Role of Nonprofit Organizations and Local Governments by eyy11294


									           Role of Nonprofit Organizations and Local Governments to
                    Educate non-Japanese Children in Japan

                                Prof. Masayuki Deguchi
                                Govind P. Dhakal Ph. D

                                Presented at the Seminar
                    Hawaii International Conference on Education
                                   January 6-9, 2007

                                Honolulu, Hawaii, 96836

このPDFは pdfFactory 試用版で作成されました
             Role of Nonprofit Organizations and Local Governments in Educating
                               Non-Japanese Children in Japan1
                                                                                Prof. Masayuki Deguchi.
                                                                                Govind P.Dhakal Ph. D. 2

         Key words: Immigrants, Education, Local Governments, NPOs, Neighborhood
         Associations, Japan

         Education as a crucial factor to the outcomes of human lives is linked to the prosperity
         and the realization of rights of the children as well. It is the base for the formation of
         habits, manners and characters of a person for preparing himself for the greater
         responsibility to be taken in a person’s life span. The call of the international community
         to provide basic education to all human population by 2015 is the pronouncement of the
         need of education and the shared commitment both at the developed and developing
         countries. The problem of the school enrollment in the developing countries is mostly
         associated with the issues of low level of social awareness of its value, poor and
         inappropriate government funding to the public schools, low family income, and the like.
         In developed countries like Japan are facing numerous issues of children’s education of
         the migrant couples or one of the spouse of such couples. Growing number of immigrants
         from all over the world in Japan is increasing trend since the country is opening more and
         more vistas for the immigrants. This has a straight bearing on the school management for
         the support of the immigrant child vis a vis local governments, whose responsibility is to
         provide quality education to every child have additional responsibility on such cases. The
         voluntary organizations or the neighborhood associations are some where linked to such
         responsibility. The issues, therefore, are not only financial but are also linked to socio-
         cultural background of the immigrants and Japan since its nature has been a kind of
         introvert or inward looking rather than much outward.

         This paper focuses on the efforts made to and facilities provided by the government of
         Japan and supported by the voluntary associations or neighborhood associations to
         provide education to the ever growing number of non-Japanese children in Japan. At
         present the number of non-Japanese population in Japan is estimated to be around 2
         million as against 1.6 million in 2000. In 2004, the number of non-Japanese children
         enrolled at various schools was 19,678 which were also bigger in size than of the 2000

         In Japan, the city government and/or the prefectures are playing significant role in the
         education of children since this responsibility goes to them. The local government and the

           This paper is prepared to present at Hawaii conference on Education, Honolulu, going to be held on
         January 6-9, 2007
           Prof. Masayuki Deguchi works at National Museum of Ethnology, The Graduate University of Advanced
         Studies, and Dr. Govind Dhakal is a Visiting Associate Professor at National Museum of Ethnology in
         Osaka, Japan.

このPDFは pdfFactory 試用版で作成されました
         NPOs have forged alliance to create synergy in the Government efforts at various places
         to promote education to non-Japanese children’s in the areas of their living. But the
         question arises whether this partnership is enough to educate non-Japanese children as
         per the expectations of immigrants in Japan. Whether the school management is
         sufficient enough to shoulder this responsibility or do they need to bear the extra
         responsibilities for the creation of special arrangements? Is the environment duly
         maintained to such alien students? Does the local government-NPO partnership is well
         organized to facilitate this effort are some of the fundamental questions that come most
         often. This paper reviews the status of education (Primary) given to the Non-Japanese
         children, roles and functions of various stakeholders and congenial relationships between
         local government and the NPOs in this endeavor. However, the study is much focused as
         a case on the Suita City of Osaka

         This study, for this purpose, adopts both quantitative and qualitative methods. Both
         primary and secondary data/ information have been generated and used. The primary
         information has been generated through focus groups discussion, interviews with key-
         informants such as NPOs volunteer, City Government official, school teacher, and
         parent/guardian of the non-Japanese children. Altogether 10 parents were interviewed as
         by telephone and by meeting personally about their feeling on the educational system of
         Japan the treatment their children get from the educational management. Secondary
         information has been collected from published sources.

            1. It’s focus is only on primary education;
            2. Due to time and financial constraints and based solely on the personal efforts of
               the researchers, the case is limited to Higashi Saidera Primary School, Higashi
               Saidera Community Center- a partner organization of the Suita City and Suita
               City Government- Department of Education of Osaka Prefecture.

