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					Access to Justice on the World Wide Web: An annotated bibliography

                           Edmund J. Gorman Jr.

       Public Interest, Public Service, and Professional Responsibility

                              January 9, 2009
                                                                                              Gorman 1


I. Introduction to Access to Justice Resources on the Internet

         It is a sobering but oft-cited fact that the legal needs of a majority of Americans
go unmet because of the costs and other barriers to legal representation, denying the
benefits of our justice system to those most vulnerable. 1 The central historical response
to this problem, the federally created Legal Services Corporation, has been unable in the
last three decades to alleviate the problem, 2 creating a need for state advocates,
academics, and policymakers to look toward innovative state and local initiatives to
improve legal services for the poor.
         The “Access to Justice” movement, arising in response to increased restrictions on
federally-funded legal aid in the 1990’s, has flowered in the last decade, resulting in the
creation of Access to Justice Commissions or similar bodies in nearly all of the fifty
states, and a wellspring of efforts by bar associations, policy centers, and other
nongovernmental organizations to provide research and information resources to
traditionally unrepresented litigants and their advocates. 3 At the same time, scholarly
understanding of the scope and extent of unmet legal needs has increased just as
dramatically. 4
         The efforts of organizations dedicated to access to justice have been greatly
magnified by the Internet and its capacity to afford universal access to stakeholders of the
movement. Several of these organizations currently maintain websites that link to a
substantial number of materials relevant to the researcher, advocate, and activist seeking
information on justice initiatives and proposals throughout the country. These include
the National Legal Aid & Defender Association, 5 the Brennan Center for Justice, 6 the
American Bar Association, 7 and the National Center for State Courts, 8 among many
others. The focus and offerings of each of these websites is summarized immediately
below. Part II, which constitutes the body of this bibliography, catalogues the relevant
materials available from these websites of these and other organizations, grouped
according to the “Cost-Effective Strategies” identified by the Roadmap to Justice
Conference at Suffolk University in October 2008. These five strategy areas are: law and
court reform, non-lawyer assistance and support for pro se litigants, pro bono services


1
  See, e.g., DEBORAH L. RHODE, ACCESS TO JUSTICE 3 (2004) (citing research showing at least four-fifths of
the legal needs of low-income Americans go unmet).
2
  For every person served by an LSC-funded program, another is turned down for lack of resources. LEGAL
SERVICES CORPORATION: DOCUMENTING THE JUSTICE GAP IN AMERICA: THE CURRENT UNMET CIVIL
LEGAL NEEDS OF LOW-INCOME AMERICANS (2d ed., 2007), available at: http://www.lsc.gov/justicegap.pdf.
See generally, Rebekah Diller, Restoring Legal Aid for the Poor (2008),
http://www.americanprogressaction.org/issues/2008/changeforamerica/pdf/legal_services.pdf.
3
  Robert Echols & Karla M. Gray, Mobilizing Judges, Lawyers, and Communities: State Access to Justice
Commissions, 47 JUDGES JOURNAL, Summer 2008, available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/sclaid/atjresourcecenter/downloads/grayechols.pdf. All websites in
this bibliography were last visited on January 5, 2009.
4
  For a discussion the scope of America’s unmet legal needs, see DEBORAH L. RHODE, ACCESS TO JUSTICE,
Ch. 1 (2004).
5
  http://www.nlada.org
6
  http://www.brennancenter.org
7
  http://www.abanet.org
8
  http://www.ncsconline.org
                                                                                             Gorman 2


and reforms to the private bar, technology, and legal education reform. 9 For each
strategy area in Part II, all relevant materials of each website are catalogued, and some of
the key materials particular to each website are summarized in detail. Though this
bibliography is intended to be a comprehensive survey of available resources on the
World Wide Web, it should not be taken to be exhaustive. Part III describes the current
gaps in resources and research from these websites, and suggests additional sources of
material relevant to access to justice efforts.

        A. National Legal Aid and Defender Association

        The National Legal Aid and Defender Association (NLADA) is a tax-exempt
nonprofit organization founded in 1911 as a membership association of attorneys
providing legal services and defense to low-income clients. The NLADA provides
resources, advocacy, and support to these professionals in the equal justice community. 10
        Since 2001, the NLADA has maintained an “E-Library” that serves as a
clearinghouse for scholarly articles, studies, annual reports, program descriptions, and
other documents relating to civil legal services and indigent criminal defense. The “Civil
Resources” portion of this E-Library contains perhaps the web’s largest collection of
access to justice materials, including NLADA publications and documents published by
state Access to Justice Commissions, state bar associations, research institutes,
universities, and legal aid organizations. 11 This website also offers links to the Access to
Justice Commission or similar body in each state, making it a useful hub for research on
court-annexed access to justice efforts nationwide. 12

        B. American Bar Association

         The American Bar Association (ABA)’s many divisions, committees, and
programs publish a wide variety of periodicals, reports, opinions, guidebooks, and other
sources about many topics relevant to access to custice advocates. Many of these
resources are compiled at the Resource Center for Access to Justice Initiatives, 13
maintained by the Standing Committee on Legal Aid and Indigent Defendants.
Resources are divided by topic areas roughly analogous to the five Roadmap to Justice
strategies, including state access to justice commissions, pro bono resources, civil right to
counsel, legal education, and self-represented litigants.
         In addition to this central resource, relevant publications can be found at the
ABA’s Center for Pro Bono, 14 which offers a variety of materials on its “Publications”
page, 15 as well as a clearinghouse of over 4,000 documents relating to implementation of

9
  See Roadmap to Justice (on file with author)
10
   See Nat’l Legal Aid & Defender Ass’n, About NLADA,
http://www.nlada.org/About/About_HistoryNLADA.
11
   See http://www.nlada.org/Civil/Civil_Library.
12
   See SPAN: Access to Justice Partnerships,
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Index/000000/000053/document_browse#topics, follow “State ATJ
Commissions/Entities: Reports.” These resources are also available from the ABA website, infra note 13.
13
   http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/sclaid/atjresourcecenter/resourcematerials.html.
14
   http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/probono/.
15
   http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/probono/nav_publications.shtml.
                                                                                             Gorman 3


pro bono programs in state bar associations and law firms. 16 The Standing Committee on
Delivery of Legal Services offers a “Pro Se/Unbundling Resource Center,” 17 and the
Commission on Interest on Lawyers’ Trust Accounts (IOLTA) provides links to state
efforts at increasing funding for legal aid. 18 Relevant materials from each of these sites
are included in this bibliography.

        C. Brennan Center for Justice

        The Brennan Center for Justice at New York University School of Law is a public
policy and law institute focusing on the issues of justice and democracy. Its work
includes advocacy and research on topics including voting rights and redistricting reform,
access to the courts, and presidential power. 19 It’s “Resources” page contains links to
scholarly articles, policy analysis, topical commentary, position papers, and other
publications prepared by Brennan Center staff and affiliated organizations. 20 For each of
these publication types, the “Civil Justice” category offers many materials relevant to the
Access to Justice movement. These materials are included in this bibliography.

        D. National Center for State Courts

        The National Center for State Courts (NCSC) is a nonprofit organization offering
support and services for judges, court administrators, and community court activists.
NCSC sponsors and publishes original research, offers consulting services, publications,
and national educational programs dedicated generally to improving court operations in
state courts. 21 In addition to a traditional library, NCSC maintains a “Digital Archive” on
its website that offers links to its publications over the last three decades on many topics
relating to courts, including legal services and court access and fairness. 22 Among other
documents, it includes publications from the Center for Court Management’s Court
Executive Development Program, providing an important source of primary research on
pro se support programs and other court-based access to justice reforms. The relevant
contents of NCSC’s Digital Archive are catalogued in this bibliography.

        E. Legal Resource Institute at Legal Services Corporation

       The Legal Services Corporation 23 (LSC) maintains an LSC Resource Information
website that offers a variety of materials pertaining to legal services delivery, which
include the topics of pro se, private attorney involvement (PAI) including pro bono, and
technology. 24 Though the site provides only abstracts of many resources, some of these


16
   http://67.29.152.234/dbtw-wpd/searchcpb.htm.
17
   http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/delivery/delunbund.html.
18
   http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/iolta/home.html
19
   See http://www.brennancenter.org/pages/about/.
20
   http://www.brennancenter.org/pages/resources/.
21
   See Welcome to the National Center for State Courts, http://ncsconline.org/D_About/index.htm.
22
   http://www.ncsconline.org/D_KIS/Library/ncsc_digital_archive_home.htm.
23
   http://www.lsc.gov.
24
   http://lri.lsc.gov.
                                                                                  Gorman 4


abstracts contain links to a full source, and these are included in this bibliography where
appropriate.

        F. Other Websites in the Bibliography

        In addition to the organization websites discussed above, this bibliography draws
on a host of websites offering resources relevant to one or more of the identified strategy
areas. These include websites narrowly dedicated to a particular issue or strategy, such as
the National Center on the Civil Right to Counsel, 25 and more broadly focused websites
that include some resources relevant to one or more strategy areas, such as Equal Justice
Works, 26 which offers a useful collection of original resources on student loan repayment
relevant to prospective and current law students and their administrators and advocates.


II. Access to Justice Resources by Strategy Area

        A. Law and Court Reform

         Internet resources concerning law and court reform fall generally into three
separate but related categories. First, there is a wide body of literature describing the
scope and origins of unmet legal needs in the United States, and outlining potential
solutions to the problem. Second, many resources have been developed to guide and
reform the delivery of legal services through the legal aid framework dominated by the
funding and limitations of the Legal Services Corporation. 27 This topic represents one of
the most common focuses of state access to justice commissions, and has produced a
considerable literature. Third, a distinct movement has formed around the recognition of
a civil right to counsel, also known as “Civil Gideon,” in reference to the 1963 U.S.
Supreme Court case guaranteeing a right to counsel for indigent defendants in criminal
prosecutions. 28 This idea, the focus of groups such as the Coalition for the Civil Right to
Counsel, 29 has inspired increasingly active scholarship and advocacy, warranting separate
treatment in this bibliography. The web resources cited here for the Law and Court
Reform strategy area are grouped into these three categories.

                 1. Unmet Legal Needs and General Access to Justice Efforts

                          a. American Bar Association

        The American Bar Association offers a handful of original resources to guide the
creation and development of statewide Access to Justice efforts, including its Twelve
Lessons from Successful State Access to Justice Efforts, and an accompanying checklist.
Another key resource is Mobilizing Judges, Lawyers, and Communities: State Access to

25
   http://www.civilrighttocounsel.org/.
26
   http://equaljusticeworks.org
27
   See Robert Echols & Karla M. Gray, supra note 3.
28
   Gideon v. Wainwright, 372 U.S. 335 (1963).
29
   http://www.civilrighttocounsel.org.
                                                                                 Gorman 5


Justice Commissions, by Montana Chief Justice Karla M. Gray and ABA consultant
Robert Echols. 30 This article provides a general description and “best practices” of
access to justice commissions across the country. The authors identify ten features of
successful access to justice efforts, including: creation by supreme court order or with
supreme court support; participation by stakeholders including court representatives,
legal aid providers, law schools, and members of government; a continuing mandate; and
a broad charge of responsibility for assessing and serving unmet legal needs. 31 These
features empower commissions to increase public awareness of legal needs, increase
funding for civil legal aid, increase pro bono service by members of the bar; increase
resources for pro se litigants; increase coordination between legal services providers; and
incorporate additional efforts aimed at litigants with limited English proficiency and law
students with educational debt. 32

ACCESS TO JUSTICE SUPPORT PROJECT, TWELVE LESSONS FROM SUCCESSFUL STATE
ACCESS TO JUSTICE EFFORTS (2003), reprinted in ACCESS TO JUSTICE PARTNERSHIPS
(2005), available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/sclaid/atjresourcecenter/downloads/12lessons.pdf.

ACCESS TO JUSTICE SUPPORT PROJECT, ACCESS TO JUSTICE CHECKLIST (2003), reprinted
in ACCESS TO JUSTICE PARTNERSHIPS (2005), available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/sclaid/atjresourcecenter/downloads/checklist-
accesstojustice.pdf.

HOUSE OF DELEGATES, A.B.A., PRINCIPLES OF A STATE SYSTEM FOR THE DELIVERY OF
CIVIL LEGAL AID (2006), available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/sclaid/atjresourcecenter/downloads/tencivilprinciples
.pdf.

PRESIDENTIAL TASK FORCE ON ACCESS TO CIVIL JUSTICE, A.B.A., SELF ASSESSMENT
TOOL (YEAR), available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/sclaid/atjresourcecenter/downloads/selfassessmttool.
pdf.

Res. 23, CONFERENCE OF CHIEF JUSTICES, LEADERSHIP TO PROMOTE EQUAL JUSTICE
(2001), available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/sclaid/atjresourcecenter/downloads/ccjresolution23-
2001-01-25.pdf

Robert Echols & Karla M. Gray, Mobilizing Judges, Lawyers, and Communities: State
Access to Justice Commissions, 47 JUDGES JOURNAL, Summer 2008, available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/sclaid/atjresourcecenter/downloads/grayechols.pdf.

                          b. NLADA E-Library

30
   See Robert Echols and Karla M. Gray, supra note 3.
31
   Id.
32
   Id.
                                                                                           Gorman 6



        The NLADA offers several resources focusing on the economic costs of unmet
legal needs, and the economic and social benefits of legal aid clinics. A key resource is
The Economic Costs of Poverty in the United States, a report published by the Center for
American Progress detailing on a national level the economic costs of children growing
up in poverty, and highlights the important role that legal services can play in reducing
these costs. 33 In addition, the NLADA offers several comparative studies of the benefits
of legal aid. These resources include a study demonstrating that women in Ecuador who
had been served by a legal aid clinic were economically better off than a comparable
group of women who had not received services, 34 and reports on the social and economic
benefits of legal services in Florida, 35 Nebraska, 36 and Massachussetts. 37

Amy Farmer & Jill Tiefenthaler, Explaining the Recent Decline in Domestic Violence, 21
CONTEMPORARY ECONOMIC POLICY 2, 158-172 (2003), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1195248210.25/Explaining%20Decline%20in%2
0Domestic%20Violence.pdf.

Bruce Owen and Jorge Portillo, Economic Incentives in Legal Reform, 4 PERSPECTIVES
 2, available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1195243338.44/World%20Bank%20Economic%
20Impact%20and%20Legal%20Aid%20-%20Owen%20and%20Portillo.pdf.

HARRY J. HOLZER ET AL., CENTER FOR AMERICAN PROGRESS, THE ECONOMIC COSTS OF
POVERTY IN THE UNITED STATES: SUBSEQUENT EFFECTS OF CHILDREN GROWING UP POOR
(2007), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1195248361.87/Economic%20Cost%20of%20Po
verty%20Holzer%20report.pdf.

LIZ ELWART ET AL., STATE BAR OF WISCONSIN, INCREASING ACCESS TO RESTRAINING
ORDERS FOR LOW-INCOME VICTIMS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE: A COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS
33
   Harry J. Holzer et al., Center for American Progress, The Economic Costs of Poverty in the United
States: Subsequent Effects of Children Growing Up Poor (2007), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1195248361.87/Economic%20Cost%20of%20Poverty%20Holzer
%20report.pdf.
34
   Bruce Owen and Jorge Portillo, Economic Incentives in Legal Reform, 4 PERSPECTIVES 2, available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1195243338.44/World%20Bank%20Economic%20Impact%20and
%20Legal%20Aid%20-%20Owen%20and%20Portillo.pdf.
35
   STEFAN C. NORRBIN & DAVID W. RASMUSSEN, EVALUATION OF TEAM CHILD IN FLORIDA (2002),
available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1195243887.58/FL%20TeamChild%20Evaluation%20Report.pdf.
36
   Timothy K. Kelso, et al., Legal Aid of Nebraska and Center for Public Affairs Research, Economic
Impact of Legal Aid in Nebraska (2003), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1195244700.48/U%20of%20Nebraska%20Economic%20Impact%
20Study.pdf
37
   Massachusetts Legal Assistance Corporation, Cost Savings to the Commonwealth from Civil Legal Aid
(2005) (unpublished fact sheet), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1195246917.12/Cost%20savings%20of%20legal%20aid%20to%2
0Massachusetts.doc.
                                                                                        Gorman 7


(2007), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1176146724.92/WI%20appendix8.pdf.

