Capacity Building for Science_ Technology and Innovation

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					Capacity Building for Science,
 Technology and Innovation

              David J. Spielman
 International Food Policy Research Institute
           Presentation overview
   The state of agricultural S&T in Africa: Evidence
   Key issues for consideration
   Facing the tradeoffs
Spending growth of Ag R&D is stagnant in
               Africa…
                            Total public spending on agricultural R&D, 1981-2000
                     180


                     150
                                                                             China
Index (1976 = 100)




                     120


                     90                                                            Brazil


                     60
                                                            Sub-Saharan Africa
                     30


                      0
                           1981    1984     1987     1990      1993        1996             1999

                                                                         Source: Beintema and Stads (2006)
…while research intensities have declined
              since 1981
   Total public spending on agricultural R&D as a percentage
                    of total agricultural GDP




                                              Source: Beintema and Stads (2006)
     Human resource intensities are also
               declining…
                                  Researchers per $100m AgGDP,
40
20


                                  Researchers per $100m AgGDP,
                        Mali      East/Southern Africa
                                  West/Central Africa
                               Zambia
30
15




                                   Senegal
20
10




                                                                                     Gabon
                                                Kenya
      Burkina Faso
                                                              Malawi
                               Benin
             Tanzania
10
5




       Ivory Coast
               Uganda                        South Africa                    Ethiopia
                                                                                  Nigeria
                                                Ghana
              Niger
 0
 0




     1980
     1980             1985
                      1985             1990
                                        1990                  1995
                                                               1995                    2000
                                                                                        2000
                                       year
                                        year
                                                  Source: Beintema & Stads (2007); ASTI (2006)
                                                 Source: Beintema & Stads (2007); ASTI (2006)
…While R&D staffing remains a gendered
                issue
   Share of women in total agricultural research staff, 1996–2003

Region                             Total    BSc      MSc           PhD
                                             (Percentage)

Sub-Saharan Africa (27)            18.4     23.1     18.8          13.5

Asia/Pacific (12)                  20.3     31.1     19.3          14.7

Middle East/North Africa (5)       16.9     24.7     14.2          8.5

Total (44)                         19.4     28.2     18.4          13.8

                                                            Source: Beintema (2006)
      …Even despite high social returns

   Lau and Yotopoulous (1989): every increase in the
    number of agricultural college and university graduates
    (per 10,000 of a country’s rural population) increases
    annual agricultural output by 10 percent, all else equal

   Lockheed, Jamison and Lau (1980): four years of
    primary schooling raises agricultural output by 7.4
    percent, all else equal.
             Issues for consideration

   Formal/non-formal education
   Centers of excellence/networks of science
   Public/private education services
   Structured teaching/innovative learning
   North/South, South/East

   Optimal approaches may require mixed strategies
   But tradeoffs will be necessary
        Formal, non-formal education
Formal higher education
 Agricultural universities, colleges, and faculties
 Foreign degrees, sandwich programs


Non-formal higher education
 On-the-job training, mid-career programs
 Open uni, distance, night, corrrespondence programs
 Technical and vocational schools
 Apprenticeships and internships
 Farmer education
    Excellence centers, science networks

Centers of excellence
   AU’s US$3 billion plan to build excellence in African S&T
    institutes in 10 years; Nigeria’s US$25 plan to establish Africa’s
    premier S&T institute in 2007
   Investing all our eggs in one basket?

Networks of science
   Traditional scientific associations and societies
   Innovative network initiatives: Regional Universities Forum for
    Capacity Building in Agriculture (RUFORUM); Building African
    Scientific and Institutional Capacity (BASIC)
   Where does innovation occur: among like-like, or like-unlike?
              Public, private education

Social returns often exceed private returns to education
   No incentive to private investors: Only 6% of investment in
    agricultural R&D in developing world is private

However, recent examples suggest some private spending
   Agricultural sciences, agribusiness management programs: Valley
    View University at Oyibi, Ghana; Rift Valley University, Ethiopia
   Apprenticeships with knowledge-intensive businesses in
    horticulture, agroprocessing, etc.
   NGO models of farmer training, farmer research, community-
    based learning interventions, etc.

                                           Source: ASTI 2006; Davis et al. 2007; Ofori-Attah 2006
 Structured teaching, innovative learning

Traditional measures in research and education
   Marks, grades, ranks, degrees
   Peer-reviewed publications
   Patents, copyrights, and other IPRs


Innovative learning approaches and measures
   Creativity, independent thinking, problem solving, life skills
   Business/enterprise training; social sciences; liberal arts
   Metrics: no. of start-up ventures, corporate employment, etc.
        Look to the North and to the East!
Degree   Years Region/Country (Program)                                     Cost
                                                                          (USD)
Ph.D.    3     U.S.                                                       90,000
M.Sc.    2     U.S.                                                       60,000
M.Sc.    2     Norway (Norwegian University of Life Science (UMB))        45,000
Ph.D.    4     Belgium (sandwich)                                         42,500
M.Sc.    2     South Africa (University of KwaZulu Natal)                 32,700
M.Sc.    2     U.S. (Sandwich)                                            30,000
Ph.D.    3     India (University of Agriculture Bangalore)                25,000
Ph.D.    3     India (Indian Agriculture Research Institute (IARI))       22,500
M.Sc.    2     Africa (Collaborative Masters Program in Agri. Economics   20,000
               in Eastern, Central & Southern Africa (CMAAE))
M.Sc.    2     U.K. (Imperial College Distance Learning Program)          15,200
 Choose priorities based on evidence
Given scarce resources agricultural education and capacity
  strengthening, where do we concentrate resources?

   1. Measure demand for capacity strengthening
       market studies, tracer studies
   2. Measure impact
       Publications, patents; output, yields; rates of return
   3. Measure impact with more and better indicators
       indicators of process, social-relevance, innovation system development
   4. Develop priorities and policies using evidence-based insights