         School Education System in Japan
         Educational Institutions3
         Around 2,500 kindergartens in Japan in 1948 went up to 15,220 in 1985 but their number
         slide down 14,061 in 2004
         In 1957 there were 26, 988 elementary schools which came down to 21,480 in 2004
         In 1948, Japan had 16,285 but in 2004 only 11,102 are in existence. The reason behind
         this is said as lowering birth rate of Japan.

         Thus the number at the primary and secondary education level is on the decline as
         schools merge or close down due to low birth rate however, the number of universities
         has increased consistently (709 to 998). The number of upper secondary schools with
         credit system based courses has grown consistently since the part time courses were
         introduced in 1988 and the full time course system in 1993 as of 2004, 580 schools have
         adopted the credit systems including full time courses and part time courses.

           The information on the educational institutions were taken from down
         loaded on 06/12/7

このPDFは pdfFactory 試用版で作成されました ÿÿ
         The number of schools providing a unified secondary education has also been climbing
         since the introduction of the system in 1999, with a particularly marked increase in the
         joint style of schools. In 2004, the number such schools reached to 153 of which 69
         cooperative style of schools, 66 joint style of schools and 18 secondary schools.

         Students Number
         The Number of students in Japan are continues to declining at the primary and secondary
         level despite the number being increased regularly in the universities. Many policy
         makers and educationists are indicating these issues as the result of the falling birth rates
         and aging of population in Japanese population statistics. The following figures indicative
         of this issue.

         In 1958 the number of the students in the elementary schools were 13,492 thousand
         which gone down to 11,925 thousands in 1981 and 7,201 thousands in 2004.

         The average class size in elementary and secondary schools in Japan as of 2004
         information is 21 and 31 respectively. This size was around 45 in 1950. The following
         charts show the decreasing number of students in recent days and comparative size of the
         classes in 50s and after.

                        Chart 1                                          Chart 2


                                             No. of        30                            Class size 1950
           1981                              students(in
                                                           20                            Class size 2004
                                                                Elementary     Lower
                  0   5000   10000   15000                                   Secondary

         97.5 percent of the elementary students are entered into the upper secondary education.
         This means 2.5 percent students are dropped out from the school in an early stage. Only
         58.9 percent kids enroll in the kindergarten. Because in Japan Kindergarten in not

         Public Private Participation in Educational Management
         Only 21 percent kindergarten are run by the public out of them 0.7 are of nationally run
         and rest 79.3 percent are privately run.

         99percent elementary schools are owned by public out of which 0.7 fall to central and
         just 1percent belong to the private sector.

このPDFは pdfFactory 試用版で作成されました
         92.5percent lower Secondary Schools are governed by the public out of which 0.9percent
         fall under the central and rest 6.4percent is managed by the private sector

         In case of Upper Secondary School 70.5 percent fall under the government management
         whereas 29.5 percent is managed by the private sector.

                                              Char 3




                         KG      Elem. L.Sec. U. Sec.         Jr.     Univ. Spl. Tr.
                                                             coll.           coll.
         In case of higher education, the case is just reverse. 7.1 percent Junior Colleges, 4.4
         Universities and 3.7 specialized training colleges are under public management (central
         and local governments) and rests are managed by the private sector. Thus the higher
         education in Japan is mostly run by the private sector whereas the school level education
         is mostly owned by the government.

         Contents in the Schools (Experiential Activities)
         In the elementary schools the subjects mostly covered are of general topics and more
         related to the natural activities like interest based. 42 percent of the total time of 671
         hours, around 4.3 percent is given in community works, 13.1 percent in nature, 9.2
         percent in labor production, 5.5 in career/job finding (primary industry related), 5.3
         in exchange and 3.4 in other activities. Thus more hours are spent on natural activities,
         community works and labor production oriented activities in the elementary schools
         courses. The following bar shows the division of the 42 percent of the extracurricular
         activities in the elementary schools in Suita.
                                                    Chart 4

このPDFは pdfFactory 試用版で作成されました ㎙f㎙f
                6                                                                 hrs is divided into

                nature     labor      career   exchange

         Source: Suita City, 2005
         Issues in School Management
         Japanese students have been the victims of the bullying of different types in recent days
         resulting absenteeism, non attentive to the lessons, betraying or sometimes suicides.
         Suicidal cases out of bullying in the schools have been regularly reported. Guardians are
         often blaming to the school management for not reporting the cases timely or for not
         informing them before in hand. The government and the school management has opined
         that the less attention paid by the parents to take care of their children is causing the
         extreme cases like suicide. Therefore, the government of Japan has serious thought to
         control this issue with the support of school counseling and other sorts of support systems
         vis-a-vis some additional budget is being allocated to manage this problem in the future.

