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Lab 1_ MICROSCOPE USE

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Lab 1_ MICROSCOPE USE Powered By Docstoc
					         AMETABALOUS / HEMIMETABOLOUS
               ORDERS OF INSECTS

                                 Ametabolous Orders
Order Thysanura (THIGH-san-UR-a)
Common Name(s): Silverfish, Bristletails, Firebrats       Wings: Absent (apterous)
Habitat: Damp areas, such as leaf litter, debris, soil,   Physical description: These are small
some buildings/houses (especially kitchens and baths).    insects (10-25 mm); body usually
                                                          elongate and tapering; styli present on
                                                          ventral surface of abdomen; elongated
                                                          cerci and median caudal filament.




         1




                      Cercus                                        Cercus




                     Median Caudal Filament
                                              2


Order Collembola (ko-LEM-bo-la)
Common Name(s): Springtails
Habitat: Damp areas, including leaf litter,
debris, soil, decaying matter, intertidal
zones, snow, some houses
Wings: Absent (= apterous)
Physical description: minute; body shape
globular or tubular; collophore present on
first abdominal segment (for water uptake
and adhesion); tenaculum present on third
abdominal segment of species possessing a
forcula (“spring”) on fourth abdominal
segment.




     2
                                                                                                   3


                            Hemimetabolous Orders
                        Order Orthoptera (or-THOP-ter-uh)
Common Name(s): Grasshoppers, Crickets, Katydids          Mouthparts: Chewing
Habitat: Common on vegetation                             Physical description: Minute to large;
Wings: 2 pair, leathery; forewings (= tegmina)            cerci well developed; metafemora and
thickened and with many veins; hindwings fold length-     metatibiae elongate for maximum
wise (fan-like) under forewings.                          jumping ability (= saltatorial legs).




              3



                                                Cricket (Family Gryllidae)




                     Short Horned Grasshopper
                        (Family Acrididae)




                                                Katydid (Family Tettigoniidae)
                                                                                             4


               Order Phasmida (FAS-mid-uh) or Phasmatodea
Common Name(s): Walking Sticks           Mouthparts: Chewing
Habitat: Common on vegetation            Physical description: Often resemble
Wings: Wingless (One FL species          twigs; body very long and slender
with reduced wings)




                                     4




        Family Phasmatidae                     Family Pseudophasmatidae




Order Mantodea (man-TO-dee-uh)
Common Name(s): Mantids                  Mouthparts: Chewing
Habitat: Common on vegetation            Physical description: Usually large (>1 in.);
Wings: 2 pair—forewings leathery,        forelegs raptorial and with spines; prothorax and
hindwings membranous and fan-like.       foretarsi elongate; head triangular



    5
                                                                                             5



Order Blattaria (bla-TAR-ee-uh) or Blattodea
Common Name(s): Roaches                       Mouthparts: Chewing
Habitat: Diverse, terrestrial                 Physical description: Head hidden from above
Wings: 2 pair of membranous wings with        by an enlarged pronotum; body oval-shaped,
many veins.                                   somewhat flattened; antennae long.




   6




                     Nymph
                                                                     Adult


Order Isoptera (i-SOP-ter-uh)
Common Name(s): Termites
Habitat: Colonies common in wood
                                                                    Winged
and in the ground
                                                                  Reproductive
Wings: Some wingless; others
                                             7
with 2 pair of wings similar in
shape and size, long and slender
with many veins
Mouthparts: Chewing
Physical description: Soft-bodied,
small insects with short, bead-like
(moniliform) antennae
Description of the four castes:
Reproductive (Queens)—winged, dark-
colored (usually); compound eyes
present.
Supplementary Reproductive—eyes
smaller, wings shorter and color
usually paler than queens’.              Soldier
Workers—No compound eyes present;
mandibles small; body pale-colored.                                  Worker
Soldiers—Head and mandibles very
large; body color pale.
                                                                                                    6


                                            Order Plecoptera (plee-COP-ter-ruh)
                                            Common Name(s): stoneflies
                                            Habitat: Near streams or rocky lake shores
                                            Wings: Two pair wings folded down over abdomen
                                            Mouthparts: Chewing
                                            Physical description: soft bodies somewhat flattened,
                                            long filiform antennae, cerci present




Order Dermaptera (der-MAP-ter-a)
Common Name(s): Earwigs, pincher
bugs
Habitat: Varied, terrestrial; often found
in leaf litter, debris and in buildings.
Wings: 2 pair—forewings (tegmina)
short and thickened; hindwings
membranous and fold fan-like under
elytra.
Mouthparts: Chewing
Physical description: Small to medium
size (10-25mm); body elongate and
flattened; antennae moniliform
(threadlike). Cerci well developed and
forceps-like, shape differs with sex:
straight and close together in females,
                                                   8
curved and pincher-like in males




                                            Order Psocoptera (so-COP-ter-ra)
                                            Common Name(s): booklice, barklice
 9                                          Habitat: among books or papers. The outdoors
                                            species occur on the bark or foliage of trees and
                                            shrubs, under bark and stones or in dead leaves.
                                            Wings: present or absent, if present, 2 pairs, held
                                            rooflike over body, membranous, front wing larger
                                            Mouthparts: chewing
                                            Physical description: swollen clypeus, face bulging,
                                            small, most less than 5 mm. Fairly long antennae.
                                                                                                            7


Order Embioptera (em-bee-OPT-ter-ra) or Embiidina (em-bee-yi-DIE-
na)
Common Name(s): web-spinners
Habitat: live in colonies in silken galleries spun in leaf litter, under stones, in bark and in epiphytic
plants.
Wings: males winged, females wingless
Mouthparts: chewing
Physical description: slender, very small, with filiform antennae, short stout legs with greatly
enlarged hind femora; enlarged foretibia contains silk glands.




