Lecture Skills by fjhuangjun


									Diane M. Birnbaumer, M.D., FACEP
Department of Emergency Medicine
Harbor-UCLA Medical Center

                                                 LECTURE SKILLS
                                       (-or, how to dazzle the, and teach them, too!)

Why lecture?
              Transmits a large amount of information in a short period of time
              Allows for disseminations of previously unpublished or difficult-to-access material
              Gives the instructor total control of content, pace, organization, direction
              Complements other learning activities - provides a foundation
              Is preferred by some learners

               Learners are passive
               Audiences may be of varied backgrounds
               One-way communication between lecturer and learner
               Very lecturer-dependent
               Provided limited feedback on how learners are understanding the content

Principles of Adult Learning

        Goal of adult education - is to make the learner independent of the teacher
        Principles of adult learning
                 A sense of incongruity
                          The need to know, a deficit, a need to change, a learning imperative
                 Active involvement in the learning experience
                 Feedback to determine success or failure in the learning endeavor
        Adult learning deals with
                 Consequence of action
                 Analyzing and solving real problems
                 Seeking out information in response to problems
                 Immediate feedback

How to lecture?
        Principle components of an effective lecturer
                 Preparation and organization
                 Ability to stimulate learners interest
                 Knowledge of and love the content of the lecture

                Four major components

                       Know your audience - who are the learners? How many will there be?
        Develop specific goals and objectives for your lecture
        Do the background work - literature searches, etc
        Make the lecture pertinent to the learner
Preparation - this take a long time
        Analyze, evaluate, synthesize material
        Read as much as possible on the topic, then hone it down
        Organize the content
                 Main body of information
                          Outline in logical sequence
                          Include relevant examples
                 Closure - emphasize 3-5 major points from the lecture
Present ation
        Before the lecture
                 Check out the lecture hall before the lecture
                 Decide what type of microphone you prefer (lavalier, handheld, podium)
                 The podium…..
                          Use it if it helps you, but don‟t hide behind it, don‟t lean on it
                          Consider not using it at all - better interaction with your audience
                          If you don‟t use the podium - avoid extraneous pacing, gestures
                 Keep the lights as bright as possible
                 Always have a contingency plan in case of disaster
        The lecture itself
                 “Tell them what you want them to know; tell them; tell them what you told
                 Get their attention
                          Ask a question - with the promise that the lecture will answer it
                          Give an example, pertinent anecdote; consider a joke
                          Early on, state your goals and objectives
                          Motivate your learners that the subject matter is important to them
                 Scan the crowd
                          Look for a few attentive, friendly faces scattered throughout
                          Try to make eye contact
                 Do not…..
                          Play with the change in your pockets
                          Say “um”
                          Say “this slide is supposed to remind me to tell you….”
                          Apologize - just do it right the first time!
                          Stand comfortably and relax - and move a little
                          Be natural, conversational
                          Go ahead - use your sense of humor
                          Be yourself
                          Talk TO the audience
                          Vary your style and delivery
                                    Change the volume and pitch of your voice
                                    Change the pace of your lecturing
                                    Use silence to emphasize a point
                          Be interactive
                          Watch your audience reaction
                          Be enthusiastic
                          Use natural gestures
                          Keep it active
                          Vary your tone of voice
                          Make pertinent anecdotal references
                                           Make the lecture pertinent to the audience on an ongoing basis
                                           Change pace, summarize every 10-20 minutes
                                           Use tools such as questioning, brainstorming
                                           Learn to say “I don‟t know”
                                           Pause for deep breaths, sips of water
                                           Intermittently summarize what has been said so far
                                           Use the pointer carefully and sparingly
                                           Summarize the “take-home” points at the end of the lecture

                 Post Mortem
                        Immediately after the lecture, review
                               Take notes as to what worked, what didn‟t
                               Note what questions were answered, where you lost the audience
                               Note any changes to slides or other lecture adjuncts may be necessary

Lecture Adjuncts
        First - do you need ANY?
        Slides are not the ONLY adjuncts to effective lecturing
                 Overheads, flipcharts, blackboards, demonstrations
        Slides - useful, but beware! (Remember the K-I-S-S principle)
                          No more than 5-6 words per line, 6-7 lines per slide
                                   Aim for the back row
                                   ¼” height on the finished slide is your goal for the lettering
                          Don‟t get too fancy
                                   Dark background, white or light text
                                   Avoid bright colors (Repeat after me: I will not use pink or red, I will not use
                                             pink or red..)
                                   Avoid distracting backgrounds, templates
                                   Use short sentences, active wording
                                   No serif
                                   Consider shadowing
                                   Don‟t use all capitals (unless you are trying to make a point)
                          Edit, edit, edit! (The spellcheck button is your friend….)
                          BE SURE that your slides are loaded correctly (know thy projector…)
                                   Practice your lecture with your slides
                          Keep your slides clean
                          Have slides mounted in plastic versus cardboard
                          Take a printout and disc of your slides with you
                          Use charts, graphs, schematics - but carefully

      Format: Outline versus text versus both
                Copies of slides versus separate document
      Best if it can stand alone after the lecture
      Allow space for notetaking
      Basic elements of a handout
                Brief description / rationale
                Outline format
      If you use a handout, follow it when you lecture!
Tricks of the Trade
        Keeping your lectures organized
                 Use one three-ring binder per lecture - labeled on spine
                        New pertinent articles get filed in front cover pocket
                                 Can file them as you run across the articles
                                 Makes updating slides and handouts easy
                        Handout in sheet protector in binder
                                 Makes for easy copying, keeps handout clean
                        Printout of slides
                                 Can make occasional changes on hard copy and periodically update slides
                        Slides in holders
                        Floppy disc of handout, slides

        Problems…and solutions

                 Problem: Saying “um”
                                Take a deep breath, sip of water instead
                                Pace yourself
                                Listen to a recording of yourself

                 Problem: Talking too fast
                        Solutions: See “saying „um‟”

                 Problem: What do I do with my hands?
                                Hold something - a pen, the pointer
                                Put your hands in your pockets

                 Problem: A heckler in the audience (also known as the P.I.A. - I‟ll let you figure that out)
                                “That‟s an interesting point”
                                “I‟ve never heard of that. Has anyone else had a similar experience (read
                                         anything along those line?”, etc, etc”
                                “You have a point there. After the lecture I‟d love to talk to you more about it
                                NEVER get into a verbal slugfest

                 Problem: I‟m really nervous!
                                 Know your material cold
                                 Know how you manifest your nervousness, and stop/transfer/tackle it
                                          Shaky hands? Gesture, put your notes down, use two hands for
                                          Deathgrip on the podium? Stand away from it
                                          Dry mouth? Get that glass of water
                                          Get overheated? Get comfy - take off your coat, turn up the A/C
                                 Consider medication(?)

Myths of Lecturing
       Great lecturers are born, not made
       It‟s impossible to make boring material interesting, no matter how good of a lecturer you are

Realities of Lecturing
         It‟s work
         If your audience is not learning the material, it‟s your fault
The Commandments of Effective Lectures
      Thou shalt know thy subject matter
             Analyze, evaluate, synthesize material
      Thou shalt know they audience
      Thou shalt be enthusiastic
      Thou shalt state thy goals and objectives
      Thou shalt summarize, and summarize, and summarize
      Thou shalt be thyself
      Thou shalt not read they slides
      Thou shalt use slides sparingly - if at all
      Thou shalt use handouts
      Thou shalt be brief
      Thou shalt not run overtime
      Thou shalt read and adjust to thy audience
      Thou shalt allow time for questions

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