Massachusetts Legal Assistance Corporation, Cost Savings to the Commonwealth from
Civil Legal Aid (2005) (unpublished fact sheet), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1195246917.12/Cost%20savings%20of%20legal
%20aid%20to%20Massachusetts.doc.

NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL SERVICES, HOMELESSNESS PREVENTION
PROGRAM OUTCOMES AND EFFECTIVENESS (1990), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1195250846.92/NYSDeptofSS%20-
%20Homelessness%20Prevention%20Pram%20Outcomes%20%26%20Effect.pdf

STATE BAR OF MINNESOTA, LEGAL AID: ESSENTIAL TO THE JUSTICE SYSTEM (2003),
available at: http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1195246760.09/MN%20aid-
essential-mar03.pdf.

STEFAN C. NORRBIN & DAVID W. RASMUSSEN, EVALUATION OF TEAM CHILD IN FLORIDA
(2002), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1195243887.58/FL%20TeamChild%20Evaluatio
n%20Report.pdf.

TIMOTHY K. KELSO, ET AL., LEGAL AID OF NEBRASKA AND CENTER FOR PUBLIC AFFAIRS
RESEARCH, ECONOMIC IMPACT OF LEGAL AID IN NEBRASKA (2003), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1195244700.48/U%20of%20Nebraska%20Econ
omic%20Impact%20Study.pdf

                        c. National Center for State Courts Digital Archive

ALEXANDER B. AIKMAN, PROVIDING LEGAL SERVICES TO INDIGENTS IN COLORADO
LEGAL SERVICES (1992), available at: http://contentdm.ncsconline.org/cgi-
bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/legserv&CISOPTR=9.

        2. Legal Aid and Legal Services Corporation Reform

                        a. Brennan Center for Justice

        The Brennan Center for Justice offers several resources detailing the disastrous
effects of the curtailment of the Legal Services Corporation that occurred in the 1990s, 38
as well as narrative studies highlighting the scale of unmet legal needs 39 and detailing the


38
  See, e.g.. BRENNAN CTR. FOR JUSTICE, STRUGGLING TO MEET THE NEED: COMMUNITIES CONFRONT GAPS
IN FEDERAL LEGAL AID (2003), available at:
http://brennan.3cdn.net/7689d2f385e9f3d753_bvm6y9ucy.pdf.
39
   See, e.g., KARYN ROTKER, WHAT WELFARE REFORM DID TO THEM AND WHY LEGAL SERVICES IS
NEEDED TO HELP (2000), available at: http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-/d/karyn_rotker.pdf;
                                                                                              Gorman 8


positive results gained for clients in successful legal aid efforts. 40 The Brennan Center
has also published on its website several Fact Sheets detailing the history and effects of
the limitations on Legal Services Corporation funding that Congress enacted in 1996. 41
Finally, under the heading of “Statements and Testimony,” the website offers a number
of documents, including a series of open letters to Congress members, published by the
Brennan Center and allied organizations that provide policy rationale for the
reinstatement of Legal Services Corporation funding and the lifting of restrictions on
funded Legal Aid organizations. 42

150 Cong. Rec. S11,740-04 (daily ed. November 20, 2004) (Statement of Sen. Corzine),
available at: http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-
/d/corzine_lsc_private_funding_statement.pdf.

150 Cong. Rec. H 5221 (daily ed. July 7, 2004) (Statement of Rep. Serrano), available at:
http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-/d/house_cjs_%20floorstatements_7-7-04.pdf.

150 Cong. Rec. H 12,838 (daily ed. Dec. 8, 2003), available at:
http://brennan.3cdn.net/6d05f7de962c9ed3fc_sdm6ib1xp.pdf.

Andrew J. Elmore, Egalitarianism and Exclusion, 21 GEO. IMMIGR. L.J. 521, 521-567
(2007), available at: http://brennan.3cdn.net/067bd532e422a2e8a2_eom6i35oz.pdf.

Bob Barr, Let’s Heal Legal Services, LEGAL TIMES, Dec. 12, 2005, available at:
http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-/d/download_file_8100.pdf.

BRENNAN CTR. FOR JUSTICE, AN UNSOLVED MYSTERY: WHY ARE ROGUE POLITICIANS
TRYING TO KILL A PROGRAM THAT HELPS THEIR NEEDIEST CONSTITUENTS? (2000),
available at: http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-/d/atj3.pdf.

BRENNAN CTR. FOR JUSTICE, BEARING WITNESS: LEGAL SERVICES CLIENTS TELL THEIR
STORIES, (2000), available at: http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-/d/atj5.pdf.

Brennan Ctr. for Justice, Dobbins v. Legal Services Corporation – Questions and
Answers About Foundation and Nonprofit Involvement (2003),
http://www.brennancenter.org/content/resource/dobbins_v_legal_services_corporation_q
uestions_and_answers_about_foundation/.

Brennan Ctr. for Justice, Fact Sheet: How the Legal Services Private Money Restriction
Hurts Veterans (2007), available at: http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-
/d/download_file_36181.pdf.
40
   See, e.g., LAWRENCE WOOD, LEGAL ASSISTANCE FOUNDATION OF CHICAGO, LEGAL SERVICES IN
CHICAGO (2000), available at: http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-/d/lawrence_wood.pdf.
41
   See, e.g., Brennan Ctr. for Justice, Fact Sheet: How the Legal Services Private Money Restriction Hurts
Veterans (2007), available at: http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-/d/download_file_36181.pdf
42
   See, e.g., Letter from Brennan Ctr. for Justice, et al. to Reps. Frank Wolf and José Serrano (June 7,
2004), available at: http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-
/d/letter%20to%20congress%20reentry%20legal%20aid.pdf
                                                                               Gorman 9



Brennan Ctr. for Justice, Fact Sheet: How the Legal Services Restriction Creates a
Wasteful System (2007), http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-
/Justice/Inefficiency%20Fact%20Sheet%20Final.pdf

Brennan Ctr. for Justice, Fact Sheet: Why Faith-Based Groups Care About a Federal
Rule Restricting How Legal Aid Offices Spend Their Own Money (2005), available at:
http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-/d/download_file_34398.pdf

BRENNAN CTR. FOR JUSTICE, HIDDEN AGENDAS: WHAT IS REALLY BEHIND THE ATTACKS
ON LEGAL AID LAWYERS? (2001), available at http://
http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-/d/atj7.pdf

BRENNAN CTR. FOR JUSTICE, LEFT OUT IN THE COLD: HOW CLIENTS ARE AFFECTED BY
RESTRICTIONS ON THEIR LEGAL SERVICES LAWYERS (2000), available at:
http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-/d/atj6.pdf

Brennan Ctr. for Justice, LSC Restriction Fact Sheet #6: LSC’s Private Money”
Restriction Hurts Low-Income Families: Three Real Stories From Around the Nation
(2004),
http://www.brennancenter.org/content/resource/lsc_restriction_fact_sheet_6_lscs_private
_money_restriction_hurts_low_incom/.

BRENNAN CTR. FOR JUSTICE, MAKING THE CASE: LEGAL SERVICES FOR THE POOR (1999),
available at: http://www.brennancenter.org/dynamic/subpages/atj1.pdf.

BRENNAN CTR. FOR JUSTICE, MAINTAINING THE SAFETY NET: LEGAL SERVICES WORK
CLOSELY WITH COMMUNITIES TO HELP THOSE IN NEED (2000), available at:
http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-/d/atj4.pdf.

BRENNAN CTR. FOR JUSTICE, RESTRICTING LEGAL SERVICES: HOW CONGRESS LEFT THE
POOR WITH ONLY HALF A LAWYER (2000), available at:
http://brennancenter.org/dynamic/subpages/atj2.pdf.

Brennan Ctr. for Justice, Q & A on Southern Christian Leadership Conference v.
Louisiana Supreme Court (2000),
http://www.brennancenter.org/content/resource/q_a_on_southern_christian_leadership_c
onference_v_louisiana_supreme_court/.

BRENNAN CTR. FOR JUSTICE, STRUGGLING TO MEET THE NEED: COMMUNITIES CONFRONT
GAPS IN FEDERAL LEGAL AID (2003), available at:
http://brennan.3cdn.net/7689d2f385e9f3d753_bvm6y9ucy.pdf.

Brennan Ctr. for Justice, The Workers’ Stories: Complaint to Mexican Government
Regarding Access to Labor Rights Lawyers for Temporary Workers in the U.S., April 13,
2005, http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-/d/download_file_35798.pdf.
                                                                             Gorman 10



Brennan Ctr. for Justice, Velazquez – Analysis & Implications (2003),
http://www.brennancenter.org/content/resource/velazquez_analysis_implications/.

Brennan Ctr. for Justice, Velazquez v. Legal Services Corporation (2003),
http://www.brennancenter.org/content/resource/velazquez_v_legal_services_corporation_
the_supreme_court_ruling/.

Catherine Carr, Sanity in Funding for Legal Aid, PHILA. DAILY NEWS Feb. 17, 2005, at
23, available at: http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-/d/download_file_8105.pdf.

DANIEL LINDSAY, NATIONAL CENTER ON POVERTY LAW, VALLEY OF BONES (2000),
available at: http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-/d/daniel_lindsey.pdf.

Deborah Goldberg, End Political Football With the Poor, ALBANY TIMES-UNION Sept.
9,1999, available at:
http://www.brennancenter.org/content/resource/end_political_football_with_the_poor/.

Deborah Goldberg, Interest on Lawyers’ Trust Accounts: Private Interest in the Public
Interest, NEW YORK LAW JOURNAL, July 15, 1998, available at:
http://www.brennancenter.org/content/resource/interest_on_lawyers_trust_accounts_priv
ate_interest_in_the_public_interest/.

Deborah Goldberg, State Should Respect Equal Justice, TIMES UNION, June 5, 1998,
available at:
http://www.brennancenter.org/content/resource/state_should_respect_equal_justice/.

E. Joshua Rosenkranz, Equal Justice for Immigrants, AUSTIN AMERICAN-STATESMAN,
Sept. 4, 2001, available at:
http://www.brennancenter.org/content/resource/equal_justice_for_immigrants/.

Elisabeth Jacobs, LSC Restriction Fact Sheet #1: The Restriction Barring Legal Services
Corporation-Funded Lawyers from Bringing Class Actions (2000),
http://www.brennancenter.org/content/resource/lsc_restriction_fact_sheet_1_the_restricti
on_barring_legal_services_corpora/factsheets.html.

J.A. Sullivan et al. An End to Redundancy? 68 PHILA. LAWYER, Sept. 2005, at 18-19,
available at: http://brennan.3cdn.net/5f88c6dd26d7b22d40_ilm6bt3cs.pdf.

Joel Stashenko, A ‘Modest’ First Step For Civil Justice Plan, 240 N.Y. LAW JOURNAL 1
(col. 4) (2008), available at: http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-
/Justice/NYLJ%20article%20110408.pdf.

Joseph Sant, Op-Ed, Unleash Legal Aid, N.Y. TIMES Apr. 14, 2008, available at:
http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/14/opinion/14sant.html?ex=1365912000&en=b209075
0c6424ed6&ei=5124&partner=permalink&exprod=permalink.
                                                                               Gorman 11



KARYN ROTKER, WHAT WELFARE REFORM DID TO THEM AND WHY LEGAL SERVICES IS
NEEDED TO HELP (2000), available at: http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-
/d/karyn_rotker.pdf.

Laura K. Abel, Drawing Lines for Dollars: Scientists Get Federal and Private Funding
Under One Roof. Why Can’t Legal Aid Lawyers?, 25 LEGAL TIMES, Sept. 2, 2002,
available at: http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-/d/Drawing_Lines_for_Dollars.pdf.

Laura K. Abel, LSC Restriction Fact Sheet #3: The Restriction Barring Legal Services
Corporation-Funded Lawyers from Claiming Attorneys’ Fee Awards (2000),
http://www.brennancenter.org/content/resource/lsc_restriction_fact_sheet_3_the_restricti
on_barring_legal_services_corpora/.

Laura Abel & David Udell, If You Gag the Lawyers, Do You Choke the Courts? 39 FORD.
L. J. 873-906 (2002).

Laura Abel & Kimani Paul-Emile, How They’d Deny Virginia’s Poor, WASHINGTON
POST May 15, 2000, available at:
http://www.brennancenter.org/content/resource/how_theyd_deny_virginias_poor/.

Laura K. Abel & Lora J. Livingston, J., The Existing Civil Right to Counsel
Infrastructure, 47 JUDGES JOURNAL Fall 2008, available at:
http://brennan.3cdn.net/070f13df803e4174cd_jrm6bhgvp.pdf.

Laura K. Abel & Risa E. Kaufman, Preserving Aliens’ and Migrant Workers’ Access to
Civil Legal Services, 5 U. PENN. J. CONST. L. 491 (2003).

Laura K. Abel & Philip Gallagher, No Money for the Voiceless, NAT’L L. J. Dec. 20,
1999, available at:
http://www.brennancenter.org/content/resource/no_money_for_the_voiceless/.

LAWRENCE WOOD, LEGAL ASSISTANCE FOUNDATION OF CHICAGO, LEGAL SERVICES IN
CHICAGO (2000), available at: http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-
/d/lawrence_wood.pdf.

Letter from Asian Pacific American Legal Consortium to Reps. Frank Wolf & José
Serrano (November 30, 2004), available at: http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-
/d/napalc_letter.pdf.

Letter from Brennan Ctr. for Justice et al. to Reps. Frank Wolf & José Serrano (Nov. 20,
2003), available at: http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-/d/BC%20Serrano.pdf.

Letter from Brennan Ctr. for Justice, et al. to Reps. Frank Wolf & José Serrano (June 7,
2004), available at: http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-
/d/letter%20to%20congress%20reentry%20legal%20aid.pdf.
                                                                             Gorman 12



Letter from Charlie Wing, American Legion Post #119, et al., to Rep. Bill Young (May
19, 2006), available at: http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-
/d/download_file_36306.pdf.

Letter from Ciro D. Rodriguez et al., Congressional Hispanic Caucus, to Rep. Frank Wolf
(February 26, 2004), available at:
http://brennan.3cdn.net/8b66423d25feba7be9_63m6bx0y1.pdf.

Letter from David Wu et al., Congressional Asian Pacific Caucus, to Rep. José Serrano
(Dec. 5, 2003), available at: http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-
/d/Asian%20Pacific%20American%20Caucus.pdf.

Letter from Legal Services of North Virginia, Inc., to Rep. Frank Wolf (June 23, 2004),
available at: http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-/d/LSNV_letter_to_Wolf_6-22-04.pdf.

Letter from Rep. Nita Lowey to Rep. José Serrano (Nov. 11, 2003), available at:
http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-/d/Lowey.pdf

Letter from Rev. Richard Cizik, Nat’l Ass’n. of Evengelicals, to Reps. Marbara Mikulski
& Richard Shelby (July 13, 2006), available at: http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-
/d/download_file_36360.pdf.

Letter from Sens. Gordon R. Smith & Ron Wyden to Reps. Barbara Mikulski &
Richard Shelby (May 14, 2008), available at: http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-
/Justice/SmithWyden_LSC_Letter_May2008.pdf.

Letter from Thomas Levin, N.Y. State Bar Ass’n., to Rep. José Serrano (April 30, 2004),
available at: http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-/d/Serrano%20re%20LSC.pdf.

