Docstoc

UNIT SEVEN

Document Sample
UNIT SEVEN Powered By Docstoc
					                                        UNIT SEVEN
    TEXT

                                 THE NEW THREE RS
      As more and more colleges and universities develop programs for older Americans, the
boundaries separating traditional students from seniors could eventually dissipate until education
becomes a process of continuous lifelong learning rather than one of stop and start. 1 While many
ILR2   type programs are still in their infancy, there already are signs that seniors are becoming
viewed as important resources for institutions of higher learning.Thus, the new three Rs of
education are responsibility, reciprocity, and recruitment. 3
      Responsibility.Older Americans bring a sense of pride and commitment to any organization
with which they are affiliated4 .Having already learned the concept that “you reap what you sow,”
seniors are hard   working and loyal to their host institutions.They volunteer to help with school
activities, donate money via scholarships and other endowments, and strive to have their
organization be financially and admi    nistratively self                        s
                                                            sustaining.While one’ educational status
is never an issue with acceptance into most retirement    type programs, there is a prestige that goes
along with having a scholarly group on campus that includes as its members retired military
officers, CEOs, politicians, professors, and medical personnel. 5
      Reciprocity.Institutions having gerontology programs merely need to look to their campus
ILR members to find persons for programming and research opportunities. At Assumption College
in Worcester, Mass., members of the Worcester Institute for Senior Education (WISE) are invited
to serve as research subjects and be included in questionnaires about aging.
      Charlene Martin, dean of continuing education6, has 11 years of experience in working with
seniors and has written several papers on the subject. She believes that retirees “positively impact
educational institutions and society”.Martin feels that traditional    aged students7 broaden their
perspectives when they see that retirement does not always correlate to sedentary lifestyles.She
says that classroom interactions between students and seniors reinforce the importance of lifelong
learning and how age is not necessarily an indicator that one is too old to learn8.
      Recruitment.Ask any college administrator about the life breath9 of a college or university
and recruitment will surface to the top.Whether it is through reputation, word of mouths10, or other
means, institutions of higher learning rely on a continuous influx of student enrollment.While
enormous amounts of money are spent by some institutions on advertising and literature, the word
 
  of mouth element is as crucial as any factor.Hence, ILRs cannot be overlooked as an important
link in spreading the good word about the college or university.As an expert points out, “We will
probably never be able to determine with any certainty how many traditional      aged students enroll
at a college or university as a result of their grandparents’ enthusiasm and commitment to the
school, but nobody doubts the plausibility of such a scenario” 11.
      Baby boomers12 are entering their retirement years.Over the next decade, the number of
retirees will skyrocket, and with this scenario is bound to come the increased need for
programming and activities for seniors.Colleges and universities with foresight have begun to
recognize the importance of bringing seniors onto their campuses.Actually, America’s institutions
of higher learning need not only to enhance community relations, but, more importantly, to
solidify the concept that education doesn’t stop at graduation.It is a seamless journey of continual
learning opportunities that follow an individual through his or her lifetime.

     WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS
     1. dissipate [′disipeit] v.消散,驱散;浪费
     2. infancy [′inf     nsi] n.早期;幼年
     3. reciprocity [ resi′pr  siti] n.交易;相互关系;互惠主义
     4. recruitment [ri′kru    tmnt] n.补充;征募新兵
     5. affiliate [ ′filieit] v.使成为会员;使隶属;协力合作
     6. endowment [in′daum      nt] n.捐款;基金;天资
     7. strive [straiv] v.努力,奋斗
                               
     8. prestige [pres′ti] n.威信,声誉
                        d
     9. gerontology [ er        l i] n.老人学,老化现象研究
                              n′t d
     10. questionnaire [           
                         kwest′n] n.问卷调查,调查表
     11. impact [′imp     kt] v.填装,挤入,压紧
     12. perspective [p ′spektiv] n.正确的眼光;眼界;希望
     13. sedentary [′sednt    ri] adj.定居的,不迁徙的;久坐的
     14. influx [′infl     ks] n.灌输;流入,蜂拥而至
                           
     15. crucial [′krul] adj.决定性的,重要的;艰苦的
     16. plausibility [     ′biliti] n.似有道理,似可取;善辩
                        plz
     17. scenario [si′nri    u] n.情节;剧本
                            
     18. enhance [in′hns] v.加强,提高;夸张
     19. solidify [s  ′lidifai] v.使一致;使凝固,使团结
     20. seamless [′si    mlis] adj.无缝的;持续不断的

     DIFFICULT POINT EXPLANATION
     1. the boundaries separating traditional students from seniors could eventually dissipate 句中
既有 boundaries(分界线),又有 separating(区别),二词的意思在汉语中互为交叉,较为接近。
如译成    “区别传统意义上的学生和老年学生之间的界线”                                则显得有些累赘,           因此只需译成         “传
统意义上的学生和老年学生之间的界线”即可。
     2. ILR 的全称为 Institute for Learning in Retirement,可译为“老年大学”                 。
     3. 原句中的 three Rs 指的是三个以字母 R 开头的单词,译成汉语时已无法保留这一特
点,建议译者在相应的汉语词语后面仍然附上原文中的英文单词,以帮助读者更好地了解
three Rs 的来源及含义。另外,文中既然提到 new three Rs 那就意味着一定还有 old three Rs,
后者指的是教育领域公认的三个基本技巧:阅读 (reading)、写作(writing)和算术(arithmetic)。
     4. 本句的大意为:美国的老年人无论在哪儿都有着很强的荣誉感和责任心,强调的是
老年人本身所具有的一个比较突出的优点。                             本句有人译为        “„„给他们所属的机构带来骄傲
和责任感”       。这种译法生硬地将 bring ... to ...按字面意思直译出来,并把“骄傲和责任感”用
于形容“他们所属的机构”                  ,这显然属于不太恰当的搭配,读起来拗口、费解。
     5. there is a prestige that goes along with 句意为“学校的声誉是与„„相联系的”                         。换言
之,  “„„能够给学校带来声誉”                    ,因此,goes along with 可译为“(声誉)随之上升”                    。
     6. dean of continuing education 这一词组并未具体指明是哪个学校的系主任,                              因此要正确
地译出这个部分,我们必须把它和上文联系起来看,并将其中暗含的有关学校的信息译出,
使之相对完整。
     7. 从传统大学教育的角度来说,在校学生的年龄一般都在二十岁左右。本句中的
traditional    aged students 指的就是这部分学生,因此,译者可将它直接译为“青年学生”                                        。
      8. ... reinforce ...how age is not necessarily an indicator that one is too old to learn 这一部分
如直接译成“让人深刻地体会到年龄并不一定是决定是不是已经老得不能再学习的标志”                                                           ,
就会让人觉得诘屈聱牙,极不舒服。我们可以在理解原文本意的基础上将这部分译成“让人
更深刻地体会到„„活到老、学到老的可能性”                                  。
      9. life breath 原意为“维持生命的呼吸、鼓舞因素”                         ,它在本文中指的是“使大学继续生
存下去的因素”            。
      10. word of mouths 此处指的是人们通过口头上对某一学校作出或褒或贬的议论、评价,
一传十,十传百,也会给学校的招生带来或好或坏的影响。根据汉语习惯译者将它译为“口
碑”  。
      11. scenario 原意为“电影、戏剧剧本的提纲”                        ,引申为“设想、方案”或“事情发展的
某种可能性”           。这里指青年学生在祖辈影响下选择某校的可能性。
      12. baby boomers 指的是二战结束后美国生育高峰时期出生的婴儿。如果直接译为“生
育高峰儿”         ,不了解美国情况的读者可能会感到困惑,不知道究竟哪些人才是所谓的“生育
高峰儿”       。因此,在翻译这一词组的时候应加上简短的背景介绍,以帮助读者更好地理解原
文。

    REFERENCE VERSION

                                        新 3R 理念
     随着美国越来越多的大专院校开发老年项目,     教育将不再只是人生中的一个驿站,            而是
一个终身学习的过程,        传统意义上的学生和老年人之间的界线也将最终消失。       尽管许多老年
大学的计划仍处于起步阶段,        但已有迹象表明老年人正越来越被视为高等教育机构的重要资
源。因此,教育领域出现了新 3R 的理念:责任心(responsibility),互惠 (reciprocity)和招生
(recruitment)。
     责任心。     年长一些的美国人总是对他们所属的机构怀着一份自豪感和责任心。           他们深谙
“一份耕耘,一份收获”的道理,勤奋苦干,对母校忠心耿耿。他们自愿帮助学校组织和开
展活动,通过捐赠奖学金等方式为学校捐款,尽力使学校在财政和行政上自给自足。虽然学
员受教育程度从来都不是大多数老年大学录取时考虑的因素,但如果拥有一批学者型学员,
如退休军官、公司总裁、政要、教授、医学工作者等,这个学校的声誉也自然会随之上升。
     互惠。   拥有老年医学项目的院校只需瞄准校园里的老年学员就能找到参加项目和科研的
人员。    在麻省伍斯特市的阿桑普迅学院里,    伍斯特老年教育学院的学员就曾受邀作为研究被
试,并参加有关老龄化问题的问卷调查。
     查林娜·     马丁是该院继续教育系现任系主任,她已经在老年教育这一领域工作了 11 年,
并发表了数篇论文。她认为退休学员“对教育机构乃至整个社会都具有积极的影响”                    。马丁
觉得,当青年学生发现退休并不等于独坐家中苦度晚年时,他们的视野会比以前更开阔。她
说,   青年学生和老年学生在课堂上的交流互动,     可以让人更深刻地体会到终身学习的重要性
以及“活到老,学到老”的可能性。
     招生。无论哪一位校长,在被问及能使大学继续生存下去的因素有哪些时,首先回答的
肯定是招生问题。不论是通过声誉、口碑,还是其他方式,高等院校总要依靠源源不断的生
源来支撑。虽然有些院校会在广告和宣传资料上下血本,但口碑和其他因素一样至关重要。
因此,    切不可忽略老年学员在使学校有口皆碑这方面可以起到的重要作用。          正如一位专家所
说:  “我们也许无法确定究竟有多少青年学生是出于其祖父母对某一学校的热情和忠诚而选
择该校的,但是没有人会怀疑这种可能性的存在。        ”
  二十世纪四五十年代生育高峰时期出生的美国人正在进入退休年龄。未来十年中,退休
人数将会飙升,对老年项目和老年活动的需求也必然会随之增长。一些有远见的高等院校已
经开始认识到将老年人请进校园的重要性。事实上,美国各大高等院校不仅需要加强与社区
的关系,而且更重要的是必须强化“教育不因毕业而止”这一理念。教育是个持续不断的学
习过程,它伴随着每个人的一生一世。

    TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES

                                 定语从句的翻译方法
    一、英汉修饰语的比较
    英语中的修饰语主要是指定语和状语。作定语用的有形容词、                                       名词、    代词、    数词、副词、
不定式、动名词、介词、介词短语、从句和句子;作状语用的有副词、短语和状语从句等等。
在将它们翻译成汉语时,需要掌握一些基本的规律。
    定语的位置一般比较固定。单词用作定语时,多放在其所修饰的名词之前;短语和从句
作定语时,      一般置于其所修饰的名词之后。                   尤其是较长的定语从句,                它的特点是       “右开放型”       ,
放在被修饰词语之后,一个句子可以向右扩展成无数个从句;而汉语则不同,其定语部分要
置于被修饰词语的前面,               也不能随意地无限扩展。                英语的长定语在译成汉语时通常可以处理
成多个短句子,也就是通常所说的拆句翻译,把长句拆成汉语的几个短句,一一译出。
    状语的种类有很多,可以表示时间、地点、原因、条件、让步、目的等。对于较长的状
语从句,要根据不同的情况,对它们的位置和连接关系作出相应的处理。比如,时间状语从
句,除了按常规的主从关系翻译之外,也可译成汉语的并列结构或条件句;地点状语从句可
译成汉语的条件句;原因状语从句可译成汉语的主句;条件状语从句可译成汉语的假设句;
让步状语从句可译成汉语的无条件句;目的状语从句可以置于句首或放在句末。
    二、定语从句的翻译方法
    英语句子中某个需要修饰的词语后面可以接无数的定语从句,                                       而汉语句子中需要修饰的
词语前不能放过多的修饰语 (定语)。另外,英语定语从句的结构还具有一些特点,即蔓生
式(如:The rates at which the molecules move depend upon the energy they have.),并列式(如:
The house that he bought in 1968,and which he sold two years later,is again on the market.),
连环套式(如:There was one thing that he told me which I don’t believe at all.)。基于这些结构
上的差异,在翻译定语从句的时候,可以选择以下几种方法:
    1.前置法
    比较简短的英语定语从句,可以译成作定语的短语,置于所修饰词语之前。
    例如:
    ·You must make full use of the money that is left to you and think of a plan to make more.
      你必须充分利用所剩的钱,而且要想法赚更多的钱。
    ·The people who worked for him lived in mortal fear of him.
      在他手下工作的人对他怕得要死。
    ·This is the cat that killed the rat.
      这就是捕杀了那只老鼠的猫。
    · For example, one function of friendship seems to fulfill is that it supports the image we
      have of ourselves, and confirms the value of the attitudes we hold.
      例如, 友谊的一个作用似乎是支持我们在自己心目中的形象, 并使我们持有的价值观
      念更加坚定。
    ·Behaviorists, in contrast, say that difference in scores are due to the fact that Blacks are
     often deprived of many of the educational and other environmental advantages that whites
     enjoy.
     相反,     行为主义者认为,            成绩的差异是由于黑人常常被剥夺了白人在教育及其他外界
     环境方面所享有的许多有利条件而造成的。
   2.后置法
   当定语从句较长时, 如果翻译成前置的定语, 就会不符合汉语的表达习惯, 在这种情况
下, 往往把该定语从句翻译成并列的分句, 放置于原来它所修饰词的后面。另外在处理此类
定语从句时, 一般遵循的原则是:                   若保留先行词, 则在第二个分句中加以重复, 若省略, 则两
个并列分句中均不再保留。当然, 在实际的翻译过程中也有例外。
   ·All the water that flows through the wide pipe in a second must somehow get through a
     narrow part too, which it can do only by going faster.
     在一秒钟内流过粗管子的全部水量, 一定会以某种方式通过细管子,这只有靠加快
     流速才能做到。
     (后置)
   ·Perhaps light is some sort of electric wave, whose nature we do not yet understand.
     也许,光是某种电波,其性质我们尚不清楚。
     (后置)
   ·This will be particularly true since energy pinch will make it difficult to continue agriculture
     in high  energy American fashion that makes it possible to combine few farmers with high
     yields.
     这种困境将是确定无疑的, 因为能源的匮乏使农业无法以高能量消耗这种美国耕种
     方法继续下去了, 而这种耕种方式使得通过投入少数农民就可获得高产成为可能。
     (后置)
   ·“In short”, a leader of the new school attends, “the scientific revolution, as we call it, was
     largely the improvement and invention and use of a series of instruments that expanded the
     reach of science in innumerable directions.”
     新学派的一位领袖人物坚持说:                      “简而言之, 我们所说的科学革命,主要指一系列器
     具的改进、发明和使用,这些改进、发明和使用使科学发展的范围无所不及。                                                     ”
     (后置)
   ·The food supply will not increase nearly enough to match this, which means that we are
     heading into a crisis in the matter of producing and marketing food.
     食品的供应将赶不上人口的增长, 这就意味着我们在粮食的生产和购销方面正陷入
     危机。
     (后置)
   ·You consulted the man who had no idea about that subject at all?
     那个家伙对这一科目一无所知,你却去咨询他?
     (前置)
   ·They are striving for the ideal which is close to the heart of every Chinese and for which,
     in the past,many Chinese have laid down their lives.
     他们正在为实现一个理想而努力,这个理想是每个中国人所珍爱的,在过去,许多中
     国人曾为了这个理想而牺牲了自己的生命。
     (后置)
   ·Nearly everyone knows the story of “the dog that worried the cat that caught the rat that ate
     the grain that lay in the house that Jack built.”
     几乎人人都知道这个故事:                “杰克盖了房,房里堆了粮,耗子把粮吃光,猫把耗子抓
     着,狗又把猫逼上房。              ”
     (后置)
  3.融合法
  所谓融合就是把原句中的主语和定语从句合并在一起,译成一个独立的句子。
  例如:
  · There are more and more foreign investors who have the intention to do business and live in
     Dalian.
     越来越多的外国投资者有意向在大连经商和生活。
  ·They are a nation that must beg to stay alive.
     他们那个国家不讨饭就活不下去。
  ·Objects that do not transmit light cause shadows.
     不透光的物体造成阴影。
  4.分离法
  有些定语从句较长,结构较复杂,或意思上独立性较强,在逻辑意义上有追述、分层叙
述、转折等作用。这时可将英语的定语从句从主句中分离出来,译成独立的成分。
  例如:
  ·Nowhere is the clash between development and environment more visible than in China,
     where the world’s largest population faces pollution, deforestation and acid rain on a large
     scale.
     在中国,      发展与环境的矛盾表现得尤为明显。                      这个世界上人口最多的国家正面临着环
     境污染、森林减少以及大范围酸雨侵袭。
  ·There are 107 elements found in nature, most of which(= and most of them)are metals.
     自然界发现的元素有 107 种,其中大部分是金属。
  5.译成有状语功能的分句
  ·We know that a cat,whose eyes can take in many more rays of light than our eyes, can see
     clearly in the night.
     我们知道,        由于猫的眼睛比我们人的眼睛能吸收更多的光线,                                所以猫在黑夜也能看得
     很清楚。
     (译成原因状语从句)
  ·Chaplin, whose mother was ill for many years, had to dance in streets to earn money .
     由于母亲病了好多年,卓别林不得不到街头表演去挣钱。(译成原因状语从句)
  ·I invited that friend, who came on time.
     我邀请了那位朋友,他就按时来了。
     (译成结果状语从句)
  ·He built a telescope through which he could study the skies.
     他做了一架望远镜,使他能够研究天空。
     (译成结果状语从句)
  ·Anyone who wants to can go for a walk.
     谁想去散步就可以去。
     (译成条件状语从句)
  ·Nothing is difficult in the world for anyone, who dares to scale the height.
     世上无难事,只要肯登攀。
     (译成条件状语从句)
  ·The young man needed a visa that would enable him to study in the United States.
    这位青年需要得到签证,以便前往美国学习。
    (译成目的状语从句)
  · the Southern States wanted to set up a country of their own, where they would be free to
   But
    keep black slaves.
    但是南方各州却想建立他们自己的国家,                           以便在那里他们可以随心所欲地继续把黑人
    当作奴隶。
    (译成目的状语从句)
  ·The scientist, who was dog   tired, went on with the experiment.
    那位科学家虽已筋疲力尽,但还是继续进行实验。
    (译成让步状语从句)
  ·He insisted on buying another house, which he had no use for.
    他坚持再买一幢房子,尽管他并无此需要。
    (译成让步状语从句)
  6.其他译法
  把翻译简单定语从句的方法贯通其中,如译成定语 + 句子成分(即把一个从句译成定
语,另一个从句译成句子成分),或译成并列句(或句子成分) + 状语从句(即把一个从句译成
并列句或句子成分,另一个从句译成状语从句)等。
  例如:
  · one extreme are Hawaii and Brazil,
   At                                      where racial intermixture is extensive and continuing,
    and where racial discrimination is relatively minor.
    处于一个极端的是夏威夷和巴西,在那里种族混合十分普遍,而且正在继续,因此,
    种族歧视较少。
    (译成并列句 + 状语从句)

    EXERCISES
    Ⅰ.USEFUL TERM TRANSLATION
    1. AVG (AdventureGame)                     2. Player Killing
    3. HP(Hit Point)                           4. Clock Speed
    5. clip-art image                          6. Experience Point
    7. First Person                            8. Picture-in-picture
    9. Hidden Level                            10. Graphic Adventure
    11. RPG(Role Playing Game)                 12. AI(Artificial Intelligence)
    13. Bug                                    14. Internet surfing
    15. Doom-like                              16. FTG(Fighting Game)
    17. Flight Sim                             18. FMV(Full-motion Video)
    19. FPS(Frames Per Second)                 20. Trojan horse

    Ⅱ.SENTENCE TRANSLATION
    1. Almost everything which really matters and which the world possessed at the
       commencement of the modern age was already known to man at the dawn of history.
    2. And it helps to explain why so many inventions that were of Chinese origin were fully
       developed and exploited only by the Western Europeans.
    3. Not surprisingly, the most complex political structures appeared in the Sudan, where long
        distance trade was most highly developed and where Islamic influence was the strongest.
     4. This hope was nurtured by the great victories won by Genghis Khan’s grandson, Hulagu,
        who was a Buddhist, and whose wife was a Christian.
     5. They are striving for the ideal which is close to the heart of every Chinese and for which,
        in the past, many Chinese have laid down their lives.
     6. It applies equally to traditional historians who view history as only the external and
        internal criticism of sources and to social science historians who equate their activity with
        specific techniques.
     7. A youngster who has no playmates of his age living nearby may benefit greatly from
        attending nursery school.
     8. The first two must be equal for all who are being compared,if any comparison in terms of
        intelligence is to be made.
     9. Kissinger and his small group of aids toured the Forbidden City, where the Chinese
        emperors once lived in lofty splendor.
     10. The time will surely come when the Chinese people will realize the four modernizations.

