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					                                               Landmark Middle School
                               Language Arts Department Information Letter and Contract
                                               2009 – 2010 School Year

Landmark Vision Statement:
The vision of Landmark Middle School is to become a top performing middle school by providing a secure and positive atmosphere that
encourages academic success, enhances self-esteem, and promotes respect for others within a culturally diverse society.

LMMS Language Arts department teaches by Clusters as mandated by the MVUSD, which has units aligned with the California State
Standards. Each textbook contains a listing of the California State Standards on the first few pages. We will be improving upon and
mastering these standards throughout the school year.

Quality Work:
Teachers will expect students to create quality work by:
        1. Following directions carefully
        2. Writing only on one side of the paper
        3. Writing all class assignments in cursive
        4. Writing all class assignments in blue or black ballpoint pen
        5. Following the Writing Standards as per California State Content Standards
             (See attached)
        6. Submitting all assignments on time
        7. Coming to class prepared to work and learn, this includes bringing supplies daily.

Being in school every day is important to learning and good grades. Please work towards the goal of being in class on time every day!
         Good attendance = Good Grades = Success

Materials Needed:
There are supplies that are needed daily and then there are those that will be needed on some days, but not others. Please be sure that your
child has the following supplies EVERYDAY and attached is the list of items needed to help your student be a successful learner.
         Lots and lots of Paper (college or wide ruled, but not in a spiral notebook)
         160-200 2-Pockets Portfolio with 3-Prong Fasteners
         3 or 4 blue or black ink pens
         3 or 4 pencils
         Highlighters (at least 2 colors)
         Small dictionary
         1 subject spiral notebook
         3 ring binder to hold all of the above (at least 2”)
         Planner inside of binder

Classroom Rules:
* Be in your seat and ready to work when the bell rings
* No gum, food, or drink in the classroom (Water bottles are OK)
* Restroom passes are only available for emergencies
* Late work is only accepted for excused absences. There are severe penalties for   students who do not submit work on time.
Assignments may have an extreme reduction in points or not be accepted at all. This will affect the student’s grade.

Course Work:
Writing Strategies: includes grammar, spelling, punctuation, and the writing process
Reading: fiction, non-fiction, poetry, science fiction, poetry, biography, etc.
Interactive Reader: Each student will receive one of these, please take care of them, they must last all year!
Informal and Formal Oral Presentations: this is a state standard and will be incorporated in other learning
Small Group Work
Independent Reading

Please keep this entire packet, but return the last sheet to your Language Arts teacher promptly.

Thank you
                                                    Landmark Middle School
                                                 15261 Legendary Drive ~ Moreno Valley, CA 92555
                                                    (951)571-4220 Office ~ (951) 571-4225 Fax
                                                                   Ext. 21302
                                                Teacher Syllabus and Documents
7 th Grade Language Arts                                           Classroom: D102
Instructor: Ms. C. Thomas                                           Email: or
School Web Site:
C. Thomas Web Link:

                                                           Vision Statement
     The vision of Landmark Middle School is to become a top performing idle school by providing a safe and secure atmosphere that
            encourages academic success, enhances self esteem and promotes respect for others in a culturally diverse society.

                                                     Required Materials
                                                  Provided Literature Text Book(s)
        Landmark Student Handbook/ Landmark Planner                     #2 Pencils with sharpener
        2-Pockets Portfolio with 3-Prong Fasteners                      Blue/Black Ink Pen
        3-Ring Binder                                                   Highlighters
        Dividers with Tabs                                              Pocket Folder
        Lined Paper

                                                                   Class Structure

Classroom Policy                                                                     All cell phones or unauthorized electronic devices are to be
                                                                                      turned off and put away. These devices will be confiscated if
1. The student is responsible for individual property, behavior and                   apparent and will not be held responsible by school.
learning.                                                                            There are a limited number of Bathroom Breaks (except for
           Do not leave personal items in classroom                                   Medically Documented Emergencies) No Exceptions
           Maintain suitable Dress Code requirements                                 Completed assignments must include proper Heading (name,
           Complete daily assigned class work/ homework by the following              date, etc.) and be written neatly in Cursive.
           day                                                                       Late assignments will only receive partial credit and must be
           Maintain a record of class assignments and events in Planner               submitted prior to posting of grades.
2. Exhibit proper respect for others and their property. (Keep your hands            Extra-Credit is only offered when minimum course
           to yourself)                                                               requirements have been met.
3. Enter the classroom in a quiet and orderly manner.
           Maintain good behavior skills through out class session           Consequences
4. Come to class prepared and ready to work.
5. Attend class regularly and ON-TIME.                                       1. Verbal Warning
           No Unexcused absences or tardy.                                   2. Written Consequences or Standards signed by guardian
           Excessive absences and tardy will earn student MANDATED           3. Time Out or Temporary Relocation with written consequences
           Tutoring                                                                    And/ Or Mandated Tutoring with Parent Contact
6. No eating, drinking or chewing gum in class                               4. Detention and Behavior Meeting with Parent
                                                                             5. Referral with further school consequences.

