 2006 needs you need to
   check the commitments established in the 2006-2008 MTP).

Name of the activity              CIPFIS code 2005 Amount in 2005 Amount for 2006
Documentation and assessment of   310107 and      $2000 and      $1750
variety development models and    720103          $10000
uptake pathways

Table 1: Potato variety development and diffusion scheme in Uganda
 Seasons/                         Activities                                    Remarks
      1       Introductions of new clones from CIP          - Generally 5-20 tubers per clone
              -         Plant in the field at Kalengyere
              station (most optimum environment for
              potato; Highland)
              -         To act as seed Increase
              -         Eliminate obviously undesired
      2       Initial/Preliminary adaptation trial          -Use of Randomized complete block design
              -         Plant at Kalengyere                 (RCBD)
              -         Replicated trial                    -3 or 4 replications; 10 or 20 tubers per
              -         Select desired genotypes            replicate depending on number of tubers
                                                            -Seed tubers saved from the trial
      3       Preliminary multi-location testing at:        -Use of Randomized complete block design
              -         Buginyanya (Highland) in Eastern    (RCBD)
              Uganda                                        -3 or 4 replications; 20 tubers per replicate
              -         Mbarara in central, lowland area    - Researcher managed trials
              -         Kalengyere                          - Seed tubers for next season saved from
              -         Select for wide/specific adaptation Kalengyere site
      4       Advanced Yield Trial                          -Use of Randomized complete block design
              -         At same sites as in season 3        (RCBD)
              -         Selections                          -3 or 4 replications; 20 tubers per replicate
                                                            - Researcher managed trials with
                                                            involvement of farmers during field days
                                                            -Seed saved from the trial at Kalengyere and
                                                            Buginyanya sites
      5       On Farm Trials I                              -Use of RCBD
                                                            -Researcher managed with increased
                                                            involvement of other stake holders
      6       -On Farm II                                   -Use of RCBD
                                                            -Researcher managed with increased
              -Recommendation for release of selected       involvement of other stake holders
              best clone(s)
      7       -Production of nuclear seed tubers through    -Done in the field at Kalengyere station
              stem-cuttings using mother tubers in          -CIP-Nairobi used to supply mother tubers for
              shaded bed                                    production of nuclear seed
                                                            -This service ended in 2002 with the closure
                                                            of seed multiplication activities at PQS
                                                            Muguga in Kenya
                                                            -Need to find appropriate method to generate
                                                            disease free mother tubers for seed increase
      8       -Production of pre-basic seed tubers from     -Done in the field at Kalengyere station
              nuclear seed tubers
      9       -Production of basic seed using pre-basic     -Done in the field at Kalengyere and
              seed tubers                                   Buginyanya stations
              -Sale of basic seed to seed growers
     10       -Production of improved seed tubers using     -Only one multiplication done by seed
              basic seed                                    producers associations, farmers, NGOs
     11       -Planting of improved seed by potato          -Over 90% of farmers save seed from table
              farmers to produce table potato               potato crops
NB: There are two rain fed potato crops per year. The duration between harvest and planting of next crop
is 2 months. Long dormancy clones/varieties can not be planted twice per year.

Table 2: Potato variety development and diffusion scheme in Ethiopia

 years     Activities                                                 Remarks
   1       Introduction of new clones from CIP (in quarantine         -At least 40 tubers per clone are
           station)                                                   required for planting in seed increase
           -Monitoring for new diseases by quarantine office          plot in order to harvest enough
           -If number of tubers high, the first preliminary           tubers for planting pre-national trials
           evaluation plot is planted                                 in year 2
           -Planting of 5-10 tubers/clones
           -Seed increase
   2       Pre-national variety trials                                -Total of 360 tubers per clone
           -RCBD is used with 3 replications, 40 tubers per plot      required to plant pre-national trial
           -Three different locations                                 -This is possible in year 2 only if at
                                                                      least 40 tubers/ clone were planted
                                                                      in year 1 for seed increase.
   3       National variety trials                                    -Total of 800-1280 tubers per clone
           -RCBD is used with 4 replications, 40 tubers per plot      required to conduct the national
           -Five to eight different locations                         variety trials
           -Best clones selected                                      -This step is possible only if at least
                                                                      80-128 tubers were planted per
                                                                      clone for seed increase in year 2
   4       National variety trials (2 year)                           -At least 267 tubers/clone need to be
           -RCBD is used with 4 replications, 40 tubers per plot      planted for seed increase.
           -Five to eight different locations
           -Best clones selected as candidate varieties for
   5       Variety verification trials on-farm and on-station         -Total of 445 tubers/clone required to
           -Planting of 10m x 10m plots per clone in 3 locations;     plant a plot
           -Total of 6 plots required                                 -Total of 2670 tubers/clone required
           -Proposal of candidate varieties to the national variety   to plant 6 plots of 10 m x 10m
           release committee (NVRC)                                   -Planting spacing: 75 cm x 30 cm
                                                                      -Participation of farmers in the
                                                                      selection/validation trial
   6       -Examination of variety release request by the NVRC.
           -Result from National variety release committee
           -Seed multiplication for released varieties
   7       -Seed multiplication for variety diffusion
   8       -Seed multiplication for variety diffusion                 -Basic seed produced is distributed
                                                                      to informal seed growers
    9      Activities of years 6, 7 and 8 if:
   10      -the initial number of tubers for seed increase is less
   11      than 40
           -there is no clear targets for seed increase through out
           the selection process

Table 3: Potato variety development and diffusion scheme in Kenya

Seasons/years        Activities                                                    Remarks
       1             -Introduction of new genotypes from CIP                       Generally in the form of
        2            -Initial evaluation/observation trial
        3            -Preliminary evaluation trials
        4            -Advance yield trials
                     -Sensory, post harvest, storage evaluations
        5            -Advance yield trials (2 evaluation)
                     -Sensory, post harvest, storage evaluations
        6            -Multi-location /on-farm trials
        7            -National performance trials (NPT)
        8            -National performance trials (NPT)                            -DUS trials are
                     -Distinctiveness, uniformity, and stability (DUS) trials      conducted concurrently
                                                                                   with the NPT
        9            -National performance trials (NPT)                            -DUS trials are
                     -Distinctiveness, uniformity, and stability (DUS) trials      conducted concurrently
                     -Application for variety release sent to the National         with the NPT
                     variety release committee
        10           -Naming of Pre-release varieties                              -Pre-release varieties
                     -Generation (through thermotherapy an meristem                have to be multiplied and
                     culture) and multiplication of disease free starter seed of   20 tons of seed obtained
                     pre-released varieties                                        before final release

        11           -Multiplication of seed of pre-released varieties
        12           -Multiplication of seed of pre-released varieties
                     -Variety Release
NB: There are two rain fed potato crops per year. The duration between harvest and planting of next crop
is 2 months. Long dormancy clones can not be planted twice per year.