         Guidance to the Students
         Violence and bullying cases are severe in Japan. In the year 2003 the total violent cases
         reported were 31,278 of which Lower Secondary school alone had 24,463. The bullying
         cases which stands a crucial management issue and a challenge to the educational
         management stands highest (15,150) in Lower Secondary Schools as compared to 5,000
         in Elementary Schools and 2,000 in Upper Secondary Schools. Thus the guidance and
         consultation has become an important component in the educational management system
         in Japan.

         Therefore, the number of schools with school counselors as of 2003 is 6,941 as against of
         154 in 1995. This means the more violent actions are occurred in the schools the more
         counselors were employed in the school management system. According to the Suita city
         educational board, the counseling in the schools provided by the school management is
         giving good results as students, guardians and school management are, now, quite aware
         and became proactive to minimize this issue. The number of counseling has increased
         resulting the minimum number of harassment cases is being reported in the schools.

         Liberalization and Immigration
         In Japan the liberalization policy and opening of new vista more and more foreigners are
         attracted to work, to study and to stay in Japan. Many couples are married inter
         continently who are having a mixed background of Japanese and their country of origin.
         The decentralization efforts of the country empowered the local governments to take
         more responsibilities in more and more sectors that have direct bearing with the citizen’s
         activities and certainly education is one of them (Reform Agenda:

このPDFは pdfFactory 試用版で作成されました 香ÿ香ÿ ). Educating to foreign children is a vexed issue
         where the schooling for the off springs of such couples needs a little different approach in
         teaching but the established norms and practices of the delivering country may have a
         different norms and practices. This is more about primary level where the child is mostly
         unfamiliar with the local language, culture and standard. In such situation the educational
         management at school should have to take extra measures to help such international
         children to customize in Japanese schooling environment. This paper therefore examines
         briefly what kind of measures taken to take care of international children of elementary
         level in Japan in general and Suita City of the Osaka Prefecture in particular.

         General Background of Suita City in Osaka Prefecture
         Suita city is located in the Osaka Prefecture with a total population of around 349,836
         (2003). The city is divided into six townships- South of JR Area, Kitayama and Kishibe
         Area, Toyotsu and Minami Suita Area, Senriyama and Saidera Area, Yamada and
         Senrioka Area and Senri New Town Area (Suita City: 2005) which are synonym to the
         wards in case of many other countries.

         Education System
         The management of the Senior High School goes to the Prefectures where they also have
         similar kind of Education Board as is in City Governments. The educational management
         i.e. kindergarten, elementary schools (up to sixth standards) and Junior High Schools
         (seven to nine standards) falls under the responsibility of Education Board of the city
         governments. In Suita City there are altogether 36 elementary schools, 18 Junior
         High Schools, and 5 High Schools. The city has 44 Community Halls. Generally the
         trend is that one Community Hall is located within the elementary school district
         (location). Besides, there are 38 nurseries or day baby care centers but it is not
         compulsory to the parents in Japan to send their child in the nurseries unless the case is
         urgent. Thus, the school system in Japan is 6+3+3 but the six plus three is mandatory
         for the children to attend. For the convenience of the working and part timer students, the
         High School System has part time correspondence courses, vocational schools and
         miscellaneous systems. Exclusively Japanese language is spoken in these classes. The
         tuition fee is not charged since the elementary and junior schools are run by the city
         governments. However, the parents have to pay for the lunch and teaching aids provided
         by the school for the elementary school children. There is a lunch committee in the
         educational board headed by a board member.

         97.5 percent of the kindergarten students are entered into the upper secondary education
         but only 58.9 percent kids enroll in the kindergarten.

         The total budget of the Suita city government as of 2006 is Y 99,682,247,000 or 99.68
         billion. Out of this Y 13,205,325,000 (13.2 billion) or 13% is allocated to the
         educational sector (Suita City Office). The budget for the Community Centers (29) in
         Suita is 170 million ( )

このPDFは pdfFactory 試用版で作成されました ÿÿ
         Role of Local Governments in Non Japanese
         The Suita City government provides interpreter around 36 times (each time has two hours
         interpretation class) a year and the fee is totally borne by itself. Generally the interpreter
         is paid around Y3000 per two hours but the teacher some times needs to stay more to the
         children without getting extra pay (based on the discussion with the staff of education
         board of Suita city).