Madeline Lee, Why I’m Suing the Federal Government: We Need the Court to Decide
Whether the Government Can Continue to Curb Private Philanthropy That Does Not
Agree With Its Views, FOUNDATION NEWS & COMMENTARY May 2002, at 23-24,
available at: http://brennan.3cdn.net/f88b4cffc8f87d6f29_jzm6i2sbc.pdf.

Max Rettig and Rebekah Diller, Brennan Ctr. for Justice, LSC Restriction Fact Sheet #7:
Improving Prospects for the Successful Reentry of People in Prison by Removing A
Federal Barrier to Privately Funded Civil Legal Aid (2004),
http://www.brennancenter.org/content/resource/lsc_restriction_fact_sheet_7_improving_
prospects_for_the_successful_reentry/.

Philip Gallagher, LSC Restriction Fact Sheet #2: The Restriction Barring Legal Services
Corporation-Funded Lawyers from Offering Assistance to Potential Clients (2000),
http://www.brennancenter.org/content/resource/lsc_restriction_fact_sheet_2_the_restricti
on_barring_legal_services_corpora/.
                                                                                            Gorman 13


Philip Gallagher, LSC Restriction Fact Sheet #4: The Restriction Barring Legal Services
Corporation-Funded Lawyers From Assisting Aliens (2001),
http://www.brennancenter.org/content/resource/lsc_restriction_fact_sheet_4_the_restricti
on_barring_legal_services_corpora/.

Press Release, National Council of Churches News Service, NY Times, Bob Barr, Chuck
Colson, and NCC Agree: They All Believe It’s Time to Stop Restricting Legal Aid (Dec.
13, 2005), available at: http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-
/d/download_file_19464.pdf.

Rebekah Diller, Deputy Dir. Of Justice Program, Brennan Ctr. for Justice, testimony
before the S. Jud. Comm. (May 22, 2008), available at:
http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-
/Justice/20080522.JusticeGapHearingDillerTestimony.pdf.

Roslyn Powell, LSC Restriction Fact Sheet #5: The Restriction Barring LSC-Funded
Programs from Participating in Restricted Activities Even If These Activities are Wholly
Funded by Non-LSC Sources (2001),
http://www.brennancenter.org/content/resource/lsc_restriction_fact_sheet_5_the_restricti
on_barring_lsc_funded_programs_fr/.

Rep. John Conyers Jr., et al. to Rep. José Serrano (Sept. 23, 2003), available at:
http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-/d/Conyers%20Judiciary.pdf.

Rev. C. Douglas Smith, Op-Ed, Congress Should Fix Law That Hurts Most Vulnerable,
SPRINGFIELD TIMES Dec. 22, 2005, available at:
http://brennan.3cdn.net/81b79cbb48c0da8dd3_ssm6bxr3o.pdf.

Separate and Inequitable, Editorial, N.Y. TIMES, Dec. 6, 2006, available at:
http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-/d/download_file_8110.pdf.

                            b. NLADA E-Library

         Offerings of the NLADA website pertaining to Legal Aid and the Legal Services
Corporation include several documents detailing developments to increase Interest on
Lawyers’ Trust Accounts (IOLTA) programs, an important component of state funding
for Legal Aid organizations as federal funding has continued to wane. 43 An important
development in this area has been the enactment of mandatory rules ensuring that
attorneys use IOLTA accounts that receive the highest possible interest rate. 44 State
efforts to increase IOLTA earnings for legal aid were emboldened by the victory of the
Legal Foundation of Washington in a suit by the Washington Legal Foundation




43
     See A.B.A., IOLTA Overview, http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/iolta/ioltback.html.
44
     See Id.
                                                                                         Gorman 14


challenging the state of Washington’s recent IOLTA rule. 45 NLADA filed an amicus
brief in the case, which is available on its website. 46

ALAN W. HOUSEMAN, PROJECT FOR THE FUTURE OF EQUAL JUSTICE, THE MISSING LINK IN
STATE JUSTICE COMMUNITIES: THE CAPACITY IN EACH STATE FOR STATE LEVEL
ADVOCACY, COORDINATION, AND SUPPORT (2002), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1029252050.45/MissingLink.pdf.

Amicus Brief of Nat’l Ass’n. of IOLTA Programs in support of Respondents, Brown v.
Legal Found. of Wash., 538 U.S. 216 (2003) (No. 01-1325), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1036601875.59/naip-state%20bar%20brief.pdf.

Amicus Brief of Nat’l Legal Aid and Defender Ass’n. et al. in support of Respondents,
Brown v. Legal Found. of Wash., 538 U.S. 216 (2003) (No. 01-1325), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1035136498.72/Supreme%20Court%20Amicus
%20Brief%20in%20Washington%20IOLTA%2C%20October%2018%2C%202002.pdf.

Amicus Brief of Trial Lawyers for Public Justice et al. in support of Respondents, Brown
v. Legal Found. of Wash., 538 U.S. 216 (2003) (No. 01-1325), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1038852281.65/National%20League%20of%20
Cities%2C%20Int%27l%20Municipal%20Lawyers%27%20Assoc%20and%20Trial%20
Lawyers%20for%20Public%20Justice.pdf.

Brown et al. v Legal Found. of Wash.., 538 U.S. 216 (2003) available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1200072181.25/Brown%20v%20Legal%20Foun
dation%20of%20Washington.pdf.

Closing the Justice Gap, Editorial, N.Y. TIMES June 26, 2007, available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1185219037.05/june%2026%20ny%20times%20
editorial.pdf.

Comments by Gerry Singsen to Legal Services Corporation regarding the LSC State
Planning Evaluation Instrument (Sept. 27, 2002), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1035150714.98/Comments%20of%20Gerry%20
Singsen%20on%20LSC%20State%20Planning%20Evaluation%20Instrument.PDF.

Comments by Mark Marquardt, Lawyers Trust Fund of Illinois, to Legal Services
Corporation regarding the LSC State Planning Evaluation Instrument (Sept. 24, 2002),
available



45
  See Brown v. Legal Found. of Wash., 538 U.S. 216 (2003).
46
  Amicus Brief of Nat’l Legal Aid and Defender Ass’n. et al. in support of Respondents, Brown v. Legal
Found. of Wash., 538 U.S. 216 (2003) (No. 01-1325), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1035136498.72/Supreme%20Court%20Amicus%20Brief%20in%2
0Washington%20IOLTA%2C%20October%2018%2C%202002.pdf.
                                                                           Gorman 15


at:http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1035151036.64/Comments%20of%20Mark%2
0Marquardt%20on%20LSC%20State%20Planning%20Evaluation%20Instrument.PDF.

Connie Boyles Lane, The Field’s Perspective (Nat’l Legal Aid & Defenders Ass’n/AARP
Evaluation Meeting, Working Paper 2002), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1018468374.65/Lane%20Measurement%20Surv
ey%203-4-02.doc.

Consumer Fed. of Am., 2008 Policy Resolutions, pp. 129-30, available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1211309172.05/CONSUMER FEDERATION
OF AMERICA.doc.

Hugh Calkin, Eight Tools for Evaluating Legal Services Websites (Nat’l Legal Aid &
Defenders Ass’n/AARP Evaluation Meeting, Working Paper 2002), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1018540583.66/Tools%20for%20Evaluating%20
Legal%20Services%20Websites.doc.

In re: Repeal of subdivision 4-1.15, entitled “Safekeeping Property,” and the Comment,
Code Comparison and Supplemental Missouri Comment thereto, of Supreme Court Rule
4, entitled “Rules of Professional Conduct,” and in lieu thereof adoption of a new
subdivision 4-1.15, entitled “Safekeeping Property,” and a new Comment and
Supplemental Missouri Comment thereto (Mo.) (Aug. 21, 2007), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1189077476.87/Missouri%27s New IOLTA Rule
4-1.15.doc

In re: Rules of Professional Conduct, Order No. 89-R-99018-SCT (Miss.) (May 11,
2006), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1149971741.65/MS%20IOLTA%205-06.PDF

James W. Meeker & Richard Utman, Notes on Methodological Issues Encountered
During a Field Evalution of a Pro Per Intervention (Nat’l Legal Aid & Defenders
Ass’n/AARP Evaluation Meeting, Working Paper 2002), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1018538757.48/Meeker%20Utman%20Methods.
doc.

John Arango, Needs Assessment (Nat’l Legal Aid & Defenders Ass’n/AARP Evaluation
Meeting, Working Paper 2002), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1018469205.32/Arango%20Needs%20Assessme
nt.doc.

John M. Greacen, An Approach to the Development of Performance Measures for Public
Sector Service Providers (Nat’l Legal Aid & Defenders Ass’n/AARP Evaluation
Meeting, Working Paper 2002), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1018461799.96/Greacen%20Performance%20M
easures.doc.
                                                                           Gorman 16


Ken Smith and John Scanlon, Outcome Measurement: A Tool for Full Access (Nat’l
Legal Aid & Defenders Ass’n/AARP Evaluation Meeting, Working Paper 2002),
available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1018536655.32/Ken%20Smith%20Papers%20fo
r%20Evaluation%20Conf.pdf.

Law Firm Leadership Circle, Chi. Bar Found., Statement of Principles,
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1202151723.9/CBA Final Statement of
Principles.doc.

Martha Bergmark, An Action Agenda for Evaluation: The Time is Now (Nat’l Legal Aid
& Defenders Ass’n/AARP Evaluation Meeting, Working Paper 2002), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1018466178.9/Bergmark%20national%20perspe
ctive.doc.

Naseem Stecker, The Challenge of Resource Development, 85 MICH. BAR JOURNAL 1, 30-
32 (May 2006), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1149972786.86/MI%20artcileRD.pdf.

National Institute of Standards and Technology, Baldridge National Quality Program
(Nat’l Legal Aid & Defenders Ass’n/AARP Evaluation Meeting, Multimedia
Presentation 2002), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1018538518.82/Baldrige%20power%20point.ppt

Nat’l Legal Aid & Defender Ass’n., 9th Circuit En Banc Panel Finds Washington State’s
Program Constitutional, NLADA UPDATE November 21, 2001, available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1048723339.42/9th%20Circuit%20En%20Banc
%20Panel%20Finds%20Washington%20State%92s%20IOLTA%20P%85.pdf.

Nat’l Legal Aid & Defender Ass’n., Fact Sheet on IOLTA,
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1011300749.75/Fact%20Sheet%20on%20IOLT
A.PDF.

Order Amending Ala. Rules of Professional Conduct, Rule 1.15 (Ala.) (Sept. 27, 2007),
available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1193320333.25/AL%20Rule%201%2015%20IO
LTA%20mandatory.pdf.

Order No. 07-8500 (N.M. Aug. 28, 2007) (approval of the 2007 Annual Report of the
N.M. Comm’n on Access to Justice), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1188770223.85/NM%20SC%20order%208-
07.pdf.

Order Promulgating Amendments to the Rules of Professional Conduct, Order No. C8-
84-1650 (Minn.) (Dec. 21, 2006), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1169072821.18/MN Order on new IOLTA rule
                                                                                         Gorman 17


12-06.doc.

Petition for reh’g, Wash. Legal Found. v. Tex. Equal Access to Justice Found., 271 F.3d
835 (5th Cir. 2001) (Oct. 26, 2001) (No. 00-50139), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1004570293.73/Petition%20for%20Rehearing-
II%20Oct%202001%205th%20Circuit%20Decision.pdf.

Richard Zorza, Access to Justice and Self-Help Program Stakeholder Analysis (Nat’l
Legal Aid & Defender Ass’n/AARP Evaluation Meeting, Working Paper 2002),
available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1018541513.96/zorza%20pro%20se%20stakehol
der.doc.

Robert Derocher & Marilyn Cavicchia, Tough Times, Creative Solutions: New Sources of
Funding for the Poor, A.B.A. BAR LEADER Nov.-Dec. 2004, available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1119989473.83/Bar%20Leader%20article
Tough%20Times.doc

Wash. Legal Found. v. Legal Found. of Wash., 271 F.3d 835 (9th Cir. 2001) (en banc),
available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1005776814.2/9th%20Circuit%20En%20Banc%
20opinion%2C%20November%202001.pdf.

                 3. Right to Counsel

                         a. National Coalition for a Civil Right to Counsel

        The National Coalition for a Civil Right to Counsel 47 is an association of
individuals and organizations committed to encouraging, supporting, and coordinating
advocacy to expand recognition and implementation of a right to counsel in civil cases.
The organization was founded in 2004 as the result of a workshop at the annual
conference of the NLADA. Its website offers a compilation of recently published articles
and analyses focusing on efforts to bring about a civil Gideon infrastructure. Included
are a number proscriptive policy articles about a civil right to counsel, 48 as well as a
series of studies detailing the need for no-cost representation in housing courts and other
civil fora that most affect people of low socioeconomic status. 49
        Among the several scholarly and practitioner articles discussing a civil right to
counsel, NLADA offers Russel Engler’s trailblazing article calling for the recognition of

47
   http://civilrightotocounsel.org
48
   See, e.g., Paul Marvy & Debra Gardner, A Civil Right to Counsel for the Poor, 32 HUMAN RIGHTS 3, 8
(2005), available at: http://www.civilrighttocounsel.org/pdfs/Human%20Rights%20-
%20A%20Civil%20Right%20to%20Counsel.pdf.
49
   See, e.g., CHICAGO-KENT COLLEGE OF LAW CLASS OF 2004 HONORS SCHOLARS, LAWYER’S COMMITTEE
FOR BETTER HOUSING, NO T IME FOR JUSTICE: A STUDY OF CHICAGO’S EVICTION CENTER (2003), available
at: http://lcbh.org/images/2008/10/chicago-eviction-court-study.pdf.; Chester Hartman and David
Robinson, Evictions: The Hidden Housing Problem, 14 Housing Policy Debate 461-502 (2003), available
at: http://www.saje.net/atf/cf/%7B493B2790-DD4E-4ED0-8F4E-C78E8F3A7561%7D/Evictions.pdf.
                                                                                            Gorman 18


a narrow, context-based right to counsel rather than a broad constitutional guarantee. 50
This more refined view of civil Gideon has become the focus of recent efforts in
California, 51 and is reflected by several of the other articles catalogued here from the
NLADA website, which generally advocate a right to counsel in limited case areas such
as housing 52 or asylum adjudication. 53

Andrew Scherer, The Importance of Collaborating to Secure a Civil Right to Counsel,
PARTNERS IN JUSTICE: A COLLOQUIUM ON DEVELOPING COLLABORATIONS AMONG
COURTS, LAW SCHOOL CLINICAL PROGRAMS, AND THE PRACTICING BAR (New York State
Judicial Institute, May 9, 2005), available at:
http://www.civilrighttocounsel.org/pdfs/Scherer.pdf.

Carrol Seron et al. Impact of Legal Counsel on Outcomes for Poor Tenants in New York
City’s Housing Court: Results of a Randomized Experiment, 35 LAW & SOC. REV. 419
(2001), available at:
http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3757/is_200101/ai_n8942109.

Chester Hartman and David Robinson, Evictions: The Hidden Housing Problem, 14
HOUSING POLICY DEBATE 461-502 (2003), available at:
http://www.saje.net/atf/cf/%7B493B2790-DD4E-4ED0-8F4E-
C78E8F3A7561%7D/Evictions.pdf.

CHICAGO-KENT COLLEGE OF LAW CLASS OF 2004 HONORS SCHOLARS, LAWYER’S
COMMITTEE FOR BETTER HOUSING, NO TIME FOR JUSTICE: A STUDY OF CHICAGO’S
EVICTION CENTER (2003), available at: http://lcbh.org/images/2008/10/chicago-eviction-
court-study.pdf.

Hon. Earl Johnson, Jr., Equal Access to Justice: Comparing Access to Justice in the
United States and Other Industrial Democracies, FORDHAM INT'L L.J. S83, S83-S110
(2000), available at: http://www.civilrighttocounsel.org/pdfs/earljohnson2.pdf.

