Impact Assessment Study of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW by gpc19797

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									               The 12th International Conference of
               International Association for Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics (IACMAG)
               1-6 October, 2008
               Goa, India




Impact Assessment Study of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Dumping
in a Rain Catchment Area
Anju Singh and Radha Krishna Mothadaka
National Institute of Industrial Engineering (NITIE), Vihar lake, Mumbai, India

Rajan Sharma
Asian Paints (India) Limited, Vakola, Mumbai, India


Keywords: Environmental impact assessment, municipal solid waste, dumping, ground water, surface water

ABSTRACT: An increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) and its consequent problems of disposal have
become a major environmental issue in urban areas. Municipal waste arises from Residential, Commercial,
Institutional and Industrial sources. It is composed of paper, plastics, glass, cloth, metals, organic waste and ashes
etc. The MSW dumping site in this case is surrounded by Reserve forest, and a residential colony. It also served as
rain catchments area with plant density of 40-50%. The impact assessment of this dumping was done by collecting
and analyzing solid waste (on site), surface water, ground water (within 10 km of the site) and air samples (on site)
along with a socioeconomic survey (on site). 40 MSW and two control soil samples were analyzed for 20 parameters.
The 120 water samples were analyzed for 25 parameters. Each parameter was mapped on the site map for better
visual understanding [1]. In the various parameters analyzed; phosphate, salinity, chloride, alkalinity, calcium, and
total solids were very high on the spot and though COD, turbidity, hardness, Mg, F, Na and K were average on site
but increased just ahead of the site due to addition of these by other sources. Concentration of pollutants in
groundwater samples were of a high order due to the leachate from the solid waste [2]. This paper presents the
impact of open MSW dumping on surrounding land, water and air. It also suggests various mitigation measures which
are cost effective and require less resources for example minimizing wastewater generation, managing non-point
source pollution, decreasing soil erosion, development of comparative information to enable site selection, providing
physical barriers etc, which could lead to redevelopment of the study area and reversing the problems that persist
there.


1   Introduction
Waste is almost always produced whenever we convert a natural resource into a product, though its nature and
quantity can vary. Waste cannot be wished away. Moreover, if it is hazardous or toxic, it could even be a harbinger of
disease and death, not just for living beings, but for all that sustains life, for example, water, air, soil and food.

Contaminated land is one that contains substances that, when present in sufficient quantities or concentration are
likely to cause harm, directly or indirectly, to men, the environment, or on occasions to other targets. The hazard may
be associated with the present status of the land, limit the future use of the land; and, require the land to be specially
treated before use [3].

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Stream comes from residential, commercial, institutional and industrial sources [4].
Source reduction, recycling and composting, waste-to-energy facilities, and land filling are the four basic approaches
to waste management [6] [7].




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2   Project Setting
2.1 Location & Area Aspects

Jagatpura is located in south extension of Jaipur, which is 9 km away. The city is surrounded by Aravalli hills in the
north and east direction. The location of the Jagatpura dumping site is 75o 50.5’ latitude and 26o 50.5’ longitude. The
total area of the dumping site is about 4 Km2. The slope of the dumping site is irregular and there is no
physical/mechanical boundary for the site. The dumping site has Jhalana Reserved forest towards north and west,
the railway line towards its south, and residential colony and highway towards east. The nearest settlement to the
dumping site is about 1km from the site. There are two water streams, Amanishah Nala & Dhund River at the western
and eastern sides of the dumping site (Figure 1). Total population of the area is about 50,000.




           Figure.1: Surface & Ground Water Sampling Points.                Figure 2: Solid waste sampling points.

2.2 Soil

Chomu series of soil present in the Jagatpura and nearby region consists of very deep, dominantly coarse textured
(loamy sand to loamy fine sand), generally light yellowish brown to dark yellowish brown (10YR 6/4 to 10YR 4/4) in
colour. Excessive drainage, low water retention capacity, wind erosion and low fertility are major problems. It is a
member of coarse sandy, mixed, hyperthermic family.