     Ⅲ.PASSAGE TRANSLATION

                                   DISTANCE LEARNING
      Distance learning is a formal educational process that breaks the traditional mode of
classroom teaching. There are two key differences between traditional education and distance
learning.Distance learning adds flexibility and availability, regardless of time, place, or pace of
learning.
      Here an instructor teaches, and somewhere else a student learns, regardless of barriers of time
or place.Distance learning reaches out to non        traditional students who must fit their studies
around workplace, family responsibilities, and geographical barriers, etc.Students can be at
satellite campuses, at the workplace, or at home.Instruction may take place in real time or on a
time delayed basis.Interactivity between student and instructor, as well as among students
themselves can be built into the program.The outcome can be a bachelor’s degree or a master’s
degree, professional certification, on   training, or life 
                                          the job                     long learning.
      A number of technologies can be employed in distance instruction, depending on what is
most appropriate for the subject and the targeted group of students.In addition, students usually
progress through the course at their own speed.
      Distance learning modes are as varied and numerous as the courses themselves.The most
effective course in distance learning always knows how to combine the use of media with the
nature of the subject being taught.
      Generally speaking, there are three basic transmission modes in distance learning: live TV
broadcast, transmission of complete or compressed information as well as computer based
instruction. Of course, all these modes can also be used in combination.For instance, live
broadcast via satellite or the World Wide Web can be added in courses conducted primarily with
videotapes.
      In addition, instructor student interactivity as well as student student interactivity is also an
important part of the learning process.There are a number of supportive technologies that can help
promote interactivity in the distance learning environment, including electronic bulletin boards,
internet, e-mail, fax, Internet Relay Chat (IRC), telephone and snail mail.

     TRANSLATION APPRECIATION
     1.A long tongue has a short hand.
       话多必拙。 / 言多有失。
     2.Life without mirth is a lamp without oil.
       生而不乐,灯里无油。
     3.Deliberating is no delaying.
       慎思,但不等于耽搁。
     4.Happy is he who knows his follies in his youth.
       记得年轻时所做蠢事的人是幸福的。
     5.Help a lame dog over a stile.
       见义勇为,救人于危难之中。
     6.Hiders are good finders.
       解铃还需系铃人。
     7.He that lies down with dogs must rise up with fleas.
       与狗同卧的人身上必有跳蚤。
     8.He that will not sail till all dangers are over, must never put to sea.
       若是想什么危险都没有了再航行,就永远出不了海。
     9.He who keeps company with the wolf will learn to howl.
       近朱者赤,近墨者黑。
     10.Highbrows and lowbrows alike can enjoy.
       雅俗共赏。
     11.Hope for the best and prepare for the worst.
       做最坏的准备,朝最好的方向努力。
     12.If one is not patient in small things, one will never be able to control great ventures.
       小不忍则乱大谋。
     13.Water afar quencheth no fire.
       远水救不了近火。
     14.If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind?
       冬天来了,春天还会远吗?
     15.If you are too fortunate, you will not know yourself; if you are too unfortunate, nobody
       will know you.
       运气太好,见人不睬;运气太坏,无人理会。
                                            UNIT EIGHT
  TEXT

                                  CHOOSE OPTIMISM1
                                                                               Rick De Vos
                                                                             2
      If you expect something to turn out badly, it probably will. Pessimism is seldom
disappointed. 3 But the same principle also works in reverse.If you expect good things to happen,
they usually do! There seems to be a natural cause       and effect relationship between optimism
and success. 4
      Optimism and pessimism are both powerful forces, and each of us must choose which we
want to shape our outlook and our expectations. 5 There is enough good and bad in everyone’s life
— ample sorrow and happiness, sufficient joy and pain — to find a rational basis for either
optimism or pessimism. 6 We can choose to laugh or cry, bless or curse. It’s our decision: From
which perspective do we want to view life? Will we look up in hope or down in despair? 7
      I believe in the upward look. I choose to highlight the positive and slip right over the
negative. 8 I am an optimist by choice as much as by nature. 9 Sure, 1 know that sorrow exists.I am
in my 70s now, and I’ve lived through more than one crisis.But when all is said and done, I find
that the good in life far outweighs the bad. 10
      An optimistic attitude is not a luxury; it’s a necessity. The way you look at life will determine
how you feel, how you perform, and how well you will get along with other people. 11 Conversely,
negative thoughts, attitudes, and expectations feed on themselves, they become a self         fulfilling
           12                                                                 13
prophecy. Pessimism creates a dismal place where no one wants to live.
      Years ago, I drove into a service station to get some gas. It was a beautiful day, and I was
feeling great.As I walked into the station to pay for the gas, the attendant said to me, “How do you
feel?” That seemed an odd question, but I felt fine and told him so.“You don’t look well,” he
replied.This took me completely by surprise.A little less confidently, I told him that I had never
felt better. 14 Without hesitation, he continued to tell me how bad I looked and that my skin
appeared yellow.
      By the time I left the service station, I was feeling a little uneasy. About a block away, I
pulled over to the side of the road to look at my face in the mirror.How did I feel? Was I jaundiced?
Was everything all right? By the time I got home, I was beginning to feel a little queasy. Did I
have a bad liver? Had I picked up some rare diseases?
      The next time I went into that gas station, feeling fine again, I figured out what had happened.
15
   The place had recently been painted a bright, bilious yellow, and the light reflecting off the walls
made everyone inside look as though they had hepatitis! I wondered how many other folks had
reacted the way I did. I had let one short conversation with a total stranger change my attitude for
an entire day. 16 He told me I looked sick, and before long, I was actually feeling sick.That single
negative observation had a profound effect on the way I felt and acted.
      The only thing more powerful than negativism is a positive affirmation, a word of optimism
and hope.One of the things I am most thankful for is the fact that I have grown up in a nation with
a grand tradition of optimism. 17 When a whole culture adopts an upward look, incredible things
can be accomplished. 18 When the world is seen as a hopeful, positive place, people are
empowered to attempt and to achieve. 19
      Optimism doesn’t need to be naive.You can be an optimist and still recognize that problems
exist and that some of them are not dealt with easily. 20 But what a difference optimism makes in
the attitude of the problem solver! 21 For example, through the years, I’ve heard some people say
that the money spent on our space program has been wasted.“Instead of spending $ 455 million
to put a man on the moon,” they say, “why not spend that money here on earth on the poverty
problem?”But when you ask them exactly how they would spend that money to solve the poverty
problem, most of them don’t have an answer.“Give me a solution,” I tell them, “and I’ll raise you
the money.” 22 Think in positive terms about how to address the issue rather than criticizing money
spent on another problem, such as America’s space program, which resulted in many positive
discoveries that have benefited mankind. 23
      Optimism diverts our attention away from negativism and channels it into positive,
constructing thinking. 24 When you’re an optimist, you’re more concerned with problem solving
than with useless carping about issues. 25 In fact, without optimism, issues as big and ongoing as
poverty have no hope of solution.It takes a dreamer — someone with hopelessly optimistic ideas,
great persistence, and unlimited confidence — to tackle a problem that big. 26 It’s your choice.

     WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS
                       
     1.reverse [ri′vs] adj.颠倒的,相反的 v.颠倒,反转
     2.ample [′   mpl] adj.足够的,充裕的
     3.rational [′rnl] adj.理智的,合理的
     4.highlight [′hailait] v.强调 n.最重要的部分
     5.prophecy [′pr  fisi] n.预言;预言能力
     6.dismal [′dizm   l] adj.沮丧的,忧郁的
     7.jaundice [′d ndis] n.黄疸病;妒忌 v. 使患黄疸病
     8.queasy [′kwi   zi] adj.使人作呕的,不安的
     9.bilious [′bilj  s] adj.因胆汁过多所致的,坏脾气的
     10.hepatitis [hep′taitis] n.肝炎
                   
     11.naive [n′i   v] adj.天真的,自然的
     12.solver [′s     ]
                     lv n.解决者
                        