Hon. Earl Johnson, Jr., Will Gideon’s Trumpet Sound a New Melody? The Globalization
of Constitutional Values and its Implications for a Right to Equal Justice in Civil Cases,
2 SEATTLE J. FOR SOC. JUST. 201, 201-232 (2003), available at:
http://www.civilrighttocounsel.org/pdfs/earljohnson1.pdf.

50
   Russell Engler, Shaping a Context-Based Civil Gideon from the Dynamics of Social Change, 15 TEMP.
POL. & CIV. RTS. L. REV. 697 (2006), available at:
http://www.civilrighttocounsel.org/pdfs/englercontextbased.pdf.
51
   See The California Model Statute Task Force, 40 Clearinghouse Review 176 (2006); cf. California
Access to Justice Commission, State Basic Access Act (2008), http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-
/Justice/State%20Basic%20Access%20Act%20Feb%2008.pdf.
52
   Chester Hartman and David Robinson, Evictions: The Hidden Housing Problem, 14 HOUSING POLICY
DEBATE 461-502 (2003), available at: http://www.saje.net/atf/cf/%7B493B2790-DD4E-4ED0-8F4E-
C78E8F3A7561%7D/Evictions.pdf.
53
   Jaya Ramji-Nogales et al., Refugee Roulette: Disparities in Asylum Adjudication, 60 STAN. L. R. 295,
295-412 (2007), available at: http://lawreview.stanford.edu/content/vol60/issue2/RefugeeRoulette.pdf.
                                                                             Gorman 19



James Neuhard, Gideon Redux: A Defender’s View, 28 CORNERSTONE Fall 2006, at 5, 31,
available at: http://www.civilrighttocounsel.org/pdfs/Neuhard%20-
%20Gideon%20Redux%20A%20Defender%27s%20View.pdf.

Jane Pribek, Case Raises Civil Gideon Issue, WIS. LAW JOURNAL March 22, 2006,
available at:
http://www.civilrighttocounsel.org/pdfs/WI%20Law%20Journal%20Mar%2006.pdf.

Jaya Ramji-Nogales et al., Refugee Roulette: Disparities in Asylum Adjudication, 60
STAN. L. R. 295, 295-412 (2007), available at:
http://lawreview.stanford.edu/content/vol60/issue2/RefugeeRoulette.pdf.

LAURA K. ABEL & KIRA KRENICHYN, RESULTS FROM THREE SURVEYS IN NEW YORK CITY
HOUSING COURTS (2007), available at:
http://www.civilrighttocounsel.org/pdfs/NYCHousingCourts.pdf.

Mary Deutsch Schneider, Trumpeting Civil Gideon: An Idea Whose Time Has Come? 63
BENCH & BAR OF MINN. (April 2006), available at:
http://www2.mnbar.org/benchandbar/2006/apr06/gideon.htm.

Michael D. Fox, A Defined Right to Counsel: An Idea Whose Time Has Come?, CONN.
LAWYER April 2006, at pp. 14-17, available at:
http://www.civilrighttocounsel.org/pdfs/Connecticut%20Bar%20Journal%20Apr%20200
6.pdf.

N.Y. COUNTY LAWYER’S ASS’N, THE NEW YORK CITY HOUSING COURT IN THE 21ST
CENTURY: CAN IT BETTER ADDRESS THE PROBLEMS BEFORE IT? (2005), available at:
http://www.nycla.org/siteFiles/Publications/Publications195_0.pdf.

OFFICE OF THE DEPUTY CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE JUDGE FOR JUSTICE INITIATIVES, NEW
YORK STATE UNIFIED COURT SYSTEM, SELF REPRESENTED LITIGANTS: CHARACTERISTICS,
NEEDS, SERVICES (2005), available at:
http://www.nycourts.gov/reports/AJJI_SelfRep06.pdf.

Paul Marvy, Advocacy for a Civil Right to Counsel: An Update, CLEARINGHOUSE REVIEW
March-April 2008, at pp. 644-650, available at:
http://www.civilrighttocounsel.org/pdfs/MarvyMarchApril.pdf.

Paul Marvy & Debra Gardner, A Civil Right to Counsel for the Poor, 32 HUMAN RIGHTS
3, 8 (2005), available at: http://www.civilrighttocounsel.org/pdfs/Human%20Rights%20-
%20A%20Civil%20Right%20to%20Counsel.pdf.

Right to Civil Counsel ("Civil Gideon"), TORTDEFORM, THE CIVIL JUSTICE DEFENSE
BLOG, Nov. 21, 2007,
http://www.tortdeform.com/archives/2007/11/right_to_civil_counsel_civilgi_1.html
                                                                                           Gorman 20



Robert Derocher, Access to Justice: Is Civil Gideon a Piece of the Puzzle? 32 ABA BAR
LEADER, July-August 2008, available at: http://www.abanet.org/barserv/blarch.html,
follow “Volume 32, Issue 6: July - August 2008,” then follow “Access to Justice: Is Civil
Gideon a Piece of the Puzzle?”

Russell Engler, Shaping a Context-Based Civil Gideon from the Dynamics of Social
Change, 15 TEMP. POL. & CIV. RTS. L. REV. 697 (2006), available at:
http://www.civilrighttocounsel.org/pdfs/englercontextbased.pdf.

                          b. American Bar Association

         In 2006, the ABA’s Board of Governors passed a resolution endorsing a civil
right to counsel “in those categories of adversarial proceedings where basic human needs
are at stake, such as those involving shelter, sustenance, safety, health or child custody, as
determined by each jurisdiction.” 54 This bold statement added a strong voice in support
of a civil Gideon right, and the ABA website offers several resources detailing responses
to its efforts in the last several years. One of the most notable of these responses is a
series of model statutes developed by the California Access to Justice Commission and
offered on the ABA website. The "State Basic Access Act," published in March 2008, is
a model for a narrow right to counsel which attaches to certain basic needs, defined in the
Act as shelter, sustenance, safety, health, and child custody. 55

Bd. of Governors, A.B.A., Resolution 112A (August 7, 2006), available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/sclaid/downloads/06A112A.pdf.

Model Statute Task Force, California Commission on Access to Justice, State Basic
Access Act (2008), available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/sclaid/atjresourcecenter/downloads/ca_state_basic_a
ccess_act_feb_08.pdf.

SPECIAL TASK FORCE ON EXPANDING CIVIL RIGHT TO COUNSEL, BOSTON BAR ASS’N,
GIDEON’S NEW TRUMPET: EXPANDING THE CIVIL RIGHT TO COUNSEL IN MASSACHUSETTS
(2008), available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/sclaid/atjresourcecenter/downloads/gideons_new_tru
mpet_9-08.pdf.

                          c. Brennan Center for Justice




54
   Bd. of Governors, A.B.A., Resolution 112A (August 7, 2006), available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/sclaid/downloads/06A112A.pdf.
55
   Model Statute Task Force, California Commission on Access to Justice, State Basic Access Act (2008),
available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/sclaid/atjresourcecenter/downloads/ca_state_basic_access_act_feb_08.
pdf.
                                                                                           Gorman 21


        The Brennan Center for Justice offers several self-published reports detailing state
efforts at recognizing a civil right to counsel. It has published a white paper, Access to
Justice: Opening the Courthouse Door, that includes recognition of civil Gideon rights in
certain cases as a key component of improving access to justice. 56 The Brennan Center’s
work in this area has culminated in the adoption of a Brennan Center report by the New
York State Bar Association, which endorses a right to counsel in cases involving
eviction, foreclosure, unemployment, and insurance appeals. 57

DAVID UDELL & REBEKAH DILLER, ACCESS TO JUSTICE: OPENING THE COURTHOUSE
DOOR (2007), available at: http://brennan.3cdn.net/297f4fabb202470c67_3vm6i6ar9.pdf.

Laura Abel, Make “You Have the Right to a Lawyer” a Reality in Housing Court, 35
TENANT INQUILINO 3 (2005), available at:
http://www.brennancenter.org/content/resource/make_you_have_the_right_to_a_lawyer_
a_reality_in_housing_court/.

LAURA ABEL, N.Y. STATE BAR ASS’N, TOWARD A RIGHT TO COUNSEL IN CIVIL CASES IN
NEW YORK STATE (2008), available at:
http://brennan.3cdn.net/b970e1461bb4335c97_qvm6ii53s.pdf.

LAURA K. ABEL & KIRA KRENICHYN, BRENNAN CTR. FOR JUSTICE, RESULTS FROM THREE
SURVEYS OF TENANTS FACING EVICTION IN NEW YORK CITY HOUSING COURT (2007),
available at: http://brennan.3cdn.net/fe2a4234ce30fddaf3_8rm6v2aup.pdf.

Laura K. Abel & Max Rettig, State Statutes Providing for a Right to Counsel in Civil
Cases, 40 CLEARINGHOUSE REVIEW July-Aug. 2006, pp. 245-270, available at:
http://brennan.3cdn.net/2f2ca53878e9299012_67m6ib9tv.pdf.

                          c. NLADA E-Library

        NLADA hosts a small number of resources focusing on a civil right to counsel.
In addition to reproducing several resources already covered in this bibliography,
NLADA offers a handful of unique topical articles on the issue.

Access to Justice in Civil Cases: A Right Whose Time Has Come (Interview with
Anthony Doniger, Boston Bar President), METROPOLITAN CORPORATE COUNSEL August
2007, at p. 60, available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1188499180.42/Civil%20Gideon%20Boston%20
Bar%20article%207-07.pdf.

John Nethercut, “This Issue Will Not Go Away”: Continuing to Seek to Right to Counsel
in Civil Cases, CLEARINGHOUSE REVIEW Nov.-Dec. 2004, pp. 481-490, available at:

56
   DAVID UDELL & REBEKAH DILLER, ACCESS TO JUSTICE: OPENING THE COURTHOUSE DOOR (2007),
available at: http://brennan.3cdn.net/297f4fabb202470c67_3vm6i6ar9.pdf.
57
   Laura Abel, N.Y. State Bar Ass’n, Toward a Right to Counsel in Civil Cases in New York State (2008),
available at: http://brennan.3cdn.net/b970e1461bb4335c97_qvm6ii53s.pdf.
                                                                                                Gorman 22


http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1112219037.89/nethercut%20article%20civil%2
0gideon.pdf.

Right to Counsel for Low-Income Seniors Facing Eviction & Foreclosure (Bill submitted
to N.Y. City Council) (Nov. 2007), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1197407975.79/NYC%20CRTC%20bill.pdf.

Steven Cishke, George Endorses Free Legal Services in ‘Core’ Civil Matters,
METROPOLITAN NEWS-ENTERPRISE October 10, 2006, available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1161367539.74/CA Chief Justice endorses Civil
Gideon.doc.


         B. Nonlawyer and Pro Se Assistance

        Nonlawyer and Pro Se Assistance has been long recognized as a key counterpart
to the improved delivery of legal services to low-income clients. 58 Many resources on
the Internet are available to self-represented litigants, including websites maintained by
the Self-Represented Litigation Network’s SelfHelpSupport.org, 59 and the American Pro
Se Network, 60 among others. In contrast, the materials catalogued here are limited to
those that are of interest to researchers, policymakers, and activists in the search for non-
lawyer and other low-cost solutions to unmet legal needs.

                  1. NLADA E-Library

        The NLADA’s E-Library contains a compilation of resources from many states
detailing recent efforts to survey and meet the needs of pro se litigants in state courts.

ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE OF THE COURT, CALIFORNIA JUDICIAL COUNCIL, GUIDELINES
FOR THE OPERATION OF SELF-HELP CENTERS IN CALIFORNIA TRIAL COURTS (2008),
available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1211298292.3/self_help_center_guidelines.pdf.

ALASKA SUPREME COURT FAIRNESS AND ACCESS IMPLEMENTATION COMMITTEE, 2007
STATUS REPORT (2007), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1211296786.89/AK%20Status%20Report%20SC
%20Fairness%20and%20Access%20Implementation%20Committee.pdf.

Andrea R. Barter, Limited Assistance Representation Pilot Program Begins Nov. 1,
MASS. BAR ASS’N LAWYERS JOURNAL October 2006, available at:
58
   For a discussion of how self-representation is consistent with a civil right to counsel, see Russel Engler,
Connecting Self-Representation to Civil Gideon: What Existing Data Reveal About When Counsel is Most
Needed (unpublished draft) (2008), available at:
http://www.law.stanford.edu/display/images/dynamic/events_media/Connecting%20Self-
Rep%20to%20Civil%20Gid%20-Engler.doc.
59
   http://www.selfhelpsupport.org
60
   http://www.legalhelp.org/
                                                                              Gorman 23


http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1161368220.88/MA%20unbundled%20project%
20article%2010-06.pdf.

Arkansas Access to Justice Commission, Survey of Arkansas Court Clerks Regarding
Self-Represented Litigation (2005), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1133280317.45/ArkansasClerksProSeSurvey.doc

CALIFORNIA ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE OF COURTS, HANDLING CASES INVOLVING SELF-
REPRESENTED LITIGANTS: A BENCHGUIDE FOR JUDICIAL OFFICERS (2007), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1176151729.08/CA%20pro%20se%20Benchboo
k.pdf.

CALIFORNIA COMM. ON ACCESS TO JUSTICE, LANGUAGE BARRIERS TO JUSTICE IN
CALIFORNIA (2005), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1133279692.49/CA%20Language%20Barriers%
20to%20Justice%20in%20California.doc.

Clerk of Courts Work Group, South Carolina Access to Justice Commission, Clerk of
Court Sign (printable sign) (2008), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1221058084.63/Weclome%20to%20the%20SC
%20Court%20SIGNAGE%20-%20pdf.pdf.

Conference of Chief Justices, Res. 23, Leadership to Promote Equal Justice (January 25,
2001), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1051819795.3/CONFERENCE OF CHIEF
JUSTICES resolution.doc.

COMM. ON LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY, JUSTICE ACTION GROUP, ACCESS TO MAINE
COURTS FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY (2005), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1107631241.63/LEP%20FINAL%20REPORT%
20%20%201-6-05.doc.

DEPUTY ADMINISTRATIVE JUDGE FOR JUSTICE INITIATIVES, NEW YORK STATE UNIFIED
COURTS, SELF REPRESENTED LITIGANTS: CHARACTERISTICS, NEEDS, AND SERVICES – THE
RESULT OF TWO SURVEYS (2005), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1139859074.94/NY%20Pro%20Se%20Report%
20120-5.pdf.

Jim Bamberger, Civil Justice and the Judiciary: The Equal Justice Challenge (National
Conference of Chief Justices and National Conference of Court Administrators, August
1, 2001), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1001013553.02/bamberger paper.doc.

John Broderick, Jr., Chief Justice of N.H., Address at the Nat’l Meeting of State Access
to Justice Chairs (May 9, 2008) in DIALOGUE (Standing Comm. on Legal Aid, A.B.A.,
Chi. Ill.) Summer 2008, at 28-32, available at:
                                                                           Gorman 24


http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1219779973.18/Broderick%20speech%206-
08%20Dialogue.pdf.

Montana Self-Help Law Program (2008),
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1200761170.23/MT%20Program%20Update%20
and%20Request%20for%20Proposals.rtf.

NAT’L CTR. FOR STATE COURTS, BEST PRACTICES IN COURT-BASED PROGRAMS FOR THE
SELF-REPRESENTED: CONCEPTS, ATTRIBUTES, AND ISSUES FOR EXPLORATION (2006),
available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1165876464.59/KIS_ProSeBestPracticesSRLN.p
df.

N.Y. DEPUTY CHIEF JUDGE FOR JUSTICE INITIATIVES, 1999 ANNUAL REPORT (2000),
available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1001012090.19/DCAJJI2000Rep.pdf.

Richard Zorza, Access to Justice and Self-Help Program Stakeholder Analysis (Nat’l
Legal Aid & Defender Ass’n/AARP Evaluation Meeting, Working Paper 2002),
available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1018541513.96/zorza%20pro%20se%20stakehol
der.doc.