  Classroom Policy and Consequences are in association with M.V.U.S.D. policy and are subject to teacher discretion based on individual behavior.

    Grading Procedures                                                         11/22/09 – 11/26/09          Thanksgiving Recess
Portfolio Unit Notes: 500 pts                                                  12/17/09:                    Minimum Day
Book Reports/ Essays/Projects: 100 pts each                                    12/20/09 -01/07/10:          Winter Recess
Benchmark Test: 100 pts each                                                   01/17/10:                    No School ~ Martin Luther King Day
Weekly Homework Packets: 50 pts each                                           01/28/10:                    No School ~Parent Conference
Vocabulary Test: 40 pts each                                                   02/18/10:                    No School ~ Lincolns Day
Misc. Assignments: 10 pts each.                                                02/21/10:                    No School ~ Presidents Day
    Important Dates                                                            03/04/10:                    End of Trimester ~ Minimum Day
9/06/09:           No School ~Labor Day                                        03/28/10 -04/08/10:          Spring Recess
9/24/09:           No School ~Parent Conference                                05/30/10:                    No School ~ Memorial Day
11/05/09 :         End of Trimester ~ Minimum Day                              06/03/10:                    Minimum Day
11/11/09 :         No School ~ Veterans Day                                    06/10/10:                    Last Day of School ~ Minimum Day