2.3 Land Use Pattern

About 64.41% land is used for agriculture, and 47% as forest, 22.03% is residential and about 5.08% is common
land. Area towards south and south west of the dumping site is mainly agricultural land. The total absence of
permanent water bodies in this area is an indicative of environmental degeneration, which is largely due to the heavy
stress of human and animal populations. The settlements in this area are Jaipura, Hirapura, Samer, Tilawala, Jirota,
Gawar, Sanganer, Tibba, Shiharpura, Kokas, Rampura, Siroli, Khori, etc.


2.4 The Slope of the Land
Most of the area drawn on the map shows a gentle slope of less than 0.25o degrees per Km2. Quite prominently, no
                                                                                                                o
human settlements are visible on the moderately high to higher slopes. The slope at Jhalana forest varies from 0 25’




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to more than 1o 45’ because of the hills. The slope at dumping site varies between 0o 25’ to 0o 55’. The slope is
towards east and therefore all streams merge in to Jhalana nadi which then flows eastward to meet Dhund river.


2.5 The Drainage System
The drainage pattern of the area is indicative of the flow of the small and large streams as well as the intensity of
water erosion. As the area is under the semi-arid zone, all the streams are ephemeral, flowing only in the rainy
season (July to October).

A stream of varying width ( 3 - 7 m wide), passes touching one side of the dumping site. The stream carries the
effluent of nearby industries. It also carries rain water during the rainy season. This has led to the killing of several
planted trees near its vicinity. It has also led to the mosquito menace. The leachate from the depth, surface and
sides of the dump also mingles with the stream making it highly polluted. The pollutants are ultimately carried to the
Dhund river via Jhalana nadi.


2.6. The Stream Frequency
The stream frequency shows the number of streams per Km2 of the area under study. These streams range from first
order (small rivulets) to fifth order (large rivers) in the given area. Classified into 5 types, the map of stream frequency
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shows that a large area has the frequency of less than 2 streams/Km . It is only on the hilly region that the frequency
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is higher, about 2- 4 streams/Km


3   Methodology

3.1 Water Sampling & Analysis

3.1.1. Water Sampling
A bathymetric map of the study area with details such as points of inflow, outflow, pollution, human activity etc. was
used for this purpose. Keeping Jagatpura dumping site as a center, an area of 10 km radius was selected for the
ground and surface water sampling. About 120 surface water samples were collected from this area for analysis.
Intense ground water sampling was done at the site and towards the flow of surface water from the dumping site.
About 43 water samples were collected within a circle of 2 km radius from the dumping site. Water samples were
collected from wells, hand pumps, flowing streams and still water. Well samples were collected from selected wells
present in the sampling area [8, 9].

Storage and analysis - After collection, the water samples were kept in an ice box till these were transported to
laboratory and kept at 4˚C to minimize biodegradation. All samples were analyzed in laboratory within 24 hours.
Physical & Chemical Parameters such as Turbidity, Conductivity, Total Solids (TS), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS),
Alkalinity, Magnesium, pH, Salinity, Fluoride, Phosphate, Sulphate, Potassium, Sodium, COD, BOD, Oil & Grease,
Metals which change with time were analyzed first to minimize errors. All these parameters are measured using
standard methods.

3.1.2. Solid Waste Sampling & Analysis:
Sampling sites (Figure 2) and method for collection of Municipal solid waste and soil samples were decided keeping
in mind the purpose of study and parameters in question. A visual inspection of the dumping site was done, after that
about 22 sampling sites were selected in such a way that all the area was covered. Samples were collected by
digging holes at the sampling points using tools like spade and shovel. The depth of each hole was about 1-2
meters. In all 40 solid waste and 2 soil samples were collected.




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                                  Table.1 Characteristics of Solid Waste Samples.