Richard Zorza, Analysis of Pro Se Innovation Goals by Substantive Area (Nat’l Legal
Aid & Defender Ass’n/AARP Evaluation Meeting, Working Paper 2002), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1018542459.25/zorza%20pro%20se%20xls.xls.

Richard Zorza, Pro Se/Self Help Innovation Research and Evaluation Questions (Nat’l
Legal Aid & Defenders Ass’n/AARP Evaluation Meeting, Working Paper 2002),
available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1018542102.58/zorza%20pro%20se%20question
s.doc.

Richard Zorza, Self Represented Litigation Network, News from the Self Represented
Litigation Network (2007),
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1181074368.27/SRLN%20news-6-07.doc.

SELF-REPRESENTED WORKING GROUP, NEW MEXICO ACCESS TO JUSTICE COMMISSION,
NEW MEXICO SELF-REPRESENTED LITIGANTS REPORT (2007), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1180971757.68/NM%20Self%20-
Rep%20report%205-07%20final.doc.

Standing Comm. on Ethics & Professional Responsibility, A.B.A., Formal Op. 07-446,
Undisclosed Legal Assistance to Pro Se Litigants (May 5, 2007), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1185213796.98/ABA%20ghostwriting%20opini
on%206-07.pdf.
                                                                                               Gorman 25



Wallace B. Jefferson, Chief Justice, The State of the Judiciary in Texas, Address before
Texas Legislature (February 23, 2005), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1109278654.99/TX%20State%20of%20the%20J
udicary%20-%202005.pdf.

WORK GROUP ON SELF-REPRESENTATION, MARYLAND JUDICIARY, CLEARING A PATH TO
JUSTICE (2007), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1193170796.19/MD%20selfrepresentation0807.p
df.

                  2. American Bar Association

        The ABA’s Access to Justice Resource Center 61 offers a compiled resource guide
for access to justice commissions reproduced from the Self-Represented Litigants
Network, an otherwise membership-limited organization dedicated to improving pro se
services in the courts. 62 Adding a voice into the vigorous debate about unbundled, or
limited-scope legal services, the Standing Committee on the Delivery of Legal Services
offers a white paper, entitled An Analysis of Rules that Enable Lawyers to Serve Pro Se
Litigants, examining rules that clarify the role of lawyers who assist self-represented
litigants. 63 The paper discusses recently adopted model rules, as well as several rules
within the states' ethics codes and rules of procedure.
        The ABA Standing Committee on the Delivery of Legal Services hosts a
“Delivery Clearinghouse” that has an extensive bibliography of articles, books and
reports, ethics opinions, court rules, and other resources on pro se support services. 64 The
Delivery Clearinghouse is organized into five topics: history, public policy,
advice/counseling, document preparation (“ghostwriting”), and limited appearances. 65
The articles, books, and reports from the Delivery Clearinghouse available online are
catalogued here below. 66

A.B.A. SEC. OF LITIGATION, HANDBOOK ON LIMITED SCOPE LEGAL ASSISTANCE (2003),
available at: http://www.abanet.org/litigation/taskforces/modest/report.pdf.

ALBERT H. CANTRIL, A.B.A., AGENDA FOR ACCESS: THE AMERICAN PEOPLE AND CIVIL
JUSTICE -- FINAL REPORT OF THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE COMPREHENSIVE LEGAL NEEDS


61
   http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/sclaid/atjresourcecenter/resourcematerials.html
62
   See SELF-REPRESENTED LITIGATION NETWORK, MATERIALS FOR ACCESS TO JUSTICE COMMISSIONS
(2007), available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/sclaid/atjresourcecenter/downloads/SRLcomplete.pdf;
63
   (2005), available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/downloads/delivery/prosewhitepaperfeb2005.pdf
64
   http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/downloads/delivery/proseresourcebyissue.html.
65
   Id.
66
   All of the resources in the Delivery Clearinghouse, plus many additional unlinked references relating
specifically to unbundled resources are available at the Pro Se/Unbundling Resource Center,
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/delivery/delunbund.html.
                                                                               Gorman 26


STUDY (1996), available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/downloads/sclaid/agendaforaccess.pdf.

Albrecht, et al, Judicial Techniques for Cases Involving Self-Representing Litigants, 42
Judges' Journal 16 (Winter 2003), available at:
http://www.zorza.net/JudicalTech.JJWi03.pdf.

AMERICAN JUDICATURE SOCIETY, PRO SE POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS (Mar. 2002),
http://www.ajs.org/prose/pdfs/Policy%20Recom.pdf.

Anthony P. Capozzi, Responding to the Pro Per Crisis, CALIFORNIA BAR JOURNAL, Feb.
2004, available at:
http://www.calbar.ca.gov/state/calbar/calbar_cbj.jsp?sCategoryPath=/Home/Attorney%2
0Resources/California%20Bar%20Journal/February2004, follow “Opinion,” then follow
“From the President”.

Barrie Althoff, Ethics and the Law: Ethical Considerations for Lawyers and Judges
When Dealing with Unrepresented Persons, Washington State Bar News (Jan. 2000),
available at: http://www.wsba.org/media/publications/barnews/archives/2000/jan-00-
ethics.htm.

Barrie Althoff, Limiting the Scope of Your Representation: Questions of Cost, Candor,
and Disclosure, Washington State Bar News (Jul. 1997), available at:
http://www.wsba.org/media/publications/barnews/ethics/jul2-97-ethics.htm.

Barrie Althoff, Limiting the Scope of Your Representation: When Your Client Wants, or
Can Afford, Only Part of You, Washington State Bar News (Jun. 1997) available at:
http://www.wsba.org/media/publications/barnews/ethics/jul-97-ethics.htm.

Bradley A. Vauter, Unbundling: Filling the Gap, 79 MICH. BAR JOURNAL 1688 (2000),
available at:
http://www.michbar.org/journal/article.cfm?articleID=159&volumeID=14&viewType=ar
chive.

Catherine J. Lanctot, Attorney-Client Relationships in Cyberspace: The Perils and the
Promise, 49 DUKE L. J. 147 (1999), available at:
http://www.law.duke.edu/journals/dlj/articles/dlj49p147.htm.

CHARLES P. KINDREGAN JR., & PATRICIA A. KINDREGAN, MASSACHUSETTS PROBATE AND
FAMILY COURT DEPARTMENT PRO SE LITIGANTS: THE CHALLENGE OF THE FUTURE
(1999), available at:
http://www.mass.gov/courts/courtsandjudges/courts/probateandfamilycourt/prosefinalrep
ort.pdf.
                                                                             Gorman 27


COMM. ON PRO SE PARTIES AND CIVIL JUSTICE REFORM, FINAL REPORT OF THE
GOVERNOR'S TASK FORCE ON CIVIL JUSTICE REFORM, (Colo. 1990), available at:
http://www.state.co.us/cjrtf/report/download/report4.doc.

COMM. TASK FORCE ON THE DELIVERY OF LEGAL SERVICES, REPORT TO THE UTAH STATE
BAR COMMISSION (2003), available at:
http://www.utahbar.org/documents/dlscommissionreportjuly2003.pdf.

CONFERENCE ON PRO SE LITIGATION, FLORIDA TEAM REPORT (2000), available at:
http://www.flcourts.org/gen_public/family/bin/arizonareport.pdf.

Courts and the Self-Represented -- The Road Ahead (Editorial), 84 AMERICAN
JUDICATURE SOCIETY 300 (2001), available at:
http://www.ajs.org/prose/pro_editorial.asp.

Dianne Molvig, Unbundling Legal Services, 70 THE WIS. LAWYER, Sept. 1997, at 10,
available at: http://www.wisbar.org/wislawmag/1997/09/bundle.html.

Ethics and the Law: Ethical Considerations for Lawyers and Judges When Dealing with
Unrepresented Persons, WASH. STATE BAR NEWS (Jan. 2000), available at:
http://www.wsba.org/media/publications/barnews/archives/2000/jan-00-ethics.htm.

Fern Fisher-Brandveen and Rochelle Klempner, Abstract, Unbundled Legal Services:
Untying the Bundle in New York State, 29 FORDHAM URBAN L. J. 1107 (2002), available
at: http://law.fordham.edu/publications/article.ihtml?pubID=400&id=1354.


FLORIDA BAR ASSOCIATION, REPORT OF THE UNBUNDLED LEGAL SERVICES SPECIAL
COMMITTEE II (2002), available at:
http://www.floridasupremecourt.org/decisions/probin/sc02-2035.pdf.

FORREST S. MOSTEN, A.B.A., UNBUNDLING LEGAL SERVICES: A GUIDE TO DELIVERING
LEGAL SERVICES A LA CARTE (2000), available at:
http://abastore.abanet.org/abastore/index.cfm?section=main&fm=Product.AddToCart&pi
d=5110448.

James M. McCauley, Current Ethical and Unauthorized Practice Issues Relating to
Endeavors to Assist Pro Se Litigants, 51 Virginia Lawyer 43 (2002), available at:
http://www.vsb.org/publications/valawyer/dec02/access.pdf.

JOHN GREACEN, CALIFORNIA ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE OF THE COURTS, SELF-
REPRESENTED LITIGANTS AND COURT AND LEGAL SERVICES RESPONSES TO THEIR NEEDS:
WHAT WE KNOW (2002), available at:
http://www.lri.lsc.gov/pdf/02/020045_selfrep_litigants&whatweknow.pdf.
                                                                             Gorman 28


John Greacen, Legal Information vs. Legal Advice: Developments During the Last Five
Years, 84 AMERICAN JUDICATURE SOCIETY 198 (2001), available at:
http://www.ajs.org/prose/pro_greacen.asp.

John L. Kane, Jr., Debunking Unbundling, 29 THE COLORADO LAWYER, Feb. 2000, at 15,
available at: http://www.cobar.org/tcl/tcl_articles.cfm?ArticleID=925.

John Sheldon and Peter Murray, Rethinking the Rules of Evidentiary Admissibility in
Non-Jury Trials, 86 AMERICAN JUDICATURE SOCIETY at 227 (2003), available at:
http://www.ajs.org/prose/pdfs/Sheldon.pdf.

Kan. Justice Initiative Commission, Draft Final Report, Recommendation 15:
Unbundling Legal Services (1999), available at:
http://www.kscourts.org/kcji/draft/ratrec15.htm.

Kathleen M. Sampson, Meeting the Pro Se Challenge: An Update, 84 AMERICAN
JUDICATURE SOCIETY 326 (2001), available at:
http://www.ajs.org/prose/pro_sampson.asp.

Kathleen O’Leary and Geoffrey L. Robinson, California, Improving Language Access,
22 MANAGEMENT INFORMATION EXCHANGE Spring 2008, at 13, available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/sclaid/atjresourcecenter/downloads/language_access
_mie_2008.pdf.

Kim Prochnau, Slicing the Onion: Rules of Professional Conduct and Court Rules Make
It Easier for Private and Non-Profit Legal Practitioners to Provide "Unbundled" Legal
Servcies, WASHINGTON STATE BAR NEWS, Apr. 2003, available at:
http://www.wsba.org/media/publications/barnews/2003/apr-03-prochnau.htm.

LIMITED REPRESENTATION COMM,, CAL. COMM. ON ACCESS TO JUSTICE FAMILY LAW
LIMITED REPRESENTATION RISK MANAGEMENT MATERIALS (2004), available at:
http://calbar.ca.gov/calbar/pdfs/accessjustice/Risk-Management-Packet_2004-01-12.pdf.

LIMITED REPRESENTATION COMM., CAL. COMM. ON ACCESS TO JUSTICE, REPORT ON
LIMITED SCOPE LEGAL ASSISTANCE WITH INITIAL RECOMMENDATIONS, (2001), available
at: http://www.unbundledlaw.org/States/Limited_scope_report.htm.

MASS. PROBATE AND FAMILY COURT DEPARTMENT, PRO SE LITIGANTS: THE CHALLENGE
OF THE FUTURE (1999) available at:
http://www.state.ma.us/courts/courtsandjudges/courts/probateandfamilycourt/.

Melody Kay Fuller, Unbundling Family Law Practice Creates Pro Bono Opportunities,
27 THE COLORADO LAWYER 29 (Sept. 1998), available at:
http://www.cobar.org/tcl/tcl_articles.cfm?ArticleID=1306.
                                                                           Gorman 29


Memorandum, Rob Bare, Nev. State Bar, Ethics Issues Regarding the Concept of
Unbundled Legal Services (Mar. 31, 1999), available at:
http://www.unbundledlaw.org/States/nevada_memo.htm.

MINN. CONFERENCES OF CHIEF JUSTICES, REPORT OF THE MINNESOTA CONFERENCE ON
CHIEF JUSTICES COMMITTEE ON THE TREATMENT OF LITIGANTS AND PRO SE LITIGATION
(1996), available at:
http://www.unbundledlaw.org/Recommendations/Sourcematerials/Minnesotachiefjudges.
htm.

N.H. Bar Ass’n Ethics Comm., Unbundled Services -- Assisting the Pro Se Litigant,
PRACTICAL ETHICS, May 12, 1999, available at: http://www.nhbar.org/pdfs/PEA5-99.pdf.

N.Y. STATE BAR ASS’N, REPORT AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON “UNBUNDLED” LEGAL
SERVICES (2002), available at:
http://www.nysba.org/Content/ContentGroups/News1/Reports3/middleincomereport.pdf.

OFFICE OF THE STATE COURTS ADMINISTRATOR, FLORIDA SUPREME COURT, A NATIONAL
INDIANA SUPREME COURT PRO SE ADVISORY COMMITTEE, ASSISTING THE INDIANA
JUDICIAL SYSTEM: SOLUTIONS TO SELF-REPRESENTATION (2002), available at:
http://www.in.gov/judiciary/selfservice/docs/0502rept.pdf.

Paula L. Hannaford-Agor, Helping the Pro Se Litigant: A Changing Landscape, COURT
REVIEW, Winter 2003, at 8, available at: http://aja.ncsc.dni.us/courtrv/cr39_4/CR39-
4Hannaford.pdf.

PRO SE IMPLEMENTATION COMMITTEE, MINN. STATE BAR ASS’N, RECOMMENDATIONS
AND REPORT, (2002), http://www2.mnbar.org/committees/pro-
se/Report%20and%20Recommendations%20June%2012%202002_v1_.pdf.

PRO SE LITIGATION COMMITTEE, JUDICIAL COUNCIL OF GEORGIA, REPORT AND
RECOMMENDATIONS (1998),
http://www.unbundledlaw.org/Recommendations/Sourcematerials/Georgia.htm.

PRO SE TASK FORCE, N.C. BAR ASS’N, CAUGHT IN THE MIDDLE: 2003 REPORT AND
RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE NORTH CAROLINA BAR ASSOCIATION PRO SE TASK FORCE
(2003), available at:
http://www.ncbar.org/public/proBonoPublicService/proSeReport.pdf.

REPORT OF THE NEBRASKA SUPREME COURT COMMITTEE ON PRO SE LITIGATION (2002),
available at: http://court.nol.org/community/pro_se_report.pdf.

REPRESENTED LITIGANTS IN THE VIRGINIA COURT SYSTEM (2002), available at:
http://www.courts.state.va.us/publications/pro_se_report.pdf.
                                                                           Gorman 30


Richard Zorza, Support for Self-Represented Litigants, 22 MANAGEMENT INFORMATION
EXCHANGE JOURNAL Spring 2008, at 43-44, available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/sclaid/atjresourcecenter/downloads/self-
represented_litigants_mie_2008.pdf.

RICHARD ZORZA, THE SELF-HELP FRIENDLY COURT: DESIGNED FROM THE GROUND UP TO
WORK FOR PEOPLE (2002), available at:
http://www.lri.lsc.gov/pdf/03/030111_selfhelpct.pdf.

Self-Represented Litigation Network, Materials for Access to Justice Commissions
(2007), available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/sclaid/atjresourcecenter/downloads/SRLcomplete.pd
f.