         At present 137 international students from 9 countries are studying in the Suita City
         Elementary and Junior High Schools. For the management of these students, the Suita
         City Municipal Government has taken some responsibility which is:
             1. Altogether Y 2million is annually spent on to the support of these foreign students.
                It includes hiring of interpreters, guidance, reading materials and other costs.
             2. Regular management and parents in case of bullying or in harassment cases.
             3. Hearing cases.
             4. Counseling for the preparation of higher grades and future careers.

         Special Efforts for the Support of Non Japanese
         In case of foreign students, one has to apply for the city run schools at the board of
         education with the Certificate of Alien Registration but this is not so in case of those who
         wants to admit his/her child in the private school of their choice. The board of education
         permits the child to admit in the nearby school where parents are housed. The following
         are the main efforts made by the local government to support the foreign students.
                    • The Elementary and Junior High School classes are run only in Japanese
                        languages; the foreign students are assisted by interpreters. For example
                        Chinese and Koreans which are in the highest in number are provided
                        Chinese and Korean interpreters in their respective language whereas
                        other students are generally provided English interpreter
                    • The Department of Education under Education Board provides an
                        interpreter or the facilitator for the foreign students registered in the school.
                        They translate the lesions taught by the class teacher into their mother
                        tongue or into English. This is done around 30-35 times per year.
                    • Home loan teachers are provided to those students who are really unable
                        to follow the instructions in Japanese in the schools (Dept. of Edu.).
                    • Special care is taken that the lunch provided by the school is well
                        nutritious and hygienic for all the students at elementary schools. Of
                        course the school management also takes care of the food habit of the
                        foreign child. For example beef is not served to the Hindu child upon the
                        request so as the case of pork to Muslims and so on.

         NPOs and their Role
         Altogether there are 31 (29 old + 2 newly established) community centers in Suita City
         which are known as Koming kang-Neighborhood Associations (NHA). The Educational
         Board in Suita City has a Central Community Center having two sectors looking after
            • School and
            • Center for 29 local communities (Suita City: 2005)

このPDFは pdfFactory 試用版で作成されました
         The Higashi Saidera Community Center established in 1986 as a part of Education
         Department of the local government is among them. The present chairperson of this
         center is the 7th and the 2nd female. At present it has 15 board members including a
         chairperson and a vice chair person representing community members, and Parents
         Teachers Association (PTA) in school. The board meets once a month and decides the
         future activities of the center. The board meeting which generally takes place once in a
         month has meeting allowance of Y 8, 500 per meeting It has one Resident Committee and
         Functional Committees for Welfare, Youth Activities, Old Age People, School Opening
         Committee (this committee has representation from PTA of Junior High School and
         Senior High School). The membership is for two years and can be extended for another
         term and the membership requirement for the community center is based on
             • Can attend meetings regularly
             • Lives in the area for more than one year
             • More than 25 years old
             • Does not belong to other communities
             • No employ of the city government

         The community centers do not take any donations and giving since all of them get budget
         from Suita City Government with certain functional guidelines. But the centers can
         charge a tuition fee for running specific program such as music, dance, cooking, knitting,
         or certain kinds of trainings. Most of the functions are related to the continuing education
         of the neighboring citizens. However the community centers are prohibited to conduct the
         following functions. The community centers can not do:
             • Business,
             • Politics and
             • Religious activities

         The school committee is responsible for the management of overall schools i.e.
         elementary and junior high schools.

         These NHA are not much responsible for the support and help to the students in general
         and particularly to the foreign students in the school of their area. However, they organize
         special classes to the students, sports other kind of activities. Since these community
         centers are concerned much to the continuing education of the citizens, their activities fall
         of various kinds like income generating to entertainment and recreation to community
         management programs. This year Higashi Saidera Community Center organized around
         60 community activities (Center Bulletin 2006). However, these centers are given certain
         guide lines from the concerned city governments; they are less likely to deviate from their
         given tasks.

         NPOs Support as Facilitators
         NPOs organize Sakura Hiroba (Japanese Special Class) for the students from the foreign
         countries. Here the students
            • Study Japanese at one school (Fujishirodai Primary School) almost every
                Wednesday from 3.3-5 O’clock.