        Please Visit the School Website Regularly. In the Sub-Section of Teachers / Staff open the Web Link of Ms. Crystal
         Thomas. Here I post weekly vocabulary, major assignments, study guides, test information, class photos and any additional
         classroom information or documents.
   Students need to complete assignments regularly, especially those that are worth the most point, because it’s easier to drop
    grades then to move up a grade. Every time an assignment is given, that is one more set of points you have to get. You can
    NOT do one assignment, no matter how many points its worth, and expect to make up for all the points previously missed.
   Parent Conferences will be held on September 24 and January 28. I will conduct my conferences as an “Open
    Conference” open to ALL parent/ guardians on a first come first serve bases. Location/ Time: TBA. Expect a detailed
    notice to be sent with student 1-2 weeks prior to event
   Class discussion will be integrated in daily assigned readings and activities. Handouts will be distributed in this class
    throughout the trimester and will likely be associated with homework. Students are expected to keep up with reading and
    homework assignments since they will be used in correlation with the classroom curriculum and benchmarks. Daily
    Assignments will be posted on the front white board of the class.
   Assignments missed during absences are the responsibility of the student to obtain. These items are available from teacher
    by request. In some cases alternative assignments may be given in the place of the missed task.
   Landmark Student Planner’s must be maintained and kept by student at all times that can will earn class credit
   Students have as many days as were absent to make-up assignments for Full Credit.
   The teacher Does Not retain the majority of the students work unless otherwise indicated. Once it is graded, the
    assignments. Are placed in a “Graded File” for student retrieval. It is recommended that the student keep record of their
    graded assignments as a reference for at least one trimester. The File will be cleaned out periodically and its documents
    thrown away.
   Homework is assigned as a Weekly Vocabulary Packet; due Friday, with the exception on State Testing Periods. In addition
    any unfinished classroom assignments may be completed at home and turned in the following school day for Full Credit.
   Weekly Vocabulary Test is conducted every Friday. Students will be expected to know the proper spelling and definitions
    of 20 Vocabulary Terms. Vocabulary Terms Located on C. Thomas School Web Site at the beginning of Each week.
    Vocabulary Terms will remain on website until the end of trimester. Missed Test can be made-up on Monday of the Next
    Week After School ONLY!
   Book Reports are issued Monthly. Requirements will be attached.
   An informal “Progress Report” may also be issued or requested periodically through out the school year. These reports list
    assignments, points possible, grade received, class grade and missing tasks. This report allows for student to make
    improvements prior to the end of the trimester by determining make-up or extra credit needs.
   Regular Assessments are recorded frequently with major Test or Benchmarks recorded at the end of the unit. Students will
    be warned and allowed time to prepare, well in advance,
   The teacher Does Not provide basic school materials. The student must come equipped with items like pencils and paper or
    they can not do their work.
   Personal items are the sole responsibility of student; do not leave them unattended. It is also recommended that items of
    value not be brought to school as they can be damaged, stolen or confiscated with no liability by the school.
   There are a limited number of Bathroom Breaks (except for Medically Documented Emergencies) No Exceptions.
     (2 per Month with Authorized Pass issued at the Beginning of Each Month)
   Student assignments must have proper heading and be in cursive.
   Late assignments MUST be turned in prior to the End of the school week for Partial Grade
   NO Available Extra-Credit!
   Make-up Work Will NOT be offered under Normal Circumstances, But may be allowed on a case by case bases
   Missed Reading Assignments can be Completed by the following: For Each Story in this Unit, apply the following.
         - Complete the “Connect to Your Life” at the beginning of each story
         - Review the “Build Background” at the beginning of each story
         - Review: the “Words to Know- Vocabulary Review” at the beginning of each story.
         - Write the word and its definition with its part of speech, then write the word 10 times each, and use it 2 different
         - At the End of Each Story: Complete the Questions
         - Connect to the Literature; Think Critically, Extended Interpretations, Literary Analysis
         - At the End of Each Story: Complete “Choices and Challenges” Writing Tasks
         - WRITING and Writing Handbook Activity
         - Vocabulary Exercises and Vocabulary Handbook Activities, Grammar in Context with Grammar Handbook
             Exercises Review with a short student written Summary about the author and/or his/her story
   Ms. C. Thomas Classroom Wish List
         • Line paper • PAPER! Blank Copy Paper (any color) • Construction paper •Pencils • Pens (Blue/ Black) • Dry
         Erase Markers • Pencil Erasers • Electronic Pencil Sharpener • Small manual pencil sharpeners • Tape • Stapler and
         staples • Crayons/ markers/ color pencils • Bandages • Tissues • Spiral Notebooks • 3 Ring Binders • Index cards •
         Paper/ binder clips • Safety scissor • Highlighters • Used Books or magazines !
                                   Course Schedule:
Trimester 1A
     Reading Strategies
     Intro to Step Up to Writing
     Reading Fiction
     Personal Narrative Essay
     Benchmark Test with Essay (district mandated)
     Reading Selections: Seventh Grade Thank You Ma’am Amigo Brothers The Bat/ The

Trimester 1B
     Response to Literature Essay
     Short stories with emphasis on Character Development
     Benchmark Test with Essay
     Reading Selections: What Do Fish Have To Do With Anything? An Hour with Abuelo The
       Monsters Are Due On Maple Street War of the Wall Rikki-Tikki-Tavi Casey at the Bat

Trimester 2A
     Writing Summaries
     Reading non-fiction
     Benchmark Test with Essay
     Reading Selections: Exploring the Titanic American Childhood They’re Well Suited for
       Studying Moose The Highway Man

Trimester 2B
     Persuasive Essay and prep for state Writing Exam
     Reading non-fiction
     Benchmark Test with Essay
     Reading Selections: Out of the Ballpark Primal Compassion From Long Walk to
       Freedom The Eternal Frontier Ode to an Artichoke

Trimester 3A
     Text Structure & Organization
     Reading Technical and Career oriented Documents
     CST preparation
     Reading Comprehension skill enhancement
     Benchmark Test
     Reading Selections: The Difference a City Year Makes The History of Chocolate Four
       Decades in Space The Elephant The Turtle Reading beyond the Classroom

Trimester 3B
     Research paper
     Reading Novels
     Literature comprehension
     Benchmark Test
     Reading Selections: Jabberwocky Sara Cynthia Sylvia Stout
                                                    Monthly Book Projects
                                                    Ms. Thomas ~English 7
                                                    2009 – 2010 School Year

Families and Students:
   The State of California expects that each seventh grade student will be well on their way to reading 1,000,000 pages of literature
and expository material each year. To help meet this state standard I have implemented outside reading projects. These projects are
due monthly and the students are expected to read the novel or non-fiction book required each month and complete the project on

   These projects (listed below) will be found on my homework site for the school. I have decided to give a genre for each month’s
reading and the same project for all students. These are written projects, and are designed so that the student may be involved with
the reading to develop a project that shows understanding of the work read.