Standing Comm. on Delivery of Legal Services, A.B.A., An Analysis of Rules that
Enable Lawyers to Serve Pro Se Litigants (White Paper, 2005), available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/downloads/delivery/prosewhitepaperfeb2005.pdf.

STANDING COMM. ON DELIVERY OF LEGAL SERVICES, A.B.A., INNOVATIONS IN THE
DELIVERY OF LEGAL SERVICES: ALTERNATIVES AND EMERGING MODELS FOR THE
PRACTICING LAWYER (2002), available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/downloads/delivery/innovations.pdf.

STANDING COMM. ON DELIVERY OF LEGAL SERVICES, A.B.A., REPORT ON THE HEARING
ON ACCESS TO JUSTICE (2002), available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/downloads/delivery/reportpublichearingonaccesstoju
stice.pdf.

STATE BAR OF WIS., REPORT OF THE COMMISSION ON THE DELIVERY OF LEGAL SERVICES
(1996), available at:
http://www.wisbar.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Search&section=Reports_and_Surve
ys&template=/CM/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentFileID=6129.

STATE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE JUDICIAL BRANCH, CHALLENGE TO JUSTICE: A REPORT ON
SELF-REPRESENTED LITIGANTS IN NEW HAMPSHIRE COURTS (2004), available at:
http://www.courts.state.nh.us/supreme/prosereport.pdf

STATEWIDE ACTION PLAN FOR SERVING SELF-REPRESENTED LITIGANTS IN CALIFORNIA
(2002), available at:
http://www.courtinfo.ca.gov/reference/documents/selfreplitsrept.pdf.

WILLIAM HORNSBY, A.B.A. STANDING COMM. ON DELIVERY OF LEGAL SERVICES,
IMPROVING THE DELIVERY OF AFFORDABLE LEGAL SERVICES THROUGH THE INTERNET: A
BLUEPRINT FOR THE SHIFT TO A DIGITAL PARADIGM (1999),
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/delivery/deltech.html
                                                                                             Gorman 31


                 3. National Center for State Courts Digital Archive

        The NCSC’s Digital Archive offers many different resources covering the needs
of pro se litigants in state court. Perhaps the most comprehensive report on the subject is
Best Practices in Court-Based Programs for the Self-Represented: Concepts, Attributes,
Issues for Exploration, Examples, Contacts, and Resources (2008), a report by the Self-
Represented Litigation Network providing best practices, links, examples, and guidelines
for self-help centers and other court-based programs for pro se litigants. 67 The NCSC
also offers a number of papers studying individual court pro se support systems,
developed by court professionals in the Institute for Court Management’s Court
Executive Development Program. 68

Bonnie Rose Hough et al., Technology and the Access to Justice Crisis: Analysis, Models
and Approaches (2007) (Multimedia Presentation to 10th National Court Technology
Conference), available at: http://contentdm.ncsconline.org/cgi-
bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/accessfair&CISOPTR=116.

Brenda L. Parson, Legal Information vs. Legal Advice: A Curriculum for Court
Employees (2002) (Phase III Paper, Court Executive Development Program, Institute for
Court Management), available at: http://contentdm.ncsconline.org/cgi-
bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/accessfair&CISOPTR=35.

Corrie L. Keller, Meeting the Demands of Pro Se Litigants in Idaho (1997) (Phase III
Paper, Court Executive Development Program, Institute for Court Management),
available at: http://contentdm.ncsconline.org/cgi-
bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/accessfair&CISOPTR=52.

Cynthia Cook, Self-Represented Litigants in Family Law Cases in Jackson County,
Missouri (2007) (Phase III Paper, Court Executive Development Program, Institute for
Court Management), available at: http://contentdm.ncsconline.org/cgi-
bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/accessfair&CISOPTR=30.

Eric Silverberg, Court Annexed Pro Se Assistance in Divorce Cases: The Seminole
County Experience (1997) (Phase III Paper, Court Executive Development Program,
Institute for Court Management), available at: http://contentdm.ncsconline.org/cgi-
bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/accessfair&CISOPTR=104.

Jeanne Caughell, Development, Implementation, and Evaluatoin of a Family Self-Help
Clinic (1997) (Phase III Paper, Court Executive Development Program, Institute for
Court Management), available at: http://contentdm.ncsconline.org/cgi-
bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/accessfair&CISOPTR=105.


67
   Nat’l Ctr. for State Courts, Best Practices in Court-Based Programs for the Self-Represented: Concepts,
Attributes, Issues for Exploration, Examples, Contacts, and Resources (2008), available at:
http://contentdm.ncsconline.org/cgi-bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/accessfair&CISOPTR=122.
68
   See Court Executive Management Program, http://www.ncsconline.org/d_icm/programs/cmp/index.asp.
                                                                             Gorman 32


Jon W. Sanfilippo, Getting Lost in the Court System as a Pro Se Litigant (1999) (Phase
III Paper, Court Executive Development Program, Institute for Court Management),
available at: http://contentdm.ncsconline.org/cgi-
bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/accessfair&CISOPTR=47.

JOHN A. GOERDT, NAT’L CTR. FOR STATE COURTS, SMALL CLAIMS AND TRAFFIC COURTS:
CASE MANAGEMENT PROCEDURES, CASE CHARACTERISTICS, AND OUTCOMES IN 12
URBAN JURISDICTIONS (1992), available at: http://contentdm.ncsconline.org/cgi-
bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/civil&CISOPTR=1.

JOHN C. RUHNKA, NAT’L CTR. FOR STATE COURTS, A.B.A., & U.S. DEPT. OF HOUSING &
URBAN DEVELOPMENT, Executive Summary, HOUSING JUSTICE IN SMALL CLAIMS COURT
(1979), available at: http://contentdm.ncsconline.org/cgi-
bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/civil&CISOPTR=27.

JOHN C. RUHNKA, NAT’L CTR. FOR STATE COURTS, A.B.A., & U.S. DEPT. OF HOUSING &
URBAN DEVELOPMENT, HOUSING JUSTICE IN SMALL CLAIMS COURT (1979), available at:
http://contentdm.ncsconline.org/cgi-bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/civil&CISOPTR=17.

JOHN C. RUHNKA, NAT’L CTR. FOR STATE COURTS, SMALL CLAIMS COURTS: A NATIONAL
EXAMINATION (1978), available at: http://contentdm.ncsconline.org/cgi-
bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/civil&CISOPTR=0.

JONA GOLDSCHMIDT ET AL., MEETING THE CHALLENGE OF PRO SE LITIGATION: A REPORT
AND GUIDEBOOK FOR JUDGES AND COURT MANAGERS (1998), available at:
http://contentdm.ncsconline.org/cgi-
bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/accessfair&CISOPTR=106.

Kevin Lane, Is the Long Beach Self-Help Center meeting the Family Law Needs of the
Court and the Community? (2004) (Phase III Paper, Court Executive Development
Program, Institute for Court Management), available at:
http://contentdm.ncsconline.org/cgi-
bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/accessfair&CISOPTR=32.

Linda Morris, Development of a Pro Se Orientation Program (2006) ((Phase III Paper,
Court Executive Development Program, Institute for Court Management), available at:
http://contentdm.ncsconline.org/cgi-
bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/accessfair&CISOPTR=38

NAT’L CTR. FOR STATE COURTS, BEST PRACTICES FOR THE SELF REPRESENTED:
CONCEPTS, ATTRIBUTES, AND ISSUES FOR EXPLORATION (2006), available at:
http://contentdm.ncsconline.org/cgi-
bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/accessfair&CISOPTR=90.

NAT’L CTR. FOR STATE COURTS, BEST PRACTICES IN COURT-BASED PROGRAMS FOR THE
SELF-REPRESENTED: CONCEPTS, ATTRIBUTES, ISSUES FOR EXPLORATION, EXAMPLES,
                                                                            Gorman 33


CONTACTS, AND RESOURCES (2008), available at: http://contentdm.ncsconline.org/cgi-
bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/accessfair&CISOPTR=122.

NAT’L CTR. FOR STATE COURTS ET AL., Executive Summary, ACCESS TO JUSTICE:
MEETING THE NEEDS OF SELF-REPRESENTED LITIGANTS (2002), available at:
http://contentdm.ncsconline.org/cgi-
bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/accessfair&CISOPTR=23.

NAT’L CTR. FOR STATE COURTS, FUTURE OF SELF-REPRESENTED LITIGATION: REPORT
FROM THE MARCH 2005 SUMMIT (2005), available at:
http://contentdm.ncsconline.org/cgi-
bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/accessfair&CISOPTR=90.

Paula Hannaford-Agor & Nicole Mott, Research on Self-Represented Litigation:
Preliminary Results and Methodological Considerations, 24 JUSTICE SYSTEM JOURNAL
163-181 (2003), available at: http://contentdm.ncsconline.org/cgi-
bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/accessfair&CISOPTR=91.

RANDY WOLFE, OBSERVATIONS AND EVALUATION OF THE SMALL CLAIMS COURT, NEW
ORLEANS, LOUISIANA (1980), available at: http://contentdm.ncsconline.org/cgi-
bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/civil&CISOPTR=3.

RANDY WOLFE & STEVEN WELLER, TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE REPORT FOR THE SMALL
CLAIMS COURT, YELLOWSTONE COUNTY, MONTANA (1980), available at:
http://contentdm.ncsconline.org/cgi-bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/civil&CISOPTR=28.

Ronald W. Staudt, Access to Justice: Meeting the Needs of Self-Represented Litigants, A
Consumer-Based Approach (2001) (Paper from 7th National Court Technology
Conference), available at: http://contentdm.ncsconline.org/cgi-
bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/accessfair&CISOPTR=121.

Ronald W. Staudt & Marc Lauritsen, Access to Justice: Connecting the Public
to the Courts and the Legal System via the Web (2006) (Multimedia Presentation from 7th
National Court Technology Conference), available at:
http://contentdm.ncsconline.org/cgi-
bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/accessfair&CISOPTR=119.

Stephen D. Foulk, Developing Court Guidelines for Assisting Self-Represented Litigants
(2001) (Phase III Paper, Court Executive Development Program, Institute for Court
Management), available at: http://contentdm.ncsconline.org/cgi-
bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/accessfair&CISOPTR=37.

STEVEN WELLER & JOHN C. RUHNKA, NAT’L CTR. FOR STATE COURTS, A HANDBOOK ON
THE OPERATION OF SMALL CLAIMS COURTS (1979), available at:
http://contentdm.ncsconline.org/cgi-bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/civil&CISOPTR=26.
                                                                                        Gorman 34


STEVEN WELLER & JOHN C. RUHNKA, NAT’L CTR. FOR STATE COURTS, PRACTICAL
OBSERVATIONS ON THE SMALL CLAIMS COURT (1979), available at:
http://contentdm.ncsconline.org/cgi-bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/civil&CISOPTR=23.

STEVEN WELLER & JOHN C. RUHNKA, NAT’L CTR. FOR STATE COURTS, SMALL CLAIMS
COURTS: OPERATIONS AND PROSPECTS (1978), available at:
http://contentdm.ncsconline.org/cgi-bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/civil&CISOPTR=2.

Tamara Beard, Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Various Judicial Officers in Small
Claims Court (1991) (Phase III Paper, Court Executive Development Program, Institute
for Court Management), available at: http://contentdm.ncsconline.org/cgi-
bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/civil&CISOPTR=8.

Teresa Fredrickson, Service to the Self-Represented and Court Staff Training: The
Disconnect (2001) (Phase III Paper, Court Executive Development Program, Institute for
Court Management), available at: http://contentdm.ncsconline.org/cgi-
bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/accessfair&CISOPTR=41.

WAYNE MOORE ET AL., SELF REPRESENTED LITIGATION NETWORK, OPENING
TECHNOLOGY SUPPORTED HELP CENTERS FOR THE SELF-REPRESENTED IN COURTS AND
COMMUNITIES (2006), available at: http://contentdm.ncsconline.org/cgi-
bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/accessfair&CISOPTR=107.

                4. Brennan Center for Justice

DAVID PEDULLA, IMPROVING NEW YORK CITY’S PUBLIC BENEFITS SYSTEM: A KEY ROLE
FOR HELP DESKS (1998), available at: http://www.brennancenter.org/page/-
/Justice/ImprovingNYCPublicBenefitsFinal.pdf.


        C. The Private Bar

        Expanding the delivery of pro bono and other low-cost legal services by members
of the private bar is an important component of the access to justice movement, but in
practice this effort has been incomplete, at best. 69 However, expanding pro bono
programs is a hallmark of LSC’s 2006-2010 strategy 70 and by definition is one of the
most cost-effective ways of expanding access to justice for low-income communities.

                1. American Bar Association

       The ABA has developed many resources to aid private and legal aid attorneys to
develop pro bono programs, but has yet to endorse mandatory pro bono hour or reporting

69
   See DEBORAH L. RHODE, PRO BONO IN PRACTICE AND PRINCIPLE 166-177 (2005).
70
   See Memorandum from Helaine M. Barnett to All LSC Executive Directors, Program Letter 07-02 (Dec.
20, 2007), available at: http://lri.lsc.gov/LRI/PAIProgramL
etter07_2.pdf.
                                                                               Gorman 35


requirements. 71 However, its website is an ideal starting point for researchers and
practitioners searching for program support and materials to expand local pro bono
services. The ABA’s Standing Committee on Pro Bono and Public Service hosts the
Center for Pro Bono, which is a central source of news and ABA publications on the
subject. 72 This site includes a series of comprehensive manuals and pages detailing pro
bono programs in bar associations and law firms.

A.B.A. CENTER FOR PRO BONO, Before You Start, excerpt, MAKING PRO BONO A
PRIORITY: A BAR LEADER’S HANDBOOK (1996), available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/sclaid/atjresourcecenter/downloads/probono-
beforeyoustart.pdf.

A.B.A. CENTER FOR PRO BONO, MAKING PRO BONO A PRIORITY: A BAR LEADER’S
HANDBOOK (2d ed. 1995), available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/downloads/probono/barleader2.pdf.

A.B.A. Center for Pro Bono, Pro Bono Delivery and Support: A Directory of Statewide
Models (2006), http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/probono/statewide.html.

A.B.A. CENTER FOR PRO BONO, RURAL PRO BONO DELIVERY: A GUIDE TO PRO BONO
LEGAL SERVICES IN RURAL AREAS (2003), available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/probono/aba_rural_book.pdf.

A.B.A. CENTER FOR PRO BONO, THE PATH TO PRO BONO: AN INTERVIEWING TOOL FOR
LAW STUDENTS (2008), available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/downloads/probono/path.pdf.

A.B.A. PUBLIC SECTOR LAWYERS DIVISION AND CENTER FOR PRO BONO, PRO BONO
PROJECT DEVELOPMENT: A DESKBOOK FOR GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC SECTOR LAWYERS
(1998), available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/downloads/probono/gvtattylowresfnl.pdf.

A.B.A. STANDING COMM. ON PRO BONO AND PUBLIC SERVICE, BLUEPRINT FOR
CONSTRUCTING A PRO BONO PROJECT IN A MID-SIZED LAW FIRM (1997), available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/downloads/probono/blueprint.pdf.

A.B.A. Standing Comm. On Pro Bono & Public Service, Directory of Law School Public
Interest and Pro Bono Programs: 2002-2003 (2002),
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/probono/lawschools/

A.B.A. Standing Committee for Pro Bono and Public Service, Recruiting Volunteer
Lawyers (2008), http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/probono/recruiting.html.



71
     See DEBORAH L. RHODE, supra note 69
72
     http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/probono/.
                                                                            Gorman 36


A.B.A. Standing Comm. for Pro Bono and Public Service, Pro Bono and the Courts
(2008), http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/probono/judiciary.html.

A.B.A. Standing Comm. For Pro Bono and Public Service, Pro Bono Policies Across the
Nation (2008), http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/probono/policies-rules.html.