                                 Average                                                          Average
Sn.       Waste Type                                   Sn     Waste Type
                                 Composition (g)                                                  Composition (g)
    1     Paper & Board                 100             5     Food Waste                                  -
    2     Wood Waste                    410             6     Plastic                                    321
    3     Metal                          315            7     Others (Rubber, leather, textile,          771
                                                              Miscellaneous, inorganic
                                                              waste)
    4     Glass & Ceramics               130            8     Mud, sand etc                             22103
                                                        9     Total Weight                              14150


4       Results & Discussion

4.1. Physical & Chemical Characterization of Dumped Municipal Solid Waste (see Figure 3)

4.1.1. Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste




                Figure 3: Comparison of MSW & Soil samples in terms of Physico- Chemical parameters

Moisture content of the solid waste ranged between 12 - 43 %. Average moisture content was about 23%. Moisture
content of soil samples is far less as compared to solid waste. The sampling was done in the months of summer,
before the rainy season. Specific gravity of MSW samples was in the range of 0.9 to 1.8, with an average of 1. Bulk
density of MSW samples varied from 0.8 to 1.6 with an average of 1.14 mg/g.




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pH of all MSW samples ranged between 7 to 7.5. pH of control soil samples was 7.0 and thus in the same range as
MSW sample. The percentage of organic matter was between 6 to 19% with an average of 10%. The organic content
of the nearby soil samples was however only 1.3 to 1.8 % as it had organic matter in the range of 14 to 18 mg/g.

Chlorides in MSW varied between 0.02 to 0.4 mg/g with an average of 0.2 mg/g. Alkalinity of MSW samples is
between 0.11 to 0.43 mg/g with an average of 0.21 mg/g. Sodium content of MSW is in the range of 0.02 to 0.1 mg/g
with an average of 0.04 mg/g. Sodium in soil samples varied between 0.07 to 0.09 mg/g with an average value of
0.08 mg/g. Calcium content of MSW samples is in the range of 0.27 to 0.64 mg/g with an average calcium content of
0.46 mg/g. Soil samples showed calcium in the range of 0.11 to 0.1 mg/g with an averge value of 0.105 mg/g.

Nitrate level in the MSW samples varied between 0.057 mg/g to 0.235 mg/g with an average of 0.135 mg/g. Nitrate
content of soil samples ranged between 0.08 to 0.095 mg/g with an average of 0.09 mg/g. The nitrate level of soil
samples was much lower compared to that of solid waste. Sulphate content of MSW samples ranged between 0.065
mg/g to 1.6 mg/g with an average value of 0.35 mg/g. Sulphate of soil samples was within a range of 0.085 to 0.11
mg/g with an average of 0.09 mg/g. Potassium of MSW samples was in the range of 0.45 to 1.5 mg/g with an
average of 0.94 mg/g. Potassium content of soil samples ranged between 0.1 to 0.95 mg/g with an average value of
0.7 mg/g. Potassium content in MSW samples is much higher than that of soil samples. Phosphate content of MSW
samples was in the range of 0.008 to 0.04 mg/g with an average of 0.023 mg/g. However, the phosphate is soil
samples ranged between 0.0016 to 0.004 mg/g with an average of 0.003 mg/g. The phosphate content in MSW
samples is much higher than that of soil samples.

4.2. Water Properties

4.2.1. Surface Water Properties

Maximum concentration of Magnesium was 120 ppm seen at the site of Jagatpura. Maximum concentration of copper
was found to be in Jagatpura site within 2 km radius (0.02 to 0.08 ppm).Maximum concentration of Cadmium of 0.01
ppm was found near the Jagatpura site. 0.005 ppm of Cadmium was also found near Gandhinagar. Manganese
concentration was generally found to be below 0.1 ppm. However, it was high in the south west direction of the
Jagatpura site (0.1 - 0.5 ppm), especially in Barh Dewariya region. Sodium was found to be maximum in the north of
Jagatpura (greater than 300 ppm). Calcium was found to be maximum around Sanganare area – a dyeing and
printing region (above 200 ppm). Total solids were maximum in Amanishah Nala between Barh Dewariya and
Sanganer town. Solids were also high near Bijapura. Concentration of suspended solids was found to be highest at
Sanganer and Jagatpura site (almost 1000 ppm) due to textile effluents and dumping site respectively (Figure 4).