    I do not accept late projects and I expect a high quality of work, since the students have ample time to prepare. We will mark
the due dates in your student’s agenda/planner, and I have attached the dates to this letter to help your schedules at home.

   For all projects the expectations are:
        1. No pencil on final submission
        2. Neatness counts
        3. No tape showing
        4. No dirt, smudges, or obvious erasures
        5. Name, date, and period on the back, bottom, or attached to each project
        6. Directions for each project will be followed precisely.

  These projects are a way for your child to experiment with different art forms, and composition ideas. This can also be a great
way to discuss the novel or book with your student.

        When helping your student please keep in mind that this reading is to broaden the knowledge of the students and so the
following requirements need to be observed:
        1. NO books that have been movies. If you are not sure if a novel has been made into a movie check the Netflix,
  , or Blockbuster websites. They all have a great list of movies and you should be able to determine
            whether it has been a movie.
        2. Books must be at least 175 pages and age appropriate. You should plan to send the book in by the 20th of the previous
            month for me to approve.

Reading Genres and Due dates of projects:

        September 16, 2009                  Any novel of your choice (Recommended: Taking Sides by Gary Soto)
        October 14, 2009                    Realistic Fiction
        November 18, 2009                   Literary Classics (Recommended: Where the Red Fern Grows)
        December 16, 2009                   Fantasy or Science Fiction
        January 14, 2010                    Any novel of your choice
        February 17, 2010                   Historically r Biography or Autobiography
        March 17, 2010                      Adventure
        April 21, 2010                      Historical Fiction
        May 20, 2010                        Speech/ Presentation/ Research Report on a Author (Final project for the year)

Books may be found in the school library, the local public library, or purchased at the local book stores or online through various

If you are not sure about what a genre includes or need some ideas there is a good website: then look for the ATN
Book Lists.

Do not hesitate to contact me if you are not sure what to do or how to complete a project.

Ms. Thomas
Lang Arts 7

                                    BOOK REPORT TEMPLATE
                             Use this handout as a guide for creating the actual report

Paragraph 1: Introductions of the book (Introduce the book in 5-8 sentences and in 1 paragraph)

       Book Title:

       Setting is very important in creating the mood of the story; describe the setting of this book in detail: paint a
       picture with words. How did the setting contribute to the atmosphere of the book?

Paragraph 2: Introduction of the characters (introduce the characters in 5-8 sentences and in 1 paragraph)

       Describe the main characters and explain their importance to the story. What part did they play in the story?
       Did any of these characters change, or surprise you?

       Describe the minor characters and explain their importance to the story. What part did they play in the
       story? Did any of these characters change, or surprise you?

Paragraph 3 and 4: Summary of the story (Explain the plot or events that occur in the story in 5-8 sentences per

       Write s summary of the story, explaining the important events, clues and actions in the book.

Paragraph 5: Conclusion (Explain how the story ended and what you thought of the book in 5-8 sentence

       How did the story conclude? Were you surprised by the ending? What is your opinion of this story? Would
       you recommend it to others? Why or Why Not?
                               Writing Standards for Middle School Students
                                                 As per the
                                    California State Content Standards

A student paper will:

   1. Be **legibly written on Both sides of a lined 8 ½ x 11” paper in blue or black ink. (Unless
      Typed, then only one sided)

   2. Maintain accurate spelling, correct usage of writing conventions,
      Punctuation, and capitalization.

   3. Have a proper heading on the upper left-side of the page:

      First name/Last name

      This heading is the same that is used at the high school level and is in agreement with the MLA standards for writing, and AVID

   4. Include proper sentence construction.

 ** Handwriting is an important standard that cannot be measured by testing. We will be working
 hard to improve our handwriting by writing the majority of our assignments in cursive. All final
  essays MUST be in ink and follow these rules, failure to do so will result in a zero for the essay
                     Optional Reading Assignments in Language of Literature 7th Grade