     13.divert [dai′vt] v.使转向,使转移注意力
                   
     14.carp [kp] v.吹毛求疵,找茬
     15.tackle [′t  kl] n.用具 v.捕捉;解决

     DIFFICULT POINT EXPLANATION
     1. 本文是一篇有关人生态度的议论文章,选自理查·狄维士(安利公司创始人)的新
作 Hope of Heart。
     2. If you expect something to turn out badly, it probably will.假如你预期某事会有坏的结
局,结果也许就真的不妙。原句中动词不定式 to turn out 汉译时转译成了名词“结局”                                             ,其
限定成分 badly 也随之转译成定语“坏的”                       。原句主句省略了谓语动词,汉译时则将其增译
出来。
     3. Pessimism is seldom disappointed.悲观的想法很少会落空。此句的含义是“假如你有悲
观的想法,往往就可能真地会产生不好的结果”                            ,所以 disappointed 译成“落空”而不是“失
望”  。
     4. There seems to be a natural cause  
                                           and effect relationship between optimism and success.
在乐观与成功之间似乎有一种自然而然的因果关系。该句汉译时将句尾的介词短语 between
optimism and success 移至句首,使译文更符合汉语表达习惯。
     5. ...and each of us must choose which we want to shape our outlook and our expectations.
我们每个人都必须在这两者之间做出选择,                           从而给我们对未来的观点和预期染上或明或暗的
色彩。原句中不定式短语 to shape our outlook and our expectations 汉译时采用了意译的方
法,若直译则应为“以塑造我们的观点和期望”                                   。
      6. There is enough good and bad in everyone’s life — ample sorrow and happiness,
sufficient joy and pain — to find a rational basis for either optimism or pessimism.每个人一生
中的幸运与不幸(数不清的哀伤和喜悦、欢欣与痛苦)足以成为我们乐观和悲观的理由。原句
中不定式短语 to find a rational basis for either optimism or pessimism 与前面的副词 enough
搭配,表示“„„足以„„”                     。两个破折号之间的插入语表示补充说明,汉译时采用了加括
号的方法,更符合汉语表达习惯。
      7. It’s our decision: From which perspective do we want to view life? Will we look up in
hope or down in despair?我们用怎样的眼光看待生活?是昂首去寻找希望抑或垂头在绝望中
逡巡?全由我们自己来决定。注意该句汉译时语序的转变,将原句主语后移,而将两个从句
前置,使译文更符合汉语表达习惯。
      8. I choose to highlight the positive and slip right over the negative. 我愿意把注意力集中在
生活中光明的一面,而忽略那些阴暗的角落。原句中 choose to highlight 不表示“选择
做„„” 而表示   ,        “愿意做„„,           宁愿做„„” I am willing to highlight the...); right over
                                                     (=                                 slip
本义为“从„„上面滑过”                    ,这里译为“忽略”             。两个形容词 positive 和 negative 前面都加
了定冠词 the, 汉译时分别译成名词结构“生活中光明的一面”和“那些阴暗的角落”                                                      。
      9. I am an optimist by choice as much as by nature.天性和个人选择使我成了一个乐观主义
者。此句汉译时将介词短语 by choice as much as by nature 改译成主语“天性和个人选择”                                          ,
并增译谓语动词“使„„成为”                       。该句若直译则应为“我是一个天生的同时也是自己选择的
乐观主义者”          。
      10. But when all is said and done, I find that the good in life far outweighs the bad.但是说到
底,   我发现生活中美好的东西还是远远多于丑恶的东西。                                      原句中 when all is said and done 部
分是个习语,表示“说到底,毕竟,归根到底”                                   。动词 outweighs 原意为“在重量上超过”                   ,
引申为“比„„多”               。
      11. The way you look at life will determine how you feel, how you perform, and how well
you will get along with other people.你看待生活的方式将决定你的感受、你的表现以及你与他
人相处的关系。            该句汉译时将定语从句 you look at life 译成前置定语                         “你看待生活的„„”             ,
将三个宾语从句 how you feel, how you perform, and how well you will get along with other
people 分别译成名词词组“你的感受、你的表现以及你与他人相处的关系”                                                。
      12. Conversely, negative thoughts, attitudes, and expectations feed on themselves,they
become a self     fulfilling prophecy.反过来,悲观的想法、态度或预期也会自成因果:它们是
一种自己会变成现实的预言。原句中动词 feed on 原意为“从„„得到滋养”                                                ,所以全句的
含义为“悲观的想法、态度或预期也会从它们自身获取滋养,从而形成坏的现实”                                                         。
      13. Pessimism creates a dismal place where no one wants to live.悲观会制造出无人愿往的
阴暗处所。该句汉译时将 where 引导的定语从句译成前置定语“无人愿往的”                                                 。
      14. A little less confidently, I told him that I had never felt better.我告诉他说我的感觉从未
像现在这么好,            但说此话时已不像原来那么底气十足。                          该句汉译时将句首的副词词组 A little
less confidently 移至句尾,改译成一个并列分句。
      15. The next time I went into that gas station, feeling fine again, I figured out what had
happened.再次光顾那个加油站的时候,我已恢复了正常,感觉良好。这一次我搞明白了事
情的个中蹊跷。             该句汉译时采用了拆句译法,                    将句首的时间状语和现在分词短语译成一个独
立句,而将原句主语译成另一个独立句。
      16. I had let one short conversation with a total stranger my attitude for an entire day.和一个
完全陌生的人的一次短短的对话竟然改变了我整整一天的心情。                                              该句汉译时省译了原句主谓
结构 I had let, 将原句宾语 one short conversation with a total stranger 改译成主语,                      将宾语补
足语 change my attitude 改译成谓语部分。
      17. One of the things I am most thankful for is the fact that I have grown up in a nation with a
grand tradition of optimism.最让我心存感激的事情之一就是我生在一个有着乐观主义美好传
统的国度。原句中 that 所引导的从句是名词 the fact 的同位语, 汉译时将 the fact 省译。
如果将 the fact 译出,汉语反倒不通顺了。
     18. When a whole culture adopts an upward look, incredible things can be accomplished.当
一种文化从整体上采取了一种积极向上的态度,不可思议的事情也能变成现实。原句中
whole 是形容词修饰名词 culture,              汉译时却将其改译成副词                               ,
                                                                 “从整体上” 在译文中作状语。
     19. When the world is seen as a hopeful, positive place, people are empowered to attempt and
to achieve.当人们把世界看作光明与希望之地时,                         他们就被赋予努力进取和成就事业的力量。
该句汉译时将条件状语从句由被动结构改译成主动结构,增译了主语“人们”                                                    ,将原句改译
为宾语。主句末尾的两个动词不定式则改译为定语“努力进取和成就事业的”                                                    。
     20. You can be an optimist and still recognize that problem exist and that some of them are
not dealt with easily.在保持乐观的同时,你仍然可以意识到问题的存在,意识到有些问题非
常棘手。该句汉译时将主句中 You can be an optimist 部分改译成时间状语。若采用直译的
方法也可译为:你可以是一个乐观主义者,同时也意识到问题的存在,意识到有些问题非常
棘手。
     21. But what a difference optimism makes in the attitude of problem solver! 可是,      乐观主义
给解决问题者看待问题的态度带来多么大的影响呀!注意该句是由 what 引出的感叹句,汉
译时要将感叹译出。原句谓语部分是 makes what a difference, 意为“产生多么大的影响”                                          。
     22. “Give me a solution,” I tell them, “and I’ll raise you the money.“ “告诉我你们
的方案”     ,我对他们说,         “我会为你们筹到钱”            。原句中 Give me a solution, and ... 是一个特殊
结构,                                                即
       相当于一个带有条件状语从句的复合句, if you give me a solution, I’ raise you the                 ll
money。
     23. Think in positive terms about how to address the issue rather than criticizing money spent
on another problem, such as America’s space program, which resulted in many positive
discoveries that have benefited mankind. 我们应该以积极的方式思考如何解决这一问题,                                而不
是去挑剔花在别的项目(比如美国太空计划)上的金钱。美国的太空计划带来了许多有价值的
发现,使整个人类从中受益。原句主句为祈使结构,汉译时增译了主语和情态动词“我们应
该”  ,原句中 which 引导的非限定性定语从句则改译成了汉语独立句。
     24. Optimism diverts our attention away from negativism and channels it into positive,
constructing thinking. 乐观精神使我们的注意力从消极的否定态度转向积极的、建设性的思
考。原句有两个谓语动词,其中 diverts ... from 意为“使„„转移”                                 ,channels...into 则表示
“将„„引导到„„”              ,汉译时将这两个动词统一译成了“转向”                           。
                     re                 re
     25. When you’ an optimist, you’ more concerned with problem solving than with useless
carping about issues.乐观主义者更关心如何解决问题,而不是毫无意义地怨天尤人。原句是
个主从复合句,汉译成了一个简单句。其中 When you’re an optimist 是时间状语从句,汉
译成一个名词,作全句的主语。
     26. It takes a dreamer — someone with hopelessly optimistic ideas, great persistence, and
unlimited confidence — to tackle a problem that big.解决如此重大的问题需要一个梦想家—
—一个拥有九死无悔的乐观、矢志不移的坚韧和无限信心的人。原句中 it 是形式主语,真
正的主语是 to tackle a problem that big;两个破折号中间的部分是 dreamer 的同位语;词组
hopelessly optimistic 是一种矛盾修饰,应解释为“九死无悔的乐观”                               。

    REFERENCE VERSION

                                          选择乐观
                               理查·狄维士
    如果你预期某事会有坏的结局,结果也许就真的不妙。悲观的想法很少会落空。但这个
法则反过来也同样成立:如果你预感鸿运当头,通常就会有好运降临!在乐观与成功之间似
乎有一种自然的因果关系。
  乐观和悲观都是强大的力量, 我们每个人都必须在这两者之间做出选择,     从而给我们对
未来的观点和预期染上或明或暗的色彩。 每个人一生中的幸运与不幸(数不清的哀伤和喜悦、
欢欣与痛苦)足以成为我们乐观和悲观的理由。我们可以选择哭或者笑,祝福或者诅咒。我
们用怎样的眼光看待生活?是昂首寻找希望抑或是垂头在绝望中逡巡?全由我们自己来决
定。
  我喜欢积极向上的态度。 我愿意把注意力集中在生活中光明的一面,  而忽略那些阴暗的
角落。天性和个人选择使我成了一个乐观主义者。当然,我知道生活中总会有哀伤,年逾古
稀的我曾不止一次经历过危机。 但是说到底,我发现生活中美好的东西还是远远多于丑恶的
东西。
  乐观的态度不是一种奢侈品, 它是我们生活的必需。你看待生活的方式将决定你的感受、
你的表现以及你与他人相处的关系。反过来,悲观的想法、态度或预期也会自成因果:它们
是一种自己会变成现实的预言。悲观会制造出无人愿往的阴暗处所。
  几年前的一天,我开车到一个加油站去加油。那天天气很好,我的心情也相当不错。当
我走进加油站付油钱时,服务员问我: “你感觉怎样?”虽然他的问题有点古怪,可我感觉
很好,于是便照实回答了他。他又说: “你的气色不好啊。”这话让我非常吃惊。我告诉他说
我的感觉从未像现在这么好, 但说此话时已不像原来那么底气十足。 而他则毫无顾忌地继续
大讲我的气色是如何地差劲,还说我肤色发黄。
  离开加油站的时候,我觉得自己有点心神不宁。驶出一个街区之后,我把车停在路旁,
从镜中审视自己的脸。我怎么了?我得了黄疸病?是不是有什么异常?等我回到家里,      就开
始觉得有点儿恶心。我的肝脏出了毛病?是不是染上了什么怪病?
  再次光顾那个加油站的时候,我已恢复了正常,感觉良好。这一次我搞明白了事情的个
中蹊跷。那个地方不久前把墙壁漆成了一种鲜亮的胆汁般的黄色,  墙壁所反射的光使置身其
中的每个人都显得好像患了肝炎。 不知道有多少人也曾有过和我相似的经历呢。     和一个完全
陌生的人的一次短短的对话竟然改变了我整整一天的心情。  他说我面带病容,    很快我就真的
感觉不舒服。仅仅是一个消极的想法就大大影响了我的感觉和行为方式。
  唯一比否定态度更有力量的是一个积极的肯定,  一句充满乐观与希望的话语。    最让我心
存感激的事情之一就是我生在一个有着乐观主义美好传统的国度。  当一种文化从整体上采取
了一种积极向上的态度, 不可思议的事情也能变成现实。 当人们把世界看作光明与希望之地
时,他们就被赋予努力进取和成就事业的力量。
  乐观并不意味着幼稚。在保持乐观的同时,你仍然可以意识到问题的存在,意识到有些
问题非常棘手。可是,乐观主义给解决问题者看待问题的态度带来多大的影响呀!比方说,
这些年我们总是听到有人抱怨用于太空计划的钱被白白浪费了。  “与其花 4.55 亿美元把一个
人送上月球”    “何不把这些钱用来解决地球上的贫穷问题呢”?可是当你追问他们
      ,他们说,
打算如何用这些钱来消除贫穷时,他们中的大多数人都无言以对。  “告诉我你们的方案”   ,我
对他们说,“我会为你们筹到钱”。我们应该以积极的方式思考如何解决这一问题,而不是去
挑剔花在别的项目(比如美国太空计划)上的金钱。美国的太空计划带来了许多有价值的发
现,使整个人类从中受益。
  乐观精神使我们的注意力从消极的否定态度转向积极的、  建设性的思考。    乐观主义者更
关心如何解决问题,而不是毫无意义地怨天尤人。说真的,如果没有乐观精神,像贫穷这样
沉重且持续存在的问题是无望解决的。 解决如此重大的问题需要一个梦想家——一个拥有九
死无悔的乐观、矢志不移的坚韧和无限信心的人。何去何从,由你决定。
    TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES

                       状语及某些状语从句的翻译方法
   一、单词作状语的翻译方法
  英语中单词作状语修饰形容词或其他状语时,与汉语相似,常放在被修饰词语的前面。
  例如:
  ·The girl is remarkably beautiful.
    这个女孩非常美丽。
  ·The girl is improving remarkably fast.
    这位姑娘进步得相当之快。
  英语单词状语修饰动词时,一般放在动词之后,而汉语则通常放在动词之前。
  例如:
  ·Modern science and technology are developing rapidly.
    现代科学技术正在迅速发展。
  ·I have never heard such nonsense in my life.
    我这辈子从没听过这种废话。
  总的来说,英语由单词构成的状语常常根据需要放在句首、形容词和其他状语、谓语动
词之前、  助动词和谓语动词之间或句末。                     较长的状语一般放在句首或句尾,                    放在中间的较少。
汉语的状语在习惯上通常放在主语之后,谓语之前,比较固定。如果出现一连串包括时间、
地点和方式的状语,英语的语序是:方式 — 地点 — 时间;汉语的语序则为:时间 — 地
点 — 方式。此外,若一个句子里出现两个以上的时间或地点状语时,英语通常是按照从小
到大的顺序排列,而汉语的顺序是反过来,是按从大到小的顺序排列。
  例如:
  ·He kept writing letters feverishly in his study all afternoon.
    整个下午他在书房里兴奋地写信。
  ·The news briefing was held in Room 301 at about nine o’clock yesterday morning.
    新闻发布会是昨天上午大约九点在 301 会议室召开的。
  英语句子中如果有两个较长状语时,                        常常将他们分别放在句首和句尾,                    或分别放在句首
和主语之后,以保持句子的平衡;汉语则把他们一起放在句中。
  例如:
  ·Established in April 1960, the China Ocean Shipping Corporation has, in the past 28 years
    through arduous efforts, with the support from the state, expanded its shipping business
    and increased its number of ships.
    中国远洋运输公司成立于 1960 年4月,至今已有 28 年的历史。28 年来,在国家的
    大力支持下,经过不懈的努力,公司业务和船舶数量迅速地增加。
   二、某些状语从句的翻译方法
  对时间状语从句有两种翻译方法:译成相应的时间状语;译成并列分句。
  例如:
  ·When you come next time, bring your sister.
    下次来的时候把你妹妹带上。
  ·We were about to leave, when it rained.
    我们刚要离去,天就下起雨来。
  英语的地点状语从句常常译成汉语的条件状语。
  ·The materials are excellent for use where the value of the workpieces is not high.
   如果零件价值不高,使用这些材料是再好不过的了。
  ·Anywhere she goes, he goes too.
   不论她去哪儿,他都会跟去。
  对原因状语从句的翻译方法:译成表“因”的分句;译成因果关系复句中的主句;译成
无关联词而因果关系内含的并列分句。
  例如:
  ·He wants to marry her because she is so lovely.
   因为她太可爱了,他想娶她为妻。
  ·The old man gave up smoking because he coughed a lot.
   老人总是咳嗽,因此把烟戒了。
  ·Every teacher likes her because she is a good student.
   她是个好学生,每位老师都喜欢她。
  条件状语从句可以译成分句。
  例如:
  ·If we can do three papers, the professor will let us pass the course.
   如果我们能完成三篇论文,教授就会让我们通过这门课程。
  ·You can go swimming if it is fine.
   你们可以去游泳,如果天气好的话。
  让步状语从句也可以译成分句。
  例如:
  ·Though computer is not my major, I do know a little of computer games.
   虽说我的专业不是计算机,但我对电脑游戏还是略通一二的。
  ·No matter how difficult it is, I will learn it.
   不管有多难,我都要学会它。
  目的状语从句也可以译成分句。
  ·The government has created many new jobs in order that laid  workers may have more
                                                                     off
   choices.
   为了给下岗职工提供更多的选择,政府创造了出许多新的岗位。
  ·Stop drinking so that you can live a healthier life.
   别再喝酒了,这样你就可以过上更健康的生活了。
  英语状语从句和汉语状语从句在外形结构上和表意内涵上相类似,                                          在译成汉语时,  其位
置可以灵活处理。为了既表达原文的意思,又行文流畅,它可以出现在句首、句中或句尾。

    EXERCISES
    Ⅰ. USEFUL TERM TRANSLATION
    1. Admittance Free                    2. No Admittance Except on Business
    3. Visitors Declined                  4. Out of Bounds
    5. Engaged (or: Taken)                6. Road Up, Detour
    7. Blocks(or:No Thoroughfare)         8. See to the Fire
    9. Cameras Forbidden                  10. Shooting Prohibited
    11. Keep Top Side Up                  12. Handle with Care
    13. Round   the Clock Business      14. Booking Office
    15. Information Desk                  16. Drive at Moderate Speed
    17. Visitors’ Book                    18. Workmen Ahead
     19. Keep off the Grass                       20. Yield the Right of Way for Safety’s Sake

     Ⅱ. SENTENCE TRANSLATION
     1. There is potential energy in a clock spring after it has been wound.
     2. When the history of the Nixon administration is finally written, the chances are that his
        Chinese policy will stand out as a model of common sense and good diplomacy.
     3. But when you ask them exactly how they would spend that money to solve the poverty
        problem, most of them don’t have an answer.
     4. New things always have to experience difficulties and setbacks as they grow.
     5. No flow of electric current occurs unless there is a difference of potential.
     6. Now that you are all here, let’s try and reach a decision.
     7. This condition should be supervised most carefully by a competent physician because it
        is a serious emergency.
     8. Although the tourist industry would like to sell Macau as a racy, modern city, its real
        appeal is that it offers a very quiet, relaxing contrast to Hong Kong.
     9. And though it requires sacrifice, it brings a deeper fulfillment.
     10. While the majority of Macau’s inhabitants are Buddhists, some seven per cent are
        Catholic.

     Ⅲ.PASSAGE TRANSLATION

                         WATER IN THE 21ST CENTURY
     Life on earth depends on water, and there is no substitute for it.The current assumption is that
our basic needs for water — whether for drinking, agriculture, industry or the raising of fish —
will always have to be met.Given that premise, there are two basic routes we can go: more
equitable access to water or more drastic engineering solutions(more dams, for instance, or
massive shifts of water from Canada to the southwestern United States using pipelines from one
river basin to another).
     Looking at the engineering solution first, a lot of my research concentrates on what happens
to wetlands when you build dams in ri  basins, particularly in Africa.The ecology of such
                                             ver
areas is almost entirely driven by the seasonal regime of the river — the pulse of the water.And
the fact is that if you build a dam, you generally wreck the downstream ecology.In the past, such
problems have been hidden by a dearth of information.But in the next century, governments will
have no excuse for their blissful ignorance.
     The engineers’ ability to control water flows has created new kinds of unpredictability
too.Dams in Africa have meant fewer fish, less grazing and less floodplain agriculture — none of
which were anticipated.And their average economic life is assumed to be 30 years.Dams don’t
exist for ever, but what will replace them is not clear.
     The challenge for the next century is to find new means of controlling water.Although GM
(genetically   modified) technology will allow us to breed better dry      land crops, there is no
market incentive for companies to develop crops suitable for the micro     climates of the Sahel and
elsewhere in Africa.Who is going to pay for research on locally appropriate crops in the Third
World?
     This brings us to the key issue in any discussion of water: mo      ney.To talk about a water
crisis glosses over intractable problems such as poverty.In the next century every household in
Britain will have a water meter, and we will pay for what we use just as we do for gas or
electricity.That is resolvable and a similar system will eventually be adopted across Europe and
the US.But consider the problems of water supply in Mexico City and Delhi.If you’re rich, you
drink mineral water and may even have a swimming       pool — yet millions in such cities can’t
get safe drinking water.People talk about the coming water crisis.I believe we have one now.It is a
water crisis for the poor.

     TRANSLATION APPRECIATION
     1.Tomorrow never comes.
       我生待明日,万事成蹉跎。
     2.Too much familiarity breeds contempt.
       过分熟悉会使人互不服气。
     3.Too much liberty spills all.
       自由放任,一事无成。
     4.Too much praise is a burden.
       过多夸奖,反成负担。
     5.Touch pitch, and you will be defiled.
       常在河边走,哪能不湿鞋。
     6.Troubles never come singly.
       福无双至,祸不单行。
     7.Truth never grows old.
       真理永存。
     8.Turn over a new leaf.
       洗心革面,改过自新。
     9.Two dogs strive for a bone, and a third runs away with it.
       鹬蚌相争,渔翁得利。
     10.Two of a trade seldom agrees.
       同行是冤家。
     11.Tit for tat is fair play.
       人不犯我,我不犯人;人若犯我,我必犯人。
     12.To err is human.
       人非圣贤,孰能无过。
     13.To know everything is to know nothing.
       什么都知道,等于什么都不知道。 / 样样通,样样松。
     14.To know oneself is true progress.
       人贵有自知之明。
     15.To save time is to lengthen life.
       节约时间就是延长生命。
                                           UNIT NINE
     TEXT

                 REALIZE YOUR CREATIVE POTENTIAL1
                                                                           Michael Le Boeup
                                 2
      The heart of all new ideas lies in the borrowing, adding, combining or modifying of old
ones.Do it by accident and people call you lucky.Do it by design and they’ll call you creative. 3 All
of us have the ability to create ideas almost at will.The problem is to understand and utilize the
processes that allow us to do it most efficiently and effectively4.
      It’s generally agreed that the act of developing new ideas5 involves five steps.
      FIRST INSIGHT: You have a problem you want to solve or an activity you want to do —
you want a better job; the house needs redecorating; your company produces a waste material you
would like to turn into a profitable by    product6.All of these are examples of first insight.
      PREPARATION: Now you investigate all the possible ways in which this germinal idea can
be developed. 7 Get as much information as you can about the subject, read, take notes, talk to
others, ask questions, collect information. Be receptive to your own senses8. Picasso9 once
remarked, “The artist is a receptacle for emotions that come from all over the place, from the sky,
from the earth, from a scrap of paper, from a springboard for launching our own imagination10.”
      INCUBATION: Now let your subconscious take over. Take a walk, take a nap, take a bath,
work on another project or hobby, sleep on it11. As author Edna Ferber once noted, “A story must
simmer in its own juice12 for months or even years before it’s ready to serve.”
      ILLUMINATION: This is the climax of the creative process.An insight pops into the mind,
and suddenly everything falls into place13.Charles Darwin gathered information for his theory of
evolution14.Then one day when he was riding in his carriage, it all came together.“I remember,”
Darwin wrote, “the very spot in the road when to my joy the solution occurred to me15.”
Illumination is the most exciting and joyous phase of creative process.
      VERIFICATION: Yet for all of its wonderous insights, illumination can be terribly
unreliable.Intellect and judgment are brought into play, and your hunches and inspirations are
logically confirmed or denied16.You back off and look at your ideas as objectively as possible.You
solicit the opinion of others.You revise your good ideas to make them better and often come up
with new and better insights in the process.
      Summing up, the key to understanding the creative cycle17 is to realize that there are five
distinct phases.There is the initial desire to create, followed by a lengthy period of investigating
and information gathering.Then there is the period of incubation where the subconscious takes
over.This gives rise to the moment of illumination when the results of the subconscious efforts
surface18. And finally, there is a period of refining and verifying the ideas created19.
      In addition to giving yourself an incentive, you must also create a sense of urgency20. There
is a natural tendency to procrastinate in all of us. Create the necessary pressure by giving yourself
reasonable but challenging deadlines for coming up with new ideas. Then be sure to stick to
them.21

     WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS
     1.insight [′insait] n.洞察力,眼光
    2.germinal [′d  minl] adj.幼芽的,初期的
    3.receptacle [ri′sept    kl] n.容器,储藏处
    4.scrap [skr     p] n.碎片,废料;争吵 v.使废弃
    5.incubation [               
                     inkju′bein] n.培育
                         ]
    6.simmer [′sim v. 煨,炖,(用文火)慢慢煮
    7.illumination [i lju          
                            mi′nein] n. 照明,阐释,启发
    8.hunch [h        ]
                    nt n.肉峰,瘤 v.弯成拱状,推开
    9.solicit [s   ′lisit] v.请求,乞求
                       s
    10.subconscious [ b′k ns] adj.潜意识的 n.无意识,无知觉
    11.refine [ri′fain] v.精练,使高尚,使文雅
    12.verify [′verifai] vt.证明,确定
    13.incentive [in′sentiv] n.刺激,鼓励 adj.刺激的,诱发的
    14.procrastinate [pr u′krstineit] v.拖延,耽搁