Most places showed BOD between 15 and 40 ppm. BOD was high (30 - 40 ppm) in Amanishah Nala after Sanganer
and near Goner. BOD was also high (30 ppm) near Jagatpura site.Except for Jhalana hills and the surrounding forest,
where COD was less than 50 ppm, rest of the map showed high COD concentration ( 50 - 200 ppm). High COD were
noted especially near the Jagatpura site ( 150 - 200 ppm), mainly due to area.

Fluoride was found to be in the range of 0.0 to 0.6 ppm. Concentration at Jagatpura site is almost 0.2 ppm. Alkalinity
was maximum in Amanisah Nala after Sanganare upto Jirota (above 400 ppm) due to printing and dyeing units. West
and south side of the Jagatpura site showed 200 - 400 ppm of alkalinity. Salinity (more than 300 ppm) was present in
Kanarwas, Bhurthal and Balawala areas towards southeast.

4.2.2. Ground Water Properties

pH of hand pumped water varied between 7 - 8. pH of well water samples was 7 for most samples. BOD was found
to be maximum in the area near aerodrome (25 mg/l) and near Ropara (20 mg/l). BOD was between 5 - 10 mg/l in
about 70% of the area and about 20% of the area showed BOD below 10 mg/l. COD in 80% of the region lies
between 10 - 20 mg/l except areas near Shikarpura and Jamroli, where BOD is less than 10 mg/l.

High alkalinity (between 40 - 80 mg/l) was observed in the entire South and Eastern region of Jagatpura probably due
to the dumping site and also the textile industry effluents flowing towards the south eastern side. Total solids of hand
pumped water ranged between 136 - 2,230 mg/l. Maximum total solids were found in hand pumps near Dhund river,
above Lakshera and in a left near Dantli and Siroli. Well water samples showed a lower range of TS, between 524 -
1,620 mg/l.

The region near museum has highest TSS of more than 750 mg/l (Figure 4). Total dissolved solids were highest in 2
regions : near Siroli and Dantli area (2,080 mg/l) and near Dhund.




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5 Conclusion
Municipal solid waste is a problem in most cities due to rapid urbanization, unplanned growth, nil segregation at
source and unorganized collection of waste. The existing landfills are getting filled, sites for new landfill are hard to
get, per capita waste production is increasing and the cost of waste collection etc. is increasing. The two role players
are the municipalities and rag pickers which have no coordination amongst them. The composition of municipal solid
waste typically is India has about 40-45% organics and about 40% construction waste. The organic waste needs to
be segregated and vermicomposted at site. This will solve 40% of the problem. Plastic, paper, glass and metal should
be recycled and not wasted in landfills. Construction and miscellaneous waste only needs land filling. Without
appropriate segregation and management, municipal solid waste can become a severe threat to the communities
living nearby and the environment.




                            Figure 4: Total Suspended Solids Distribution in Ground Water.

6   References
Burdge, R.J., “The Social Impact Assessment Model and the planning Process,” Environmental Impact Assessment Review,
  vol.7, 1987, pp.141 – 150.

Canter, L.W., “Environmental Impact Assessment,” McGraw –Hill Book Company, Newyork, 1977, pp. 220 – 232.

Canter, L.W., “Decision Making in Selecting the Proposed Action in Environmental Impact Statements -        Case Studies and
  approaches,” Environmental and Ground Water Institute, University of Oklahoma, Norman, May, 1990.

LeGrand, H.E., “Systems of Reevaluation of Contamination Potential from Waste Disposable Sources,” Office of Water and
  hazardous Materials, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C., 1977.

“Methods for Environmental Impact analysis: Recent Trends and Future Prospects.,” Journal Environmental Management, Volume
  11, 1980, pp 27 – 43.

Schaenman, P.S., “Using an Impact Measurement System to Evaluate Land Development,” The Urban Institute, Washington, D.C.,
  Sept. 1976.

Westman, W.E., Ecology, Impact Assessment, and Environmental Planning, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1985, pp 10 – 14.




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