   After Twenty Years                                   The World Is Not a Pleasant Place to Be
   Bums in the Attic from the House on Mango Street     A Christmas Carol
   A Crown of the Wild Olive                            A Defenseless Creature
   A Crush                                              Ant and Grasshopper
   Dark They Were and Golden Eyed                       The Ant and the Grasshopper
   Days Wait                                            The Old Grandfather and His Little Grandson
   The Golden Kite, the Silver Wind                     The Richer, the Poorer
   Last Cover                                           Arap Sang and the Cranes
   One Ordinary Day, With Peanuts                       Asputtle
   A Retrieved Reformation                              Brother Coyote and Brother Cricket
   The Scholarship Jacket                               The Foolish Men of Agre
   The Serial Garden                                    The Force of Luck
   Waiting                                              How Odin Lost His Eye
   The White Umbrella                                   Kelfala’s Secret Something
   Zebra                                                Lazy Peter and His Three-Cornered Hat
   From Anthony Burns: The Defeat and Triumph of a      The People Could Fly
    Fugitive Slave                                       Pumpkin Seed and the Snake
   From The Autobiography of Eleanor Roosevelt          Sundiata, Lion King of Mali
   From The Autobiography of Malcolm X                  Waters of Gold
   From Barrio Boy                                      Young Arthur
   From Boy: Tales of Childhood                         Required Reading Assignments in Language of
   Dirk the Protector from My Life in Dog Years                        Literature 7th Grade
   Eleanor Roosevelt                                       Seventh Grade
   Face To Face With Twins                                 Thank You Ma’am
   From Short Story to the Big Screen                      Amigo Brothers
   From Growing Up                                         The Bat/ The Moose’s
   Homeless                                                What Do Fish Have To Do With Anything?
   From Immigrant Kids                                     An Hour with Abuelo
   An Interview with Ray Bradbury                          The Monsters Are Due On Maple Street
   From Knots in My Yo-Yo String                           War of the Wall
   The Lives of La Belle                                   Rikki-Tikki-Tavi
   Looking For America                                     Casey at the Bat
   Name/ Numbers                                           Exploring the Titanic
   The Night the Bed Fell                                  American Childhood
   The Noble Experiment from I Never Had It Made           They’re Well Suited for Studying Moose
   From No Ordinary Time                                   The Highway Man
   Offerings at the Wall                                   Out of the Ballpark
   Passing on the Flame                                    Primal Compassion
   Aardvark                                                From Long Walk to Freedom
   Good Hot Dogs/ Buenos Hot Dogs                          The Eternal Frontier
   Graduation Morning                                      Ode to an Artichoke
   If I Can’t Stop One Heart from Breaking                 The Difference a City Year Makes
   The New Colossus                                        The History of Chocolate
   The Pasture                                             Four Decades in Space
   The Rider                                               The Elephant
   Scaffolding                                             The Turtle
   From Song to Myself                                     Reading beyond the Classroom
   A Time to Talk                                          Jabberwocky
   To You                                                  Sara Cynthia Sylvia Stout
   Winter Poem
          Additional Support Documents

                      Weekly Homework Assignments
                 Due in Packet Form at the end of each week
 Daily Assignments that go unfinished can be completed at home and turned in the following school
                                          day for credit.

 The Weekly Homework is in addition to regularly scheduled assignments and Monthly Book Report

Vocabulary Terms Located on C. Thomas School Web Site at the beginning of Each week. Vocabulary
 Terms will remain on website until the end of trimester. Missed Test can be made-up on Monday of
                               the Next Week After School ONLY!

Weekly Reading assignment: “____________________________________________________” pg. ______
                                       Language of Literature

Weekly Vocabulary Assignment

       Monday: Master List of 20 Vocabulary Terms; Study
            Write 10x each in cursive

       Tuesday: Define each of the vocabulary terms

       Wednesday: Use each term in a sentence with a context clue

       Thursday: Vocabulary Poster (Directions Attached)
                Study for Test
       Friday: Vocabulary Test (Spell the words correctly and match the definitions)

Lang. Arts 7
                                                    Vocabulary word

                            Vocabulary Poster Instructions
       You need to create a vocabulary poster for your assigned word that graphically
       displays the meaning of your word with images, pictures, cartoons, drawings and/or symbols.

       Refer to the Vocabulary List and Definitions sheet for more information about your word.

   1. Size must be 8 1/2 x 11 on unlined paper or cardstock
     (colored or white).
  2. Your poster must be organized, neat and colorful.
     Images can be a combination of drawings, cartoons,
     pictures or symbols.
  3 .Divide your poster into 3 sections as seen
    on the right.
  4. Measure down 2 inches from the top of the paper
    and draw a straight line across your paper. This
    section is for your WORD.
 5. Measure up 2 inches from the bottom and
   draw a straight line across your paper. This
   section is for the COMPLETE DEFINITION.
6. The middle section is for your IMAGES.