Order Phthiraptera (thir-AP-ter-uh)
Common Name(s): Lice
Habitat: Lice are external parasites of various animals, including mammals and birds.
Wings: Absent
Mouthparts: Chewing (Suborder Mallophaga) or piercing-sucking (Suborder Anoplura)
Physical description: Minute (3-4mm) insects with soft, dorsoventrally flattened bodies; antennae
short; cerci absent.
Mallophaga (Chewing lice)—head wider than thorax
Anoplura (Sucking lice)—head narrower than thorax and tarsi with prehensile claws




                                                                          Chewing Lice
                                                                      (Suborder Mallophaga)
                                                                                                     8


Order Thysanoptera
                                                10
(thigh-san-OP-ter-uh)
Common Name(s): Thrips
Habitat: Common on vegetation and in flowers
Wings: 2 pair fringed with hairs. Hindwing narrower
than forewing but of equal length.
Mouthparts: Rasping-sucking
Physical description: Minute (0.5-2 mm), slender
insects; pale to black in color; antennae 6-9
segmented and short; 2-segmented tarsi with swollen
“balloon” at the tip



Order Hemiptera (hem-IP-ter-uh)
Common Name(s): True bugs, cicadas, hoppers, whiteflies, aphids, scale insects
Habitat: Very diverse—terrestrial and aquatic. Often found on vegetation.
Wings: 2 pair—Forewings thickened at base, membranous at tip (hemelytra) and overlap at tip when
held at rest; hindwings membranous
                                                    OR
2 pair—Forewings and hindwings membranous; held roof-like over abdomen. A few forms lack wings.
 Mouthparts: Piercing-sucking
 Physical description: Variable in size and shape (2-60 mm); antennae either filiform with 5 or fewer
 segments, short and bristle-like, or long and slender with more than 5 segments; tarsi with 5 or fewer
 segments.




                                                     11




                                                                     SubOrder Heteroptera
                  SubOrder: Heteroptera                                    Stink Bug
                    Giant Water Bug                                  (Family Pentatomidae)
                 (Family Belostomatidae)
                                                                                  9


Order Hemiptera (Continued)




                                                      SubOrder: Homoptera
                                                             Aphid
                                                       (Family Aphididae)
  SubOrder: Heteroptera
      Assassin Bug
   (Family Reduviidae)
                          SubOrder: Homoptera
                              Tree Hopper                  SubOrder Heteroptera
                          (Family Membracidae)                Water Scorpion
                                                             (Family Nepidae)


   SubOrder Homoptera
         Cicada
    (Family Cicadidae)

                           SubOrder: Homoptera
                          Scale insects on a branch
                          (Superfamily Coccoidea)
                                                                                                 10


Please Note: The next two orders (Ephemeroptera and Odonata) have nymphal stages that look
distinctly different from adults. Typically, we think of Hemimetabolous Orders as having
nymphs that look like adults, just smaller.


Order Ephemeroptera (ee-FEM-er-OP-ter-uh)
Common Name(s): Mayflies                       Mouthparts: Adult—vestigial (nymph—hewing)
Habitat: Around bodies of water (i.e. lakes,   Physical description: small to medium, soft-
streams, etc.)                                 bodied insects; paired cerci elongate. Some are
Wings: 2 pair, membranous, triangularly        good indicators of water pollution.
shaped and held above body




                                                                 Cerci
                                                                                                    11


Order Odonata (O-doe-NOT-uh)
Common Name(s): Dragonflies, Damselflies            Mouthparts: chewing
Habitat: Around bodies of water (i.e. lakes,        Physical description: Medium to large (30-100
streams, etc.)                                      mm in length). Two suborders: Zygoptera and
Wings: 2 pair, membranous; antenodal cross          Anisoptera.
veins are important in distinguishing between
some families.




                                                                Damselflies (Suborder Zygoptera)
                                                                are fragile and typically smaller
                                                                than dragonflies; compound eyes
                                                                widely separated; forewings and
                                                                hindwings similar in shape and
                                                                size.


 Narrow-winged Damselfly (Family Coenagrionidae)


                                            Nodus
                                                                             Antenodal
                                                                             Cross Veins
              12




  Dragonflies (Suborder Anisoptera)
  are larger-bodied than are damselflies;
  compound eyes touching (or nearly
  so); hindwings usually larger than
  forewings.


                                                    Skimmer (Family Libellulidae)

				
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