このPDFは pdfFactory 試用版で作成されました
            •   Can release their stress, as hoped, by mixing with other foreign students through
                various events and
            •   Speak their mother tongue (sometimes the language they can speak except their
                mother tongue such as official language. (Based on the discussion with SIFA)

         In such activities, the Suita government invites the university students as volunteers to
         support students in the Sakura. However, Suita Inter People Association (SIFA) is the
         main organizer of such Sakura Gathering. Many a times students also get support from
         the interpreters in Sakura.

         The Suita City Government regularly supervises schools in concerning discrimination
         against foreign students. But such cases are very rare in the elementary level.

         Teachers have also formed a kind of organization for the support of such students. For
         example (based on the discussion with Chizuru Mizoguchi- Supervisor of International
         Understanding- Suita City).
            • Teachers who are in charge of education for foreign students from each school
               study the role of teachers for foreign students
            • They organize some events for foreign students in order to keep or pursue their
               racial identity (summer camp for Koreans, autumn one day trip for all foreign
               students, or New Years Party for Chinese Students)

         Issues in the Education
         Key issues like harassment and bullying in form of taunt, emotional, sentimental teasing
         and failure in career seem major distressing subjects among the children in Japan. In such
         cases the school management has provided consultation to the students and their parents
         in variety of ways and in number of times.

         The following chart shows the causes of bullying to the students causing frustration and
         the counseling provided in number of times to over come from such issue. The highest of
         such issues as given in the chart belongs to the consultation for emotional behavior which
         is followed by taunting and career path. But for bullying, only 4 percent people have
         consulted so far.

このPDFは pdfFactory 試用版で作成されました
                                    Chart 4
                              Subjects for Consult

                        15        Consultation for education(number of
                        2%   12      28     times)         truant
                             2%      4%     (2004)
                    1                            173      emotion/behavi
                   0%                            27%      or
                                                          career options



                                        249               others

         Source: Suita City: 2005, 47

         However, when I asked the some of the foreign students about such harassment or
         bullying in the school they said they never got such treatment from Japanese students.
         According to the Chizuru Mizoguchi- Supervisor of International Understanding- Suita
         City such cases are mostly happening among Chinese, Korean and Japanese students and
         very rarely to other students.

         In recent days the practices of counseling and advising has been in increase. The
         following chart indicates how the number of people is increasing to take advise on the
         issues of bullying or harassments from the senior or the same grade colleagues. The
         following chart shows the present status of consultation or counseling in respected

このPDFは pdfFactory 試用版で作成されました ÿÿ
                                    Chart 5
                               Number of People

                    number of consultating people by schools(2004)

                              72     52
                             11%     8%

                       110                                  kindergarten
                       17%                                  elementary
                                                            junior high
                                                            sinior high

         Source: Suita City: 2005, 47

         The above charts shows that highest number of consultation in Suita city is underwent at
         elementary schools. This may be because parents are quite conscious for the future career
         of their children. The Junior High Schools which are said as the maximum point of
         bullying have seconded in counseling. Counseling for the Senior High Schools is the least
         since the bullying and harassment cases in this level is quite low.

         The following chart 6 tries to display that how many times the people in Suita City
         Schools took consultation from the respective counselors in the schools. Here also
         emotional behavior tops the figure i.e. 39 consultation has been provided to this issue
         which is followed by taunting and career or growth.

このPDFは pdfFactory 試用版で作成されました ÿÿ
                                     Chart 6
                                Number of Times

                                       consultating number
                              275           of times       truant
                          1           50
                         0%           1%     119           emotion/behavi
                    6                         2%           or

                         1652                 2424
                                               32%         career options


                                    3066                   bullying

         Source: Suita City

         Here also the maximum consultation is for the improvement of the emotional behavior of
         the children which is seconded by the bullying and followed by study, career and growth
         components. Thus the parents are quite conscious to better the future of the child for what
         they take consultation from the people placed by the city government.

         How the Parents Feel About
         The researcher had interviewed with 10 parents of the Non Japanese children whose
         children were studying in elementary schools and lower secondary schools in Suita city.
         Out of them five were mixed couples or one of the couples were Japanese and rest five
         were both their country of origin. Unfortunately the researcher could not contact to the
         Chinese and Korean parents since their problems, according to the city government staffs,
         are unique and complicated and don’t match with the other children’s issues.