    DIFFICULT POINT EXPLANATION
    1.本文论述了认识创造力的五个阶段,即初悟、准备、酝酿、萌发和验证。文章语言简
练,结构清晰,翻译时应注意被动语态的翻译。
    2.the heart of all new ideas:事情的实质,heart 此处意为“中心,要点,实质”               。但翻译
时可转译为副词“实质上”                  。new ideas 若仅仅译为“新观点,新思想”          ,则不能表现出原文
的意图,译成“创新”更忠实于原文。
    3.call you lucky / call you creative 此处 lucky 和 creative 译时要灵活。Lucky 可转译为
动词“走运”        ,而 creative 可转译为名词“创造性”                 。
    4.The problem is...efficiently and effectively: 此句是一个复合句,that 引导着定语从句修
饰 processes, 因与先行词关系紧密,译成中文时可前置,并转化成副词“最有效地、最有成
果地”  。而 process 可采取增词法,译成“进行发明创造”                        ,使译文更规范。
    5.developing new ideas 译为“创新”,能恰当表达原文的意思。
    6.You have a problem ... by product: 此处破折号后面的句子均是 problem 和 activity 的展
开,所以可译成“例如”                 。而后面无标点的句子,译成汉语时应加上适当的标点隔开,以免
使读者不知所措。
    7.Now you investigate ... can be developed: 英语中被动语态适用范围很广,       而汉语中较少
使用,  英译汉时就可把英语的被动形式转化成汉语的主动形式。                               此被动句无须说出行为主体,
所以可译成汉语的无主句,即“可能实现初步设想的”                                ,而且此句又是一个定语从句,可将
其前置译成一个带“的”的定语,修饰先行词。另外,now 在这里是语段之间的连接,表示
话题的过渡,不是时间状语。
    8.senses: 五官的感觉。本译文把此句译为“口诵心惟,耳聪目敏”                          ,使之具有褒义。
    9.Picasso: 毕加索,西班牙著名艺术家。
    10.The artist is a ...our own imagination: 这是一个复合句,虽然句子较长,但一环紧扣一
环。英译汉时要把主句和从句分开译成两个并列句,这样比较符合汉语的习惯。
    11.sleep on it: 把问题留到第二天解决;这里该译为“把问题暂搁一旁”                      。
    12.simmer in its own juice: simmer 原意是 “煨,炖;(用文火)慢慢煮”          ,此处可引申为
“酝酿”    。
    13.An insight pops into... ...falls into place: 译为汉语四字结构“顿有所悟,万事就绪”        。
    14.theory of evolution: 进化论。
    15.... the solution occurred to me: 注意 occur to 的用法,通常是 sth.occurs to sb.,如:A
fresh idea occurred to him.(他想到了一个新主意。),汉译时要将其译成主动形式。
     16.Intellect and judgment...confirmed or denied: 这也是一个被动句,无须说出行为主体,
所以可分别译成汉语的主动句。
     17.cycle: 此处指以上所阐述的实现创造力的五个阶段。
     18.This gives rise to ... efforts surface: 此句又是一个复合句。  句中 give rise to 意为 “引
    。
起” illumination 译成        “萌发新思想” 承接前文,      ,        使前后意思更加明确。   另外要注意 when
的理解。这里不宜译作“当„„时候”                            ,而应译作“这时”   。
     19.the ideas created: 这是 new ideas 的不同说法,是作者为了避免重复的处理方法,译
为“创新思想”          ,与原文主题相呼应。
     20.a sense of urgency: 紧迫感。a sense of ...:„„感,如: a sense of humor (幽默感);
a sense of responsibility (责任感)。
     21.Create the necessary... to stick to them: 最后这两句可连在一起翻译。by... 虽然表示方
式,  在此句中作状语,            但译成汉语时,            可与主语动词并列。    三个动作“定下„„期限,        形成„„
压力,务必执行”            ,使句子更加紧凑。

    REFERENCE VERSION

                                 认识您的创造力
                         迈克尔·莱博尤普
  一切创新实质上都是对旧事物的借鉴、充实、组合或修改。如果偶然为之,人们说你走
运;如果想方设法去做,人们才说你有创造性。我们人人几乎都有任意构思的能力。问题是
要了解并采用那些最有效、最有成果地进行发明创造之程序。通常认为,创新活动大致包括
五个阶段。
  初悟 你要解决一个问题或想做一件事情,例如,想找一个较好的工作,要重新装饰一
下住房,想把你的公司生产的废料变成有用的副产品。所有这些都是初悟的例子。
  准备 现在研究一下可能实现初步设想的一切方法。尽可能多地获取有关这一课题的资
料,你可以阅读、写笔记、与人交谈、向人请教以及搜集信息。要口诵心惟,耳聪目敏。毕
加索曾经说过:“艺术家是各种感情的贮藏所。这些感情来自五湖四海,来自苍天大地,来
自碎纸末屑,来自种种爆发想象力的引发点。”
  酝酿 在这个阶段让你的潜意识发挥作用。散一会儿步,打个盹儿,洗个澡,研究另一
个问题或满足一下你的癖好,把问题暂搁一旁。正如作家埃德娜·弗伯曾经指出的:  “一部
小说在准备发表之前,必须在作家心中酝酿数月甚至数年。 ”
  萌发 这是创造过程的高潮。顿有所悟,万事就绪。查尔斯·达尔文曾为确立进化论搜
集资料。后来,有一天在乘马车时,思如泉涌。达尔文写道:  “我还记得那条路上确切的地
点,在经过那里时我喜获答案。”萌发阶段是创造过程中最振奋人心、最令人欢乐的阶段。
  验证 然而,对于所有的奇思异想,萌发所及可能极不可靠。这就要发挥理智和判断的
作用。逻辑的肯定或否定你的悟想和灵感。你要回首往返,尽可能客观地看待你的各种想法。
去征询他人意见,修改你那良好的主意,使之更加完善。而在这个过程中,你往往会提出更
新更好的见解。
  总之,了解创造的初步愿望,接着是长时期的调查研究和资料积累,然后是潜意识作用
的酝酿阶段。酝酿之中萌发新思想的时刻会来临,这时潜意识作用显示出结果。最后是完善
和验证创新思想的阶段。
  除了自我激励外,你还必须有一种紧迫感。我们生来有延宕的惰性,因此要为自己定下
提出新思想的合理而有挑战性的期限,形成必要的压力,然后务必执行。
    TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES

                  真实条件句和虚拟条件句的翻译方法
  一、真实条件句的翻译
  在真实条件句中,说话人或把条件视为事实,或仅仅提出条件,不作任何主观设想,如
果条件实现,主句内容便成为事实;如果条件不实现,结果也就不会发生。译成分句即可。
  例如:
  ·If the weather is not good, I shall stay at home.
     如果天气不好,我将呆在家里。
  ·Unless the weather is good, I shall stay at home.
     如果天气不好,我将呆在家里。
  ·I will stay at home providing / provided / on condition(that) the weather is not good.
     假如天气不好,我就呆在家里。
  ·I will stay at home only if the weather is not good.
     如果天气不好,我只好呆在家里。
  ·I will stay at home if only the weather is not good.
     只要天气不好,我就呆在家里。
  ·Given bad weather, I will stay at home.
     假使天气不好,我就呆在家里。
  ·Granted that this is true, what conclusion can you draw?
     就算这是实际情况,你又能得出什么结论呢?
  ·He is a quite conscientious man so far as I know.
     据我所知,他是一个很负责的人。
  二、虚拟条件句的翻译
           、          、
  1. “早”“本来”“原先”“当初”译出虚拟语气。     、
  例如:
  ·If you had tried, you would have been able to do it.
     如果你原先设法做了,你早就会了。
  ·With his aid you would have succeeded.
     当初若有他帮助,你早就成功了。
  ·She could have come to a party, but she had been sick.
     她本来要出席这个宴会,但她病了。
  ·Such mistakes could have been avoided.
     这样的错误本来是可以避免的。
  ·I was ill that day.Otherwise I would have taken part in the parade.
     我那天生病了,否则我就参加游行了。
                、       、
  2. 用“多好”“吧”“怎么办”等译出虚拟语气。
  例如:
  ·If only he could speak French!
     要是他会说法语多好啊!
  ·Suppose a lion should come out of the forest.
     假如一头狮子从树林中冲出来,怎么办?
  ·You might do me a great favor.
   请帮帮忙吧!
·Wouldn’t it be better for us to do it ourselves?
   咱们自己干不是更好吗?
               、
3. 用“竟然”“居然”“怎么” 译出虚拟语气。  、
例如:
·It is strange that he should be absent today.
   今天他居然缺席,真奇怪。
·That he should think me capable of it!
   他居然认为我会干出这种事来。
·That it should have come to this!
   事情怎么会闹到了这个地步!
·It is a great pity that he should be so conceited.
   真遗憾他竟会这样自高自大。
               、
4. 用“可惜”“恨不得”“巴不得”译出虚拟语气。    、
例如:
·I wish she would marry me.
   可惜她不愿意嫁给我。
·Had he time, he would help you decorate your room.
   可惜他没有时间帮你装饰房间。
·My naughty son is always driving me crazy, I could have given his a good beating
   everyday.
   我那淘气的儿子总让我着急,我恨不得天天痛揍他一顿。
·I wish 1 were as versatile as you.
   我巴不得像你一样什么都会。
5. 原形动词表示的虚拟语气用相应的汉语译出即可。
例如:
·So be it.
   但愿如此。
·God bless you.
   上帝保佑你。
·Heaven help us!
   老天爷保佑!
·God damn it!
   该死的!
·The devil take you!
   滚你的吧!
·Long live our motherland!
   祖国万岁!
·Good luck be yours!
   祝你走运!
·Suffice it to say that the manager is pleased with the work.
   我只想说经理对这项工作很满意。
· May this book in a small way help to enhance the understanding and friendship between the
   two peoples!
   希望这本书对促进两国的了解和友谊起一点作用!
6. 其他表示虚拟语气的形式译为汉语的假设句。
·Jesse, boy, you should have asked me before you decided to walk all the way here.
   杰西小伙儿,在你决定步行来这之前,不问一问我,这可不好。
·A timely medical treatment could have saved the child.
   如果治疗及时,这孩子本可以得救的。
·It would be a mistake not to take this opportunity.
   如果不利用这个机会,那就不对了。
·Born into a rich family, he would have received better education.
   假如生在富有的家庭,他本可以接受更好的教育。
·By united action they could have saved themselves and saved the world from this
   catastrophe.
   假如采取一致行动,他们本可以使自己和全世界免遭这场浩劫的。
·Anyone who had behaved in that way would have been dismissed.
   任何人这样做了都会被解雇。
·Could the dead man have spoken, he could have identified his murderer.
   如果死人会说话,他会认出谁是谋害他的人。
·I’ve loved you as if you were my son.
   我一直像爱自己的儿子那样爱你。
·It is not as though we were poor.
   我们又不是穷。

EXERCISES
Ⅰ. USEFUL TERM TRANSLATION
1. St.Mark                          2. Chronicles
3. The Pilgrim to the West          4. Wuthering Heights
5. A Farewell to Arms               6. For Whom the Bell Tolls
7. Gone with the Wind               8. All’s Well That Ends Well
9. As You Like It                   10. Waterloo Bridge
11. Carve Her Name with Pride       12. Oliver Twist
13. Red Star Over China             14. The Call of the Wild
15. The Voyage of Damned            16. Spell  bound
17. Genesis                         18. The Story of the Stone / Dream of the Red Chamber
19. Jude
20. Water Margin / All Men Are Brothers / Heroes of the Marsh

Ⅱ.SENTENCE TRANSLATION
1.But for the storm, we should have arrived earlier.
2.I wouldn’t have acted as he did.
3.I had rather (that) you told him than I did.
4.How I wish it wasn’t raining!
5.It would be a shame to stop the work halfway.
6.Would you mind turning the light on?
7.Long live world peace!
     8.May the friendship between our two peoples last forever.
     9.If he only knew how we miss him!
     10.Wouldn’t it be better for us to do it ourselves?