    Your poster will be completed Thursday of every week and presented
                              the following day.
 To get started:
 a) Choose or determine your vocabulary word then you need to think and plan how to arrange the poster.
 b) Determine what kinds of artwork you want on your poster.
 c) Decide if you want to use a computer, draw by hand, and/or use magazines
   Or newspapers.
 d) Consider creating a rough draft of your poster on a piece of notebook paper before
   you begin.

                                                 CORNELL NOTES
Period / Subject

  Topic: ___________________________________________________________________________________

         Connections Column                                                     Important Information

 Sample Question and Notes
 What Should I write down / when?                Write down only important information. Look For:

 I take notes?                                            * Bold, underlined or italicized words
                                                          * Information in boxes or with icon/ symbol
                                                          * Headers / sub headers on the page
                                                          * Information that is repeated or emphasized
                                                          * Words ideas or events that might be on a test
                                                          * Dates, quotes, examples or details you might use later in a test/paper or presentation

 Note: Leave space in the Connections Column
 So you can add notes and test questions later
 on when studying.

 How can I take notes faster?                             *    Abbreviate familiar words/ use symbols (+,, #)
                                                          *    Take notes on bullets and indents; not formal outlines
                                                          *    Cut unnecessary words
                                                          *    Use telegraphic sentences (America Enters war 12/44)

 Down here write one of the following: summary of what you read/ heard/ saw; the five most important points of
 the article/ chapter/ lecture; questions you still need to answer.

                 Steps for Formatting an MLA Report Without a Title Page
MLA reports are one of the most commonly formatted reports in colleges and universities in the USA.
   1. Set your Font Style to Times New Roman, Arial, Century, Courier, or some other basic style.
   2. Adjust your Font Size to 12 or 10 (unless indicated by your instructor)
   3. Set your Margins to 1” on all sides; Top, Bottom, Left & Right (LEAVE THE
          GUTTER ALONE)
   4. Set your Line Spacing to Double
   5. Insert your Page Numbers
   6. Heading in the Top Left Corner of the page (Not in the Header)
                   A. Your Name,
                   B. Teachers Name (Ms. Thomas for this class)
                   C. Course (The name of this course is Language Arts)
                   D. Date (Day-Month- Year)
   7. Title
                   A. Center Align the title of the report
   8. Paragraphs
                   A. Indent one time for each new paragraph
            To format the Works Cited Page try using
   9. Works Cited Page – gives credit and location for your work
                 A. Center Align, Type your title Works Cited, Organizing your References into Alphabetical
                 B. Use     copyright image page
                 C. Examples:
                    Author’s last name, First. Title of the Book.
                             City. Publisher. Year.
                    Author’s last name, First. “Title of online Article.” Title of Publication version and year
                      published. # Of pages. Date Accessed. Web site (
Foreshadowing: The use of hints or clues to suggest what will happen later in the
CHARACTERIZATION ~MAJOR CHARACTERS: Almost always round or                                  3. Themes are suggested through the characters. The main character usually illustrates
  three-dimensional characters. They have good and bad qualities. Their goals,                 the most important theme of the story. A good way to get at this theme is to ask
  ambitions and values change. A round character changes as a result of what                   yourself the question, what does the main character learn in the course of the story?
  happens to him or her. A character that changes inside as a result of what happens        4. The actions or events in the story are used to suggest theme. People naturally
  to him is referred to in literature as a DYNAMIC character. A dynamic character              express ideas and feelings through their actions. One thing authors think about is
  grows or progresses to a higher level of understanding                                       what an action will "say". In other words, how will the action express an idea or
    Protagonist: The main character in the story                                              theme?
    Antagonist: The character or force that opposes the protagonist.
    Foil: A character that provides a contrast to the protagonist. In the course of the    IMAGERY: Language that appeals to the senses. Descriptions of people or objects
  story.                                                                                      stated in terms of our senses.