A.B.A. Standing Committee for Pro Bono and Public Service, Pro Bono Recognition,
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/probono/recognition.html.

A.B.A. STANDING COMM. ON PRO BONO AND PUBLIC SERVICE, STANDARDS FOR
PROGRAMS PROVIDING CIGIL PRO BONO LEGAL SERVICES TO PERSONS OF LIMITED MEANS
(1996), available at: http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/probono/standards.html.

A.B.A. Standing Committee on Legal Assistants, How to Utilize Legal Assistants in Pro
Bono Public Programs (1999),
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/paralegals/probonobrochure.html.

A.B.A. SEC. OF BUS. LAW PRO BONO COMM., THE ABC MANUAL, STARTING AND
OPERATING A BUSINESS LAW PRO BONO PROJECT (2002), available at:
http://www.abanet.org/buslaw/committees/CL600000pub/abc/abc.pdf.

A.B.A. SEC. OF DISPUTE RESOLUTION PRO BONO COMM., BEYOND THE MYTHS: GET THE
FACTS ABOUT DISPUTE RESOLUTION (Gina Viola Brown, ed., 2007), available at:
http://meetings.abanet.org/webupload/commupload/DR222000/otherlinks_files/Mythbust
er_Guide.pdf.

DIRECTORY OF PRO BONO LEGAL SERVICES PROVIDERS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL LAW
(Elissa C. Lichenstein, ed., 1996), available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/downloads/probono/envirdirectoryfnl.pdf.

Elizabeth Arledge, Communication Revolutionl, MANAGEMENT INFORMATION EXCHANGE
JOURNAL, Spring 2008, p. 24, available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/sclaid/atjresourcecenter/downloads/communications
_w_examples_mie_2008.pdf.

HOW TO BEGIN A PRO BONO PROGRAM IN YOUR BANKRUPTCY COURT: A STARTER KIT
FOR LAWYERS AND JUDGES, vol. 1 (James L. Baille, ed.) (2d ed., 1999), available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/probono/publications/bankruptcy_starterkit.html.

JEFFREY R. PANKRATZ, MEETING THE LEGAL NEEDS OF COMMUNITY-BASED
DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS: THE ROLE OF THE PRIVATE BAR (Elissa C. Lichenstein
ed. 1992), available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/downloads/probono/commbaseddev.pdf.

MANUAL FOR PRO BONO AND LEGAL SERVICES DISPUTE RESOLUTION PROGRAMS (Gina
Viola Brown, ed. 2007), available at:
                                                                                         Gorman 37


http://meetings.abanet.org/webupload/commupload/DR222000/otherlinks_files/Pro_Bon
o_Manual_Final.pdf.

MARY PAT TOUPS, SENIOR LAWYERS ORGANIZING & VOLUNTEERING: A NATIONAL
PROFILE (1998), available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/downloads/probono/senlawfnl.pdf.

OFFICE OF LEGAL SERVICES, STATE BAR OF CAL., THE CALIFORNIA HANDBOOK FOR
DISASTER LEGAL SERVICES (1997), available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/downloads/probono/tableofcon.html.

Sharon E. Goldsmith, Building a Coalition for Changing Pro Bono, DIALOGUE (A.B.A.
Div. for Legal Services: Chi., Ill.), Fall 2004, available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/sclaid/atjresourcecenter/downloads/buildingacoalitio
nforchangingprobonopolicy-dialoguefall2004.pdf.

                2. LSC Resource Information Center

        LSC is required by regulation to devote 12.5% of its federal funds to private
attorney involvement (PAI). 73 LSC has developed many resources for legal aid offices to
help meet and benefit from this requirement, and has developed an action plan to guide
its PAI efforts nationwide. 74 The nascent results of these efforts are evidenced in the
sources below.

45 C.F.R., Part 1614 (Legal Services Corporation Regulations) (2005), available at:
http://lri.lsc.gov/LRI/1614cfr_2005_.pdf.

Legal Services Corporation, Board Adopted Public Attorney involvement Resolutions
(2008), http://lri.lsc.gov/probono/board_pai_resolutions.asp.

LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION, PRIVATE ATTORNEY INVOLVEMENT ACTION PLAN 2007,
available at: http://lri.lsc.gov/LRI/LSC_2007_Action_Plan.pdf.

Legal Services Corporation, Res. 2007-003 (Apr. 28, 2007), available at:
http://lri.lsc.gov/LRI/LSC_Board_Resulation_2007.pdf.

Legal Services Corporation, Law School Collaborations (2008),
http://lri.lsc.gov/probono/lawschoolcollaborations.asp.

Memorandum from Helaine M. Barnett to All LSC Executive Directors, Program Letter
07-02 (Dec. 20, 2007), available at: http://lri.lsc.gov/LRI/PAIProgramLetter07_2.pdf.

                3. National Center for State Courts Digital Archive

73
   45 C.F.R., Part 1614 (Legal Services Corporation Regulations) (2005), available at:
http://lri.lsc.gov/LRI/1614cfr_2005_.pdf.
74
   See LSC PAI Action Plan 2007, http://www.lri.lsc.gov/LRI/LSC_2007_Action_Plan.pdf.
                                                                                             Gorman 38



STAR BETH PACITTO, NATIONAL CENTER FOR STATE COURTS, PICTURE PERFECT PRO
BONO PROGRAM (1999), available at: http://contentdm.ncsconline.org/cgi-
bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/legserv&CISOPTR=1.

                 4. NLADA E-Library

MICHAEL MILLEMAN, MD. STATE BAR ASS’N, FINAL REPORT AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON
THE POTENTIAL USE OF PRIVATE LAWYERS, WHO ARE PAID REDUCED FEES BY A LEGAL
SERVICES FUNDER, TO REPRESENT LOW-INCOME PERSONS IN MARYLAND WHO CANNOT
OBTAIN LEGAL ASSISTANCE IN CIVIL CASES (2007), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1185223221.08/MD%20Judicare%20report%206
-07.pdf.


        D. Technology

        The focus on technology as a vehicle for the improved delivery of legal services
to low-income clients is an often overlooked area that can yield many solutions to
traditional obstacles to justice and unmet legal needs. 75 Specific technologies studied in
the context of legal services delivery and documented below include the use of legal help
hotlines, form-filling software for use by legal aid attorneys and self-represented clients,
and software resources for sharing and disseminating legal research for the cases of
indigent clients.

                 1. NLADA E-Library

        Key resources offered by the NLADA include the Hotline Outcomes Assessment
Study, a three-phase study beginning in 1999 detailing the use of telephone intake, legal
advice, brief service, and referral systems in delivering legal services. 76 The study
includes stakeholder interviews, surveys, and quantitative analysis to evaluate the
effectiveness of hotlines at legal aid providers. Its authors conclude that hotlines can
have powerful positive impacts on service delivery, but can present challenges to small
legal service providers including high initial cost, and opportunity cost tradeoffs between
advice and brief services and extended representation. 77 In addition, the NLADA offers a
report of the Project for the Future of Equal Justice describing technological advances in
the program management of equal justice advocates. The report concludes with eight



75
   See, e.g., Julie Gordon, Equal Justice and the Digital Revolution: Using Technology to Meet the Needs of
Low-Income People (2002), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1036107299.97/digital_divide.pdf
76
   JESSICA PEARSON AND LANAE DAVIS, THE HOTLINE OUTCOMES ASESSMENT STUDY – FINAL REPORT
PHASE III (2002), available at: http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1037903536.22/finalhlreport.pdf.
77
   JESSICA PEARSON AND LANAE DAVIS, THE HOTLINE OUTCOMES ASESSMENT STUDY – FINAL REPORT
PHASE III at 65-68(2002), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1037903536.22/finalhlreport.pdf.
                                                                                     Gorman 39


detailed recommendations on how the equal justice community can continue to improve
the use of technology in its work. 78

CHRISTINE ALLISON & JESSICA PEARSON, THE HOTLINE OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT STUDY
FINAL REPORT – PHASE I (1999), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1030000946.39/FinalReport3-17.doc.

JESSICA PEARSON AND LANAE DAVIS, THE HOTLINE OUTCOMES ASESSMENT STUDY –
FINAL REPORT PHASE III (2002), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1037903536.22/finalhlreport.pdf.

Julie Gordon, Equal Justice and the Digital Revolution: Using Technology to Meet the
Needs of Low-Income People (2002), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1036107299.97/digital_divide.pdf.

Wayne Moore, Legal Hotline Self-Evaluation (Nat’l Legal Aid & Defenders
Ass’n/AARP Evaluation Meeting, Working Paper 2002), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1018538971.3/Moore%20Hotline%20Self.doc.

                2. American Bar Association

       The ABA has developed benchmark materials on legal information websites and
telephone hotlines.

A.B.A., Best Practice Guidelines for Legal Information Web Site Providers (Feb. 10,
2003), http://www.abanet.org/elawyering/tool/practices.shtml.

A.B.A., STANDARDS FOR THE OPERATION OF A TELEPHONE HOTLINE PROVIDING LEGAL
ADVICE AND INFORMATION (2001), available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/downloads/delivery/hotlinestandards.pdf.

                3. Chicago-Kent School of Law Center for Access to Justice &
                Technology and National Technology Assistance Project

       One of the notable themes in the available literature on technology and the
delivery of legal services is the potential for using the power of technology to include law
schools in the delivery of legal services. This is the topic of Ronald Staudt’s white paper
for Chicago-Kent College of Law, entitled Leveraging Law Students and Technology To
Meet the Legal Needs of Low-Income People. 79 Staudt identifies two important roles in
which law students can contribute to access to justice efforts: “First, law students as court
house guides, legal aid/hot line intake workers or research assistants providing personal
support for legal aid lawyers, low income clients and self represented litigants, and

78
  Id. at 69.
79
  Ronald W. Staudt, Leveraging Law Students and Technology To Meet the Legal Needs of Low-Income
People (White Paper, Chicago-Kent College of Law) (2007), available at:
http://www.kentlaw.edu/cajt/WhitePaperLeveragingLawStudents&Technology.pdf.
                                                                                        Gorman 40


[s]econd, law students as authors and programmers for new technologies like legal aid
statewide websites and self-help document assembly systems.” 80
        This potential of both these roles is evidenced by the efforts of Chicago-Kent
College of Law’s Center for Access to Justice and Technology, which developed A2J
Author software. 81 This tool supports self-represented litigants by enabling non-technical
authors from the courts, clerk’s offices, legal services programs, and website editors to
build and implement customer friendly web-based interfaces for document assembly.
The website includes links to sample forms created by the tool for use in states across the
country. Another effort to leverage law students using technology includes the Legal
Research Tool, developed by the Legal Aid of East Tennessee with the National
Technology Assistance Project. This tool helps legal aid offices remotely share research
tasks with clinic-based law students, leveraging the assistance law students across the
country can provide to rural and other distant legal aid offices. 82 Unfortunately this
project has been developed past the testing stage, and now appears dormant. 83

Chicago-Kent School of Law Center for Access to Justice & Technology, A2J Author
v2.0 (software) (2008), http://www.kentlaw.edu/cajt/A2JAuthor.html.

Legal Services National Technology Assistance Project, What is the Research Request
Tool? (2006), http://www.lsntap.org/What_is_the_ResearchRequestTool.

Ronald W. Staudt, Leveraging Law Students and Technology To Meet the Legal Needs
of Low-Income People (White Paper, Chicago-Kent College of Law) (2007), available
at: http://www.kentlaw.edu/cajt/WhitePaperLeveragingLawStudents&Technology.pdf.

                4. LSC Resource Information

        LSC has developed a benchmark technology document for legal aid offices, and
offers several resources for technology planning in legal aid and legal services offices.
These include a sample computer use policy, and articles on technology implementation
for intake and referral 84, and case management. 85

COLLEEN COTTER & JULIA GORDON, LEGAL AID OF E. TENN., SELECTING AND
IMPLEMENTING A CASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (2004), available at:
http://www.lri.lsc.gov/pdf/04/CMS04_reportf.pdf.


80
   http://www.kentlaw.edu/cajt
81
   Chicago-Kent School of Law Center for Access to Justice & Technology, A2J Author v2.0 (software)
(2008), http://www.kentlaw.edu/cajt/A2JAuthor.html.
82
   Legal Services National Technology Assistance Project, What is the Research Request Tool? (2006),
http://www.lsntap.org/What_is_the_ResearchRequestTool.
83
   See Id.
84
   Michael Genz, Technology and Client Community Access to Legal Services – Suggestive Scenarios on
Community Legal Education, Intake, and Referral and Pro Se, 5 U. DC L. REV. 225-234 (2000), available
at: http://www.lri.lsc.gov/pdf/02/020024_udclrevgenz.pdf.
85
   COLLEEN COTTER & JULIA GORDON, LEGAL AID OF E. TENN., SELECTING AND IMPLEMENTING A CASE
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (2004), available at: http://www.lri.lsc.gov/pdf/04/CMS04_reportf.pdf.
                                                                                Gorman 41


GABRIELLE HAMMOND, NATIONAL TECHNOLOGY ASSISTANCE PROJECT, STATEWIDE
TECHNOLOGY PLANNING IN LEGAL SERVICES: TURNS OUT IT IS ROCKET SCIENCE (2004),
available at: http://www.lri.lsc.gov/pdf/04/040006_stpltech.pdf.

John Hodgins, Improving Legal Services to Rural and Regional Areas Using Technology
(Technology for Justice Conference, Sydney, Austl., Oct. 22, 2002), available at:
http://www.lri.lsc.gov/pdf/02/020110_austech.pdf.

LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION, TECHNOLOGIES THAT SHOULD BE IN PLACE IN A LEGAL
AID OFFICE TODAY (2008), available at:
http://www.lsc.gov/pdfs/technologybaselinereport.pdf.

LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION, USING TECHNOLOGY INNOVATIONS TO STRENGTHEN THE
DELIVERY SYSTEMS OF STATE JUSTICE COMMUNITIES: TECHNOLOGY INITIATIVE GRANT
PROGRAM STATUS REPORT (2003), available at:
http://www.lri.lsc.gov/pdf/03/030066_TIGrprtf.pdf.

Michael Genz, Technology and Client Community Access to Legal Services – Suggestive
Scenarios on Community Legal Education, Intake, and Referral and Pro Se, 5 U. DC L.
REV. 225-234 (2000), available at:
http://www.lri.lsc.gov/pdf/02/020024_udclrevgenz.pdf.

Nevada Legal Services, Computer Use Policy, (February 2004), available at:
http://www.lri.lsc.gov/pdf/04/040017_nlsusepolicy.pdf.


       E. Legal Education

        Resources pertaining to legal education reform in the context of the Access to
Justice movement are centered around the theme of loan repayment assistance programs
(LRAPs), which have become increasingly popular as a means of overcoming the salary
gap between public and private lawyers, enabling legal aid and other nonprofit
organizations to recruit and retain highly qualified legal aid attorneys. This movement
has gained traction with the passage of several key pieces of federal legislation, including
the College Cost Reduction and Access Act 86 and the Higher Education Reauthorization
and College Opportunity Act of 2008. 87 These statutes provide several different
programs and benefits affecting legal aid and other public interest attorneys with
education-related debt.
        In addition to resources related to these pieces of legislation, this subsection
includes sources for information on statewide LRAP programs, legal aid employer-
related LRAP programs, and law school programs to support students pursuing careers
serving the public interest.

86
    College Cost Reduction and Access Act, Pub. L. No. 110-84 (2007), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1217869238.24/College%20Cost%20Reduction%20and%20Acces
s%20Act.pdf.
87
   Pub. L. No. 110- H. 4137 (2008).
                                                                                   Gorman 42



               1. NLADA E-Library

        The NLADA website provides links to descriptions of several LRAPS recently
launched by state Access to Justice Commissions. Information about the College Cost
Reduction and Access Act, which provides for forgiveness of federal loans for attorneys
working for legal aid organizations. The website also offers NLADA’s full-length 2007
report, with appendices, on the relationship between legal aid salaries, student debt, and
the retention of qualified attorney. 88

Brennan Center for Justice, State Loan Forgiveness Legislation (April 2001),
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1030566662.64/State%20law%20chart.doc.