     Ⅲ.PASSAGE TRANSLATION

                    TO BE OR NOT TO BE A VEGETARIAN
      A strict vegetarian is a person who never in his life eats anything derived from animals.The
main objection to vegetarianism on a long        term basis is the difficulty of getting enough protein,
the bodybuilding element in food.If you have ever been without meat or other animal foods for
some days or weeks (say, for religious reasons), you will have noticed that you tend to get
physically rather weak.You are glad when the fast is over and you get your reward of a succulent
meat meal.
      Proteins are built up from approximately twenty food elements called“amino                  ,
                                                                                            acids”which
are found more abundantly in animal protein than in vegetable protein.This means you have to eat
a great deal more vegetable than animal food in order to get enough of these amino         acids. A great
deal of the vegetable food goes to waste in this process and from the physiological point of view
there is not much to be said in favor of life   long vegetarianism.
      The economic side of the question, though, must be considered.Vegetable food is much
cheaper than animal food. However, since only a small proportion of the vegetable protein is
useful for body    building purposes, a consistent vegetarian, if he is to gain necessary 70 grams of
protein a day, has to consume a greater bulk of food than his digestive organs can comfortably
deal with.In fairness, though, it must be pointed out that vegetarians claim they need far less than
70 grams of protein a day.
      Whether or not vegetarianism should be advocated for adults, it is definitely unsatisfactory
for growing children, who need more protein than they can get from vegetable sources. A lacto 
vegetarian diet, which includes milk and milk products such as cheese, can, however, be
satisfactory as long as milk and milk products are consumed.
      Meat and cheese are the best sources of usable animal protein and next come milk, fish and
eggs.
      Slow and careful cooking of meat makes it more digestible and assists in the breaking down,
of the protein content by the body.When cooking vegetables, however, the vitamins, and in
particular the water   soluble vitamin C, should not be lost through over      cooking.
      With fruit, vitamin loss is negligible, because the cooking water is normally eaten along with
the fruit, and acids in the fruit help to hold in the vitamin C.
      Most nutrition experts today would recommend a balanced diet containing elements of all
foods, largely because of our need for sufficient vitamins. Vitamins were first called accessory
food factors’ since it was discovered, in 1906, that most foods contain, besides carbohydrates, fats,
minerals and water, these other substances necessary for health. The most common deficiencies in
western diets today are those of vitamins. The answer is variety in food. A well-balanced diet
having sufficient amount of milk, fruit, vegetables, eggs, and meat, fish or fowl (i.e. any good
protein source) usually provides adequate minimum daily requirements of all the vitamins.
TRANSLATION APPRECIATION
1.Two wrongs do not make a right.
  自己错了不能拿别人也是这样做的来为自己辩护。
2.The end justifies the means.
  只要目的正当,可以不择手段。
3.The end makes all equal.
  死亡面前,人人平等。
4.The farthest way about is the nearest way home.
  抄近路反而绕远路。 / 欲速则不达。
5.The first step is the only difficulty.
  迈出第一步是最艰难的。
6.The pen is mightier than the sword.
  笔能杀人。
7.Be swift to hear, slow to speak.
  听宜敏捷,言宜缓行。
8.Barking dogs seldom bite.
  吠犬不咬人。
9.Bad news has wings.
  好事不出门,坏事传千里。
10.Better late than never.
  不怕慢,就怕站。
11.Better to ask the way than go astray.
  问路总比迷路好。
12.Between friends all is common.
  朋友之间不分彼此。
13.Blood is thicker than water.
  血浓于水。
14.Blood will have blood.
  血债血偿。
15.Books and friends should be few but good.
  读书如交友,应求少而精。
                                             UNIT TEN
     TEXT

                                      THE OTHER ROAD
                                                                             Rachel Carson
      We stand now where two roads diverge. But unlike the roads in Robert Frost’s familiar poem1,
they are not equally fair.The road we have long been traveling is deceptively easy, 2 a smooth
superhighway on which we progress with great speed, but at its end lies disaster. 3 The other fork
of the road — the one “less traveled by” — offers our last, our only chance to reach a
destination that assures the pre   servation of our earth.
      The choice, after all, is ours to make. 4 If, having endured much, we have at last asserted our
“right to know”, and if, knowing, we have concluded that we are being asked to take senseless and
frightening risks, then we should no longer accept the counsel of those who tell us we must fill our
world with poisonous chemicals; we should look about and see what other course is open to us.
      UNIT TENA truly extraordinary variety of alternatives to the chemical control of insects5 is
available6.Some are already in use and have achieved brilliant success. Others are in the stage of
laboratory testing. Still others are little more than ideas in the minds of imaginative scientists,
waiting for the opportunity to put them to the test. All have this in common: they are biological
solutions7, based on understanding of the living organisms8 they seek to control, and of the whole
fabric of life to which these organisms belong. Specialists representing various areas of the vast
field of biology are contributing — entomologists, pathologists, geneticists, physiologists,
biochemists, ecologists — all pouring their knowledge and their creative inspirations into the
formation of a new science of biotic controls.
      “Any science may be likened to a river,” says a Johns Hopkins biologist, Professor Carl
P.Swanson. “It has its obscure and unpretentious beginning; its quiet stretches as well as its rapids;
its periods of drought as well as of fullness. It gathers momentum9 with the work of many
investigators and as it is fed by other streams of thought; 10 it is deepened and broadened by the
concepts and generalizations that are gradually evolved.”
      So it is with the science of biological control in its modern sense.In America it had its
obscure beginnings a century ago with the first attempts to introduce natural enemies of insects
that were proving troublesome to farmers, an effort that sometimes moved slowly or not at all, but
now and again gathered speed and momentum under the impetus of an outstanding success. 11 It
had its period of drought when workers in applied entomology12, dazzled by the spectacular new
insecticides of the 1940’s, turned their backs on13 all biological methods and set foot on “the
treadmill of chemical control.” But the goal of an insect      free world continued to recede.Now at
        14
last, as it has become apparent that the heedless and unrestrained use of chemicals is a greater
menace to ourselves than to the targets, the river which is the science of biotic control flows again,
fed by new streams of thought15.
      Some of the most fascinating of the new methods are those that seek to turn the strength of a
species against itself — to use the drive of an insect’s life forces to destroy it.The most spectacular
of these approaches is the “male sterilization” technique developed by16 the chief of the United
States Department of Agriculture’s Entomology Research Branch, Dr.Edward Knipling, and his
associates.
WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS
1. counsel [′kaunsl] n.建议
                       n
2. alternative [l′t tiv] n.其他可能性
3. living organisms 生物体
4. fabric [′f     brik] n.系统、结构
5. momentum [m      u′ment  m] n.动量;冲力
6. menace [′men       s] v.威胁,恐吓
7. impetus [′impit      s] n.动力
8. dazzle [′d     zl] v.炫目;迷惑
9. treadmill [′tredmil] n.单调的日常工作;踏车
10. recede [ri′si      d] v.退去,远去;收回,撤回
                                     
11. sterilization [sterilai′zein] n.破坏生育能力
12. entomologist [  ent      l ist] n.昆虫学家
                         u′m d
                      ′l ist] n.病理学家
13. pathologist [p  d
14. physiologist [          l ist] n.生理学家
                     fizi′ d
15. geneticist [d   i′netisist] n.基因学家
16. deceptive [di′septiv] adj.靠不住的,骗人的

DIFFICULT POINT EXPLANATION
1.Robert Frost (1874 — 1963): 罗伯特·弗罗斯特,美国诗人。该诗原文如下:

                   The Road Not Taken
             Two roads diverge in a yellow wood,
             And sorry I could not travel both
             And be one traveler, long I stood
             And looked down one as far as I could
             To where it bent in the undergrowth;

             Then took the other, as just as fair,
             And having perhaps the better claim,
             Because it was grassy and wanted wear;
             Through as for that, the passing there
             Had worn them really about the same,

             And both that morning equally lay
             In leaves no step had trodden black.
             Oh, I kept the first for another day!
             Yes knowing how way leads on to way,
             I doubted if I should ever come back.

             I shall telling this with a sigh
             Somewhere ages and ages hence:
             Two roads diverged in a wood, and I —
                          I took the one less traveled by,
                          And that has made all the difference.
  2. deceptively 一词不好处理,deceptive 词典里的解释是“骗人的”“靠不住的”                        、              ,用在
这里,都不恰当。说这条路 deceptively easy,是说的表面现象,并不是真的好走,因为走到
尽头就要遇到灾难,因此译作“表面上很好走”                              。
  3. 原文 lies disaster,这样的主谓搭配,在汉语里是不可能的,关键在于动词。汉语选
用“遇到”一词,整个句子的结构也发生了变化。这种换用别的动词并改变句子结构的方式
在翻译中是常见的。
  4. The choice, after all, is ours to make:意为 It is, after all, for us to make the choice.走哪一
条路,最终还要我们自己来选择。
  5. the chemical control of insects 不要译作“对昆虫的化学控制”                      ,这样译,太费解。把这
个名词短语译作动宾结构,                “用化学方法控制昆虫”               。
  6. available 一词不好译,需要根据上下文灵活处理。上文说的是“方法”                                          ,所以此处译
作“可利用”      。
  7. solution 本意是“解决”           。此处用复数,有具体的含义,所以译作“解决方法”                                   。
  8. living organisms:生物体。
  9. it gathers momentum: it becomes more powerful 势头逐渐加强。
  10. 原文 streams of thought 是隐喻。译文若说“各种思想支流注入其中”                                    ,显得突然,
所以改为明喻,加了“像„„一样”                       。此外,other 一词在这里可以不译,                   “各种思想”自然
是指主流以外的思想。
  11. 此处原文是一句,译文分为三句。这样译,句子好安排。
  12. applied entomology: 应用昆虫学。
  13. turn one’s backs on 意为“拒绝”            。
  14. 原文在句首用 as,连接前半句和后半句,译文在句中用“于是”二字表示前后的因
果关系。
  15. 原文 fed by new streams of thought 放在句末,说明流动起来以后的情况。译文把这
一部分放在句末,用“而且”二字和前面连起来。
  16. 原文 developed by...是分词短语作定语。译文加了“这种技术”作主语,用的是主谓
结构,这样译比较清楚。