MINOR CHARACTERS: Almost always flat or two-dimensional characters. They                    FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE ~ Simile
  have only one or two striking qualities. Their predominant quality is not balanced          A figure of speech which involves a direct comparison between two unlike things,
  by an opposite quality. They are usually all good or all bad. Such characters can be        usually with the words like or as. Example: The muscles on his brawny arms are
  interesting or amusing in their own right, but they lack depth. Flat characters are         strong as iron bands.
  sometimes referred to as STATIC characters because they do not change in the
  course of the story.                                                                      Metaphor: A figure of speech which involves an implied comparison between two
                                                                                              relatively unlike things using a form of be. The comparison is not announced by
POINT OF VIEW ~ First Person                                                                  like or as. Example: The road was a ribbon of moonlight.
  The narrator is a character in the story who can reveal only personal thoughts and
  feelings and what he or she sees and is told by other characters. He can’t tell us
                                                                                            Personification: A figure of speech which gives the qualities of a person to an animal,
  thoughts of other characters.
                                                                                              an object, or an idea. It is a comparison which the author uses to show something in
                                                                                              an entirely new light, to communicate a certain feeling or attitude towards it and to
Third-Person Objective: The narrator is an outsider who can report only what he or            control the way a reader perceives it. Example: a brave handsome brute fell with a
  she sees and hears. This narrator can tell us what is happening, but he can’t tell us       creaking rending cry--the author is giving a tree human qualities.
  the thoughts of the characters.
                                                                                            Onomatopoeia: The use of words that mimic sounds. They appeal to our sense of
Third-Person Limited: The narrator is an outsider who sees into the mind of one of            hearing and they help bring a description to life. A string of syllables the author has
  the characters.                                                                             made up to represent the way a sound really sounds. Example: Caarackle!

Omniscient: The narrator is an all-knowing outsider who can enter the minds of more         Hyperbole: An exaggerated statement used to heighten effect. It is not used to mislead
                                                                                              the reader, but to emphasize a point. Example: She’s said so on several million
FORESHADOWING: An author’s use of hints or clues to suggest events that will
  occur later in the story. Not all foreshadowing is obvious. Frequently, future events
  are merely hinted at through dialogue, description, or the attitudes and reactions of     ELEMENTS OF PLOT: All fiction is based on conflict and this conflict is presented
  the characters.                                                                             in a structured format called PLOT.

IRONY: Irony is the contrast between what is expected or what appears to be and             Exposition: The introductory material which gives the setting, creates the tone,
  what actually is.                                                                           presents the characters, and presents other facts necessary to understanding the

Tone: The author’s attitude, stated or implied, toward a subject. Some possible
  attitudes are pessimism, optimism, earnestness, seriousness, bitterness, humorous,        Conflict: The essence of fiction. It creates plot. The conflicts we encounter can
  and joyful. An author’s tone can be revealed through choice of words and details.           usually be identified as one of four kinds. (Man versus…Man, Nature, Society, or

Mood: The climate of feeling in a literary work. The choice of setting, objects, details,
 images, and words all contribute towards creating a specific mood. For example, an         Rising Action: A series of events that builds from the conflict. It begins with the
 author may create a mood of mystery around a character or setting but may treat               inciting force and ends with the climax.
 that character or setting in an ironic, serious, or humorous tone
                                                                                            Climax: The climax is the result of the crisis. It is the high point of the story for the
THEME: The main idea or underlying meaning of a literary work. A theme may be                  reader. Frequently, it is the moment of the highest interest and greatest emotion.
  stated or implied. Theme differs from the subject or topic of a literary work in that        The point at which the outcome of the conflict can be predicted.
  it involves a statement or opinion about the topic. Not every literary work has a
  theme. Themes may be major or minor. A major theme is an idea the author returns          Falling Action: The events after the climax which close the story.
  to time and again. It becomes one of the most important ideas in the story. Minor
  themes are ideas that may appear from time to time.

It is important to recognize the difference between the theme of a literary work and the
    subject of a literary work. The subject is the topic on which an author has chosen to
    write. The theme, however, makes some statement about or expresses some opinion
    on that topic. For example, the subject of a story might be war while the theme
    might be the idea that war is useless.                                                  Resolution (Denouement): Rounds out and concludes the action.

         Four ways in which an author can express themes are as follows:
1. Themes are expressed and emphasized by the way the author makes us feel... By
sharing feelings of the main character you also share the ideas that go through his
2. Themes are presented in thoughts and conversations. Authors put words in their
   character’s mouths only for good reasons. One of these is to develop a story’s
Themes: The things a person says are much on their mind. Look for thoughts that are
   repeated throughout the story.




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