Ludington Pumped Storage Plant a

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					Ludington Pumped Storage
  Plant and Wind Power
    Operational Considerations

                       David Lapinski
                       Consumers Energy Company
                       June 16, 2009
               Summary
 Ludington Plant Overview
 Operational Characteristics
 Past & Current Use
 Impacts of increasing wind generation
Ludington Pumped Storage Plant
 Ludington Pumped Storage Plant
 In operation since 1973
 Jointly owned by Consumers Energy and
  The Detroit Edison Company
 Pond is 2.5 miles x 1 mile
 Six reversible pump – turbines
 360 feet from Lake Michigan to full pond
  level
 27 billion gallons H2O
LPS Operation
Ludington – Well connected to
     transmission system
LPS Key Operating Parameters
 1872 MW Generating capacity
 1960 MW Pumping
 15000+ MWh generation storage
 70% cycle efficiency
 Generators quick start & regulation
  capable
 Pumps quickly interruptible
  Historic and Current Operational
                Uses
 Economic  alternative to more expensive
  generation to meet load
     If value of generation > 1.4 times cost of
      pumping
 AncillaryServices & flexible response to
  operational uncertainties
                                    Managing Stored Energy is
                                           Important
                  Predictability                                                          of Cost & Value
                                              MISO Day-Ahead LMP                                                                          Example Strategy
                                                 (March 2009)                                                                      Equivalent Energy Stored - MWh

            60                                                                                         18000


                                                                                                       16000

            50
                                                                                                       14000


            40                                                                                         12000
LMP $/MWh




                                                                                                       10000
            30
                                                                                                       8000


            20                                                                                         6000


                                                                                                       4000
            10
                                                                                                       2000


             0                                                                                            0
                 1   13   25   37   49   61     73        85        97   109   121   133   145   157           1   13   25   37   49   61    73     85    97   109   121   133   145   157
                                                     hour of week                                                                                 Hours




                    Strategy for economic value, with room for contingencies
      Potential Impacts of Increased
               Wind Energy
 Reduced  predictability
 Increased variation in supply-demand
  balance
     Other resources required to compensate for
      longer duration variations (10’s of minutes to
      hours)
     Potential for increased need for ramping
      capacity & intermediate term reserves
      capacity
                                             MISO Load and Wind Generation
                                                     Feb 4-5, 2009
            90000                                                                                                        9000


            80000                                                                                                        8000


            70000                                                                                                        7000


            60000                                                                                                        6000
Megawatts




            50000                                                                                                        5000


            40000                                                                                                        4000


            30000                                                                                                        3000


            20000                                                                                                        2000


            10000                                                                                                        1000


                 0                                                                                                        0
            2/3/2009 12:00   2/4/2009 0:00   2/4/2009 12:00    2/5/2009 0:00    2/5/2009 12:00   2/6/2009 0:00   2/6/2009 12:00

                                               MISO Load      Wind Generation
Storage Technologies Have a Role
    short term replacement and balancing,
 For
 pumped storage can fill in
     rapid response for ramping and contingencies
     economic generation to buy time for longer
      lead time units to come on line
     absorb excess generation
        Additional Considerations
   Reliance on accurate wind generation forecasts
       Storage Management
       Overall system optimization
   Optimum storage management changes
       May require decreasing daily budget of energy
        available to day ahead market
 Limits on ability to cycle pumped storage units to
  compensate for variations.
 Pump mode startup is limited