Chi. Bar Found., Chicago Bar Foundation Sun Times Fellowship Program Agreement
(2007), available at: http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1165940061.81/IL CBF cy
pres award LRAP.doc.

College Cost Reduction and Access Act, Pub. L. No. 110-84 (2007), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1217869238.24/College%20Cost%20Reduction
%20and%20Access%20Act.pdf.

DOUG GERMAN ET AL., IT’S THE SALARIES, STUPID! . . . AND MUCH MORE: THE
DEVELOPING NATIONAL CRISIS IN THE DELIVERY OF LEGAL AID (2007), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1193763965.45/Its%20the%20Salaries%20Stupi
d%20final.pdf.

DOUG GERMAN ET AL., IT’S THE SALARIES, STUPID! . . . AND MUCH MORE: THE
DEVELOPING NATIONAL CRISIS IN THE DELIVERY OF LEGAL AID, Appendix A (2007),
available at: http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1192026367.22/Appendix%20A.pdf

DOUG GERMAN ET AL., IT’S THE SALARIES, STUPID! . . . AND MUCH MORE: THE
DEVELOPING NATIONAL CRISIS IN THE DELIVERY OF LEGAL AID, Appendix B (2007),
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1192026604.25/Appendix%20B.pdf.

Harkin Civil Legal Aid Loan Repayment Bill, S. 1167, 110th Cong. (2007), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1185295698.66/S1167%20%28Harkin%20Bill%
29.pdf.

Press Release, D.C. Access to Justice Comm., DC Public Funding, Fiscal Year 2008
(June 5, 2007), available at: http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1181238343.06/DC
public funding press release 6-5-07.doc.



88
  DOUG GERMAN ET AL., IT’S THE SALARIES, STUPID! . . . AND MUCH MORE: THE DEVELOPING NATIONAL
CRISIS IN THE DELIVERY OF LEGAL AID (2007), available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1193763965.45/Its%20the%20Salaries%20Stupid%20final.pdf.
                                                                                         Gorman 43


Press Release, Texas Access to Justice Commission, Texas Access to Justice
Commission Partners with the University of Texas and Baylor University (Oct. 2004),
available at:
http://www.nlada.org/DMS/Documents/1097498614.64/Texas%20scholarship%20progra
m.doc.

U.S. Dept. of Education, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 73 Fed. Reg. 37,694 (July 1,
2008).

                 2. American Bar Association:

       The ABA, through its Standing Committee on Published by the Standing
Committee on Legal Aid, has published several resources describing the challenges of
student loan repayment for legal aid attorneys. These efforts are complemented by a
State LRAP Toolkit providing model legislation, case studies, and other resources for
developing statewide LRAP programs. 89 The ABA’s Standing Committee on the
Delivery of Legal Services has also developed the “Blueprints for Better Access”
program, which highlights and supports the efforts of law school programs to develop
innovative tools for increased court access. This project so far highlights three models:
Lawyer Referral and Information Service Modest Means Panels, 90 Community Legal
Resource Networks, 91 and Teaching Access to Justice, 92 a collection of materials for law
school instructors developing curricula in access to justice initiatives.

A.B.A., MEETING THE CHALLEGE OF LAW STUDENT DEBT: LOAN REPAYMENT
ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (2003), available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/sclaid/lrap/downloads/finallawschoollrapbrochure.p
df.

A.B.A. COMM. ON LOAN REPAYMENT & FORGIVENESS, LIFTING THE BURDEN: LAW
STUDENT DEBT AS A BARRIER TO PUBLIC SERVICE (2003), available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/sclaid/lrap/downloads/lrapfinalreport.pdf.

A.B.A., Blueprints for Better Access (Aug. 20, 2008),
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/delivery/blueprints.html.

Kelly Carmody, A.B.A. Standing Comm. on Legal Aid, State LRAP Tool Kit: A
Resource Guide for Creating State Loan Repayment Assistance Programs for Public
Service Lawyers (2008), available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/sclaid/lrap/downloads/statelraptoolkit.pdf.


89
   Kelly Carmody, A.B.A. Standing Comm. on Legal Aid, State LRAP Tool Kit: A Resource Guide for
Creating State Loan Repayment Assistance Programs for Public Service Lawyers (2008), available at:
http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/sclaid/lrap/downloads/statelraptoolkit.pdf.
90
   http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/delivery/blueprint1.html.
91
   http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/delivery/blueprint2.html.
92
   http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/delivery/blueprint3.html.
                                                                            Gorman 44


                    3. Equal Justice Works

        Equal Justice Works is a nonprofit organization dedicated to recruiting and
supporting lawyers committed to equal justice. Equal Justice Works provides a
continuum of programs that begin with incoming law school students and extend into
later careers in the profession. The organization supports a robust public interest law
fellowship program. Equal Justice Works also collaborates with the nation’s leading law
schools, law firms, corporate legal departments and nonprofit organizations to provide
the training and skills that enable attorneys to provide effective representation to
vulnerable populations. 93
        Equal Justice Works’ website contains many important resources related to legal
education, including a link to its E-Guide of Public Service at America’s Law Schools,
annually by Newsweek. 94 This link is supplemented by a number of surveys, reports, and
implementation guides pertaining to the public interest and public service programs in
law schools. Equal Just Works’ website also includes surveys, reports, and analysis of
LRAPS sponsored by employers, law schools, and state Access to Justice commissions.

Cynthia F. Adcock, Compilations of Data on Public Service in Legal Education (2007),
http://www.equaljusticeworks.org/node/131.

Equal Justice Works, Employer LRAPs (2008),
http://www.equaljusticeworks.org/node/72.

EQUAL JUSTICE WORKS, FINANCING THE FUTURE: RESPONSES TO THE RISING DEBT OF
LAW STUDENTS (2d ed. 2006), available at:
http://www.equaljusticeworks.org/files/financing-the-future2006.pdf.

EQUAL JUSTICE WORKS, HIGHER EDUCATION REAUTHORIZATION AND COLLEGE
OPPORTUNITY ACT OF 2008, http://www.equaljusticeworks.org/node/421.

Equal Justice Works, Law Schools with LRAPs (2008),
http://www.equaljusticeworks.org/node/66.

EQUAL JUSTICE WORKS, THE FEDERAL STUDENT LOAN FORGIVENESS LAW: COLLEGE
COST REDUCTION AND ACCESS ACT OF 2007 (2008),
http://www.equaljusticeworks.org/node/215.

EQUAL JUSTICE WORKS, THE PATH TO PUBLIC INTEREST (2008),
http://www.equaljusticeworks.org/resource/thepath/intro.

Kelly Carmody, A.B.A., State LRAPs (2008),
http://www.equaljusticeworks.org/node/71.



93
     See http://www.equaljusticeworks.org/about.
94
     http://blog.newsweek.com/blogs/ejw/default.aspx.
                                                                                              Gorman 45


SHEILA SIEGEL KETCHAM, EQUAL JUSTICE WORKS, LRAPS TRAINING WORKBOOK (2002),
available at: http://www.equaljusticeworks.org/files/LRAP%20201%20Workbook.pdf.

                  3. Brennan Center:

Brennan Center for Justice, Summary of the Louisiana Supreme Court’s Amendments to
Student Practice Rule XX (2003),
http://www.brennancenter.org/content/resource/summary_of_the_louisiana_supreme_cou
rts_amendments_to_student_practice_rule/.


III. Additional Resources and Resource Gaps

        Although this bibliography is intended to provide the researcher and advocate
with a global view of the access to justice resources available on the world wide web, it is
skewed toward the offerings of those websites dedicated to providing online resources on
these crucial topics. In addition to the websites surveyed here, there are many additional
sites that, while not particularly focused on the identified Roadmap to Justice strategies,
offer relevant documents for researchers.

         A. Additional Resources

         In researching the scope of unmet legal needs and the challenges of legal services
delivery, nearly every state offers a report on the website of its access to justice
commission or similar body. 95 Because a needs assessment is often the first step in a
statewide effort, most states have completed such a study. In some cases, these websites
offer documentation of further state efforts, 96 and may provide links to local efforts at
court reform. 97
         As discussed at part II.C above, many online resources are available to the pro se
litigant, and while not directly relevant to the researcher, some sites offer valuable
information. SelfHelpSupport.org hosts a library of news stories and press releases going
back to late 2005 documenting developments in pro se litigation and self-help services in
the United States and Canada. 98 In addition, the American Judicature Society 99 maintains
an extensive library of links to pro se resources in every state, including local efforts.
Advocates of unbundled legal services will find the resources at UnbundledLaw.Org, 100 a

95
   For a review of several of these commissions’ efforts, and links to their respective websites, see Robert
Echols, Examples of State Access to Justice Commissions: Creation, Structure, and Accomplishments, 22
MANAGEMENT INFORMATION EXCHANGE JOURNAL Spring 2008, at 15-18, available at:
http://www.law.stanford.edu/display/images/dynamic/events_media/Examples%20of%20ATJ%20MIE%20
2008_1.pdf.
96
   See, e.g., Texas Access to Justice Commission, http://www.texasatj.org/ReportsPublications/index.asp.
97
   See, e.g., Cal. Commission on Access to Justice,
http://www.calbar.ca.gov/state/calbar/calbar_generic.jsp?sCategoryPath=/Home/Public%20Services/Assist.
ance%20Programs/Access%20to%20Justice
98
   http://www.selfhelpsupport.org/news/
99
   http://www.ajs.org/prose/pro_links.asp.
100
    http://www.unbundledlaw.org.
                                                                                         Gorman 46


project of the Maryland Legal Assistance Network, 101 to be most useful. Though not
currently updated, the site contains links to programs at efforts across the country, and
has published a white paper on document preparation relevant to researchers of the pro se
and technology areas. 102
        An important additional source for materials on pro bono delivery and state
programs is ProBono.net, 103 a nonprofit organization dedicated to supporting the
innovative and effective use of technology by the nonprofit legal sector. 104 This
membership offers a white paper developing pro bono programs in law firms, 105 and a
catalogue of news and press releases relevant to pro bono law and practitioners. 106
        Additional resources for access to justice and technology can be found at the
Legal Services National Technology Assistance Project, 107 a consortium of legal services
providers dedicated to using technology to increase legal services delivery. Its website,
aimed at legal aid professionals, offers helpful links to articles, checklists, FAQs, and
other original materials focused on technical information and tools for legal services. 108
Though most relevant to an office manager or attorney, these materials can offer a
glimpse into the current practices and needs of legal services providers today. An
additional resource on technology an access to justice, the website of Zorza and
Associates hosts several important resources on technology and legal services, pro bono,
and IOLTA programs. 109
        Internet researchers interested in legal education reform may find the A.B.A
Standing Committee on Pro Bono and Public Service’s Directory of Law School Public
Interest Programs 110 a helpful starting point for information on pro bono programs at
american law schools. That website’s “Law School Resources” page, though aimed
primarily at prospective and current law students, offers several helpful links to resources
on school-based pro bono and public service program development. 111 A more
exhaustive search of resources would include surveying the website of each law school
public interest or pro bono programs, an exercise sure to glean the highlights and
achievements of each school’s efforts in that area. 112 These websites often double as
recruitment tools, and are therefore timely and easily navigated, if somewhat self-serving
in content.

        B. Resource Gaps

101
    http://www.mdjustice.org/public/mlan.html.
102
    Capstone Practice System, Web-based Document Assembly in the Civil Legal Assistance Community
(White Paper, Delliote Nov. 21, 2002), available at:
http://www.unbundledlaw.org/thinking/White%20Paper%20-%20Doc%20Assembly.pdf.
103
    http://www.probono.net.
104
    http://www.probono.net/about/item.Mission.
105
    Robert Dicks et al., Improving Firm ROI through a Pro Bono Program That Efficiently Develops Law
Firm Associates (White Paper, Deloitte Consulting LLP 2008), available at:
http://www.probono.net/library/attachment.138984.
106
    http://www.probono.net/news/.
107
    http://lsntap.org/techlibrary.
108
    http://lsntap.org/techlibrary.
109
    http://www.zorza.net/resources.html.
110
    http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/probono/lawschools/, supra page 36.
111
    http://www.abanet.org/legalservices/probono/lawschools.shtml.
112
    See, e.g., http://www.law.yale.edu/about/publicinterestlaw.htm.
                                                                                Gorman 47



        A cursory survey of this bibliography leads to several tentative conclusions. First,
there is a considerable amount of free and timely resources available on the World Wide
Web to any researcher, practitioner, and policy advocate interested in learning the current
best practices and innovative new ideas in the access to justice movement. The greatest
number of resources are available for law and court reform, pro se and nonlawyer
assistance, and pro bono service. Comprehensive, established sources like the NLADA’s
E-library and the ABA offer voluminous links to all types of documents covering each of
the five cost-effective strategies. The other websites in this bibliography supplement
these libraries with additional wide-ranging collections of materials. Because of the
movement’s age and the organizations that have dedicated resources to hosting these
websites, the home of the access to justice movement is on the Internet. This
bibliography is one attempt at giving a global picture of what that movement looks like
through its online publications and resources.
        The second conclusion evident from this bibliography is that some of the
Roadmap to Justice strategy areas receive far greater coverage on the studied websites
than others. Because of a long history and considerable scholarly input, resources
concerning legal aid reform in this bibliography number in the hundreds; in contrast, the
legal education reform sources number in the dozens. This disparity is partly explained
by the notion that legal education reform has not traditionally been included in the work
of access to justice commissions and others concerned with justice in low-income
communities. However, as resources in this bibliography suggest, reforming legal
education and legal education funding can have paradigm-shifting effects on legal
services delivery in this country. Development of more scholarship and more online
resources concerning legal education reform and other efforts at integrating public
service into law school curricula is a clear opportunity for advocates and scholars looking
to expand the breadth of access to justice literature.
        Another area that receives a disproportionately small amount of attention from
access to justice websites is technology. While this bibliography covers many important
resources in this area, it is clear that no centralized clearinghouse for legal technology
resources exists within the access to justice movement. Such a centralized resource
might include comprehensive bibliographies of online sources, such as this document, but
may also serve as a clearinghouse for practitioner documents such as forms, templates,
macros, and other software tools for pro se support, legal services providers, legal
researchers, and pro bono coordinators to use as they develop, implement, and evaluate
the strategies for expanding access to justice.
        A final resource opportunity in the access to justice movement builds upon the
two areas of education and technology just discussed. As Ronald Staudt points out, for
various practical and historical reasons, law students remain a largely untapped source of
labor for legal research, computer programming, and direct services that can expand the
impact of legal aid efforts around the country. 113 By leveraging the power of the internet
to connect and coordinate willing students and needful practitioners, the Internet can
serve as an instrument, rather than a document repository, for access to justice efforts.


113
      See Ronald W. Staudt, supra note 79.
                                                                                 Gorman 48


Two attempts at such a system are the Research Request Tool, 114 and ResearchLink,
developed by the American Constitution Society. 115 This tool helps law students find
research topics for term papers and similar projects, that help meet the needs of ACS-
affiliated researchers. While not limited to access to justice topics, tools like Research
Link and the Research Request Tool, should it become operable, are important
opportunities for leveraging the value of law students interested in public service and the
internet.
         While these and other resource possibilities are not yet available, there remains no
shortage of available online materials in the form of studies, reports, guides, scholarly
articles, checklists, and other practical tools for use by anyone interested in expanding
justice to the underserved. As stakeholders continue to chart a Roadmap to Justice
through the use of the strategies covered in this bibliography, the Internet will surely
continue to be a source of information resources and communication that will maximize
the potential of the movement to effect real change in our civil justice system.




114
      See supra at page 40.
115
      http://researchlink.acs.org.

				
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