         Almost all the couples asserted that the educational system in Japan in Quite good and
         very contemporary. The subjects like math and science, community development,
         reaching to nature and even future career are taught well and comparably well.
         About the question on the facilities provided by the schools all of the parents were
         unanimously agreed that these were excellent. The facilities for the games and
         extracurricular activities provided were very satisfactory.

このPDFは pdfFactory 試用版で作成されました ÿÿ
         All the parents were satisfied that the lunch supplied by the school was quite healthy and
         enough. Although, parents have to deposit between Y 5000 to 10,000 per month for the
         lunch and the stationary given by the school, they have no complain to this system.
         The Sakura system, according to them, is also very good since it provides a plate form
         not only for the Non Japanese children to be together but also a good forum for the
         parents from different countries to get known each other and share the feelings of Japan’s
         About the teachers behavior all the parents were well satisfied because the teachers in the
         schools really take care to each and every child and his or her aptitude.

         The way the city government helped them by providing interpreter, volunteers for
         extracurricular activities, and even home loan teachers was regarded as a nice and unique
         management system.

         Also city government regularly monitors the activities of the schools and their
         management found satisfactory. The staffs of the city government are well known of the
         each and every child’s behavior and suggest how to improve or change is really made
         them fill like homely treatment.

         However, they have some difficulties in common and specific. The common difficulties
         are to those who both husband and wife not belongs to Japan.

            •   The first one is that all circulars, notices and other information are sent in
                Japanese which they can not read. Due to these shortcomings many important
                programs are missed or unattended.
            •   Secondly, due to the communication difficulties the children don’t understand the
                lessons though the child has higher capacity in reading and writing in the subjects
                taught in the class.
            •   Thirdly, interpreters are good and do hard work but it is not enough.
            •   Fourthly, many of them in sort visit like one year to three years. In such cases the
                child has to struggle between the courses of Japan and the country of origin. In the
                beginning they do not understand Japanese but at the end they find it difficult to
                adjust in the home environment linguistically.
            •   Fifthly, communication barrier between the Japanese and non Japanese child is
                high as a result most of the Non Japanese can not share to their Japanese fellows

         The couples who are Japanese and Non Japanese have little different opinion. They feel
         that some time the child become totally dominant to Japanese culture of education for
         which they might be inconvenient in case the parents migrate to the country of origin.

         One of the parents remains like unsupportive to the child because he or she did not read
         and write Japanese.

         But the issues with the couples who non Japanese are more than couples who one of them
         belongs to Japan.

このPDFは pdfFactory 試用版で作成されました
         From the foregoing discussions it is found that Non Japanese children in Japan are quite
         happy with the educational system and the services provided by the city government and
         the Non Profit organizations including NHAs. The efforts made by the management are
         praise worthy and commendable. But the teaching English for some hours in a week may
         help more to the Non Japanese students. Also, if the school management would provide
         circulars, or notices or some other information in English or in native languages it would
         undoubtedly make parents more participatory and let them understand the ongoing
         programs and activities of the school.

         The educational system in Japan is good and competitive. The authorities are really
         worried about how to maximize the standard of Japanese education system so as to fitting
         to the tune of globalization. Making every child safer physically and mentally is being the
         core concern among Japanese policy makers, managers, educationists and parents. New
         management techniques like counseling, advising and supporting is in the offing.

         The crowded Japanese classes in the Elementary and Junior High Schools during fifties
         and sixties have become less crowded. But the globalization and decentralization policies
         would attract more immigrants with or without families. New sorts of students as Non
         Japanese would increase in the future and would might expect a different sorts of
         teaching and learning environment in Japan. The city governments is identifying new
         support system for the Non Japanese and building partnership programs with the NHAs
         and NPOs to enhance this support to make it more beneficial to such children. Despite,
         new innovative efforts Non Japanese still have some more expectations in favor of them.
         Let us see how these are matched together for the convenient of the both.

         Bibliography and References

         Higashi Saidera Neighborhood Association Bulletin, October, 2006

         Reform Agenda: visited on 10.18.2006
 visited on 06/12/7

         Suita City, (2005 Jan.), Disaster Prevention Hand Book, Special Edition

         Suita City, (2005), Outline of School Education 2005, School Education Board Suita City
         Hall, Osaka, Japan
 Downloaded on 12.28.2006

         The People Interviewed were

このPDFは pdfFactory 試用版で作成されました ÿÿ

To top