    REFERENCE VERSION

                                       另一条道路
  我们正处在一条道路分成两条岔道的地方。 但是这两条岔路并不像我们所熟悉的罗伯
特·弗罗斯特诗中所说的那样,是同样的好。我们一直在走的这条路表面上很好走,是一条
平坦的超级公路,我们可以高速前进,但是走到尽头却要遇到灾难。另外一条路,是一条“走
得不多”的路,却能为我们提供最后的出路,也是唯一的出路,以便我们达到一定的目的,
使我们这个地球确实得到保护。
  走哪一条路,最终还是要由我们来选择。如果我们在忍受了很长时间之后,终于提出了
“知情权”,并且在知情以后,认为现在人们是在要求我们冒无谓的可怕风险,我们就不应
该再听从那些人的建议,非得把我们这个世界弄得到处是化学毒物, 而应该往四下里看一看
还有没有什么别的路可选。
  除了用化学方法控制昆虫以外,还有其他各种非常奇妙的方法可以利用。这些方法,有
的已在被使用,而且取得了显著的效果。有的正处于试验阶段。有的则不过是富于想象力的
科学家脑里的一些想法,等到有机会的时候才能加以试验。 所有这些方法都有一个共同的特
点:它们都是生物解决法,其基础是人们对所要控制的生物体的了解,以及对这些生物体整
个生活状况的了解。广博的生物学各个领域的专家,包括昆虫学家、病理学家、遗传学家、
生理学家、生物化学家、生态学家,都在做出贡献。他们把自己知识和创造性汇集起来,将
他们的知识和在一起,形成了一门新的学科——生物控制学。
  霍普金斯大学生物学家卡尔·P.斯旺森教授说:“每一门科学都可以比作一条河。其源
头,隐隐约约,并不引人注目;其流势,时而平缓,时而湍急;其水情,有汛期,也有枯竭
期。由于许多人从事研究工作,各种思想像支流一样注入其中,势头逐渐加强。新的概念和
结论陆续产生,又使它得以加深和扩展。 ”
  现代意义上的生物控制学就是如此。 一百年前,这门科学在美国开始创立时也是隐隐约
约的。当时有些昆虫给农民制造麻烦,有人就试图以这些昆虫的天敌来对付它们。这项活动
有时进展缓慢,甚至毫无进展。但有时一项突出的成就又推动它加快速度,使它突飞猛进。
这门科学也有过枯竭期。在二十世纪四十年代, 从事应用昆虫学的人看到新杀虫剂的显著效
用,不禁为之眼花缭乱,从而把生物方法打入冷宫,重新走上“化学控制的老路” 。然而实
现无昆虫的世界这一目标却越来越渺茫。现在已经很明显,盲目地大量使用化学杀虫剂,对
我们自己的威胁比对要控制的对象的威胁还要大, 于是生物控制学这一条河又流动起来,而
且有新的思想支流注入其中。
  在这些新方法中,有一些最为令人神往, 就是设法利用一种昆虫自身的力量来对付它们
——即利用昆虫的生命力作为动力来消灭之。这些方法之中,最引人注目的是“雄性不育”
术,这种技术是由美国农业部昆虫研究所主任爱德华·尼普林博士和他的同事们发明的。

   TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES

                                分译法
  英语句子的修饰语既多又长,句子结构复杂,特别是长句;而汉语句子的修饰语则较少
且短。因此,英译汉时不可死译硬译,必须根据汉语的特点,灵活处理。分译就是一种常用
的翻译技巧。    所谓分译就是指根据汉语的句法特点,                        把英语的句子分解成两个或两个以上的
单位,以求译文正确传达原文的意思,并使内容明白晓畅。分译通常包括单词分译、短语分
译和句子分译三种情况。
  一、单词分译
  单词分译是指把原文中的一个单词分译成一个句子,                                使原文的一个句子分译成两个或两
个以上的句子。
  1. 副词
  ·The Chinese seemed justifiably proud of their economic achievement.
     中国人似乎为他们经济上取得的成就而自豪,这是合乎情理的。
  2. 形容词
  ·George nodded, thankful that his wife was not the talkative kind.
     乔治点点头,他妻子不是那种絮絮叨叨的人,对此他心存感激。
  3. 名词
  ·The inside of each tent depended on the personality of its occupants.
     每个帐篷内怎样布置,这就要看各位使用者的个性了。
  二、短语分译
  短语分译是把原文中的短语译成句子,把原文的句子分译成两个或两个以上的句子。
  1. 分词短语
  ·She sat with her hands cupping her chin, staring at a corner of the little kitchen.
     她坐在那儿双手托着下巴,眼睛凝视着小厨房的一角。
  2. 名词短语
  ·I wrote four books in the first three years, a record never touched before.
     我头三年写了四本书,打破了以往的纪录。
  3. 介词短语
  ·He arrived in Washington at a ripe moment internationally.
     他来到华盛顿,就国际形势来说,时机正合适。
  三、句子分译
  句子分译可分为简单句的分译、并列句的分译、主从复合句的分译和长句的分译。
  1. 简单句的分译
  ·His wealth enables him to do everything.
     他有钱,什么事都能干。
  2. 并列复合句的分译
  ·It is very easy to bring some books from the bookstores and libraries, but to learn the
     knowledge in the books and put the knowledge into practice is by no means an easy job.
     从书店和图书馆带一些书回来是轻而易举的。                               然而,   从书中学得知识并把这些知识运
     用到实践中去就决不是那么简单的事情了。
  ·The shark swung over and the old man saw his eye was not alive and then he swung over
     once again, wrapping himself in two loops of the rope.
     鲨鱼在海里翻滚过来。              老头儿看见它的眼珠已经没有生气儿了,                           但是它又翻滚了一下,
     滚得自己给绳子缠了两道。
  3. 主从复合句的分译
  ·On December 31, 2001 a dozen members of the European Union switched to the euro — a
     change which affects 300 million people.
     2001 年 12 月 31 日,12 个欧盟成员国决定起用欧元——这是一个会影响三亿人的生
     活的变化。
  ·Three rains had passed, and it was that lean season when the village’s store of grain and
     other dried foods from the last harvest was almost gone.
     三个雨季已经过去,             正到了青黄不接的时节。                 村子里上一季收成之后储存的粮食和其
     他干制食品差不多已被食用一空了。
  · Because the young man frequently came to the lady’s house, he was regarded as the
     mistress’s lover.
     这个小伙子经常来这位太太家。因此,别人都以为他是这个女主人的情人。
  · Kunta was so worn out, slumped in his rocking chair, staring vacantly at the fire, that he
     didn’t even notice Bell feeling his forehead and taking off his shoes.
     昆塔累极了,他颓然倒在他的摇椅中,凝视着火光发呆。他甚至连贝尔用手摸了摸他
     的前额,并替他脱了鞋都没有感觉到。
  4. 长句的分译
  长句的翻译得视具体情况,结合意群的分布等因素来考虑,通过进行合理的切分,使译
文层次分明,观点明确,语言规范。
  ·The president said at a press conference dominated by questions on yesterday’s election
     results that he could not explain why the Republicans had suffered such a widespread
     defeat, which in the end would deprive the Republican Party of long      held superiority in
     the House.
     在一次记者招待会上,问题集中于前一天的选举结果,总统就此发了言。他说他不能
     解释为什么共和党遭到了这样大的失败。                         这种情况最终会使共和党失去在众议院中长
     期享有的优势。
     (一句译为三句)
    ·Men with an intolerable air of condolence have appeared, as though drawn by the smell of
     death, dressed comfortably, speaking a manipulated tongue, terminally evil.
     人们露出悲哀的样子,令人难以忍受。似乎是死亡的气息把他们引来的。他们穿着宽
     松舒适的衣服,说话字斟句酌,十分谨慎,最后仍然露出险恶的用心。
     (一句译为三句)

    EXERCISES
    Ⅰ.USEFUL TERM TRANSLATION
    1. price at a discount                      2. price at duty paid
    3. price at factory                         4. price bargain
    5. price ceiling                            6. price floor
    7. unit price                               8. price expectation
    9. price  jacking                          10. price list
    11. price making                            12. price of issue
    13. price ratio                             14. prices quoted
    15. retail price                            16. price range
    17. price on spots                          18. reference price
    19. price tendered                          20. wholesale price

    Ⅱ.SENTENCE TRANSLATION
    1. They, not surprisingly, did not respond at all.
    2. At present people have a tendency to choose the safety of the middle  ground reply.
    3. Built in 1192, the bridge is over 700 hundred years old.
    4. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, a universally accepted law.
    5. Their power increased with their number.
    6. The wonderful purity of nature at this season is a most pleasing fact.
    7. Helen March picked up the telephone seconds after the first ring and she sounded puzzled
       when Alan asked for June.
    8. A bankable actor is one with whose name a producer can raise enough money to make a
       film.
    9. This is a NATO matter and any comment on it should appropriately come from NATO.
    10. He had a disconcerting habit of expressing contradictory ideas in rapid succession.

    Ⅲ.PASSAGE TRANSLATION

                                ABSOLUTE ADVANTAGE
    A nation can have an absolute advantage if either of two conditions exists.First, the country
must have something that can not be obtained anywhere else.An example would be diamonds
from South Africa.There are some countries that produce small amounts of diamonds every year,
but for all practical purposes, South Africa has monopoly position in this field.For this reason, we
say that it has an absolute advantage.
      A second method of obtaining an absolute advantage is to produce a good more cheaply than
anyone else.For example, Colombia grows coffee beans.So could the United States if it really
wanted to.However, the expense associated with such a venture makes it uneconomical.It would
cost a fortune to build huge indoor plantations for raising coffee. Therefore, we import our coffee
and expend our efforts in other areas.
      If nations are wise, they concentrate their efforts on the things they can do best and rely on
international trade to make up the deficiencies.In this way they are able to improve their standard
of living.

     TRANSLATION APPRECIATION
     1. Life is not all beer and skittles.
        人生并不全是吃喝玩乐。
     2. Life is sweet.
        生活是美好的。
     3. Life springs from sorrow and calamity, and death from ease and pleasure.
        生于忧患,死于安乐。
     4. Like begets like.
        龙生龙,凤生凤,老鼠的儿子会打洞。
     5. Little knocks split great blocks.
        锲而不舍,金石可镂。
     6. Live and learn.
        活到老,学到老。
     7. Lock the stable door after the horse is stolen / Mend the fold after a sheep is lost.
        亡羊补牢。
     8. Look before you leap.
        三思而后行。
     9. It’s never too late to mend.
        改过不嫌晚。
     10. Look for a steed with the aid of its picture.
        按图索骥。
     11. Lost time is never found again.
        时间一去不复返。
     12. A sound mind is in a sound body.
        有健全的身体才有健全的精神。
     13. Love me, love my dog.
        爱屋及乌。
     14. Many kiss the baby for the nurse’s sake.
        醉翁之意不在酒。
     15.Many small makes a great.
        积少成多。

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:35
posted:3/25/2010
language:English
pages:33