Identification of Problems in Municipal Solid Waste by gpc19797

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									      Lusaka City Council: Strategic Municipal Solid Waste Management Plan for Lusaka City, October 2003




6.    Problem Analysis and Overall Goals and Targets
      As established in previous chapters, the LCC faces a number of problems in
      terms of provision of municipal waste management services to its citizens and
      the business community. The present Strategic Plan aims at identifying ways
      and means of addressing these problems and identifying sustainable and viable
      solutions to the problems. In order to do this, a problem analysis was
      conducted that identified a number of causes, core problems and effects in
      MSW management. This problem analysis also identified strategic measures to
      be implemented during the strategy period of fifteen years and short-term
      actions to be taken within the coming five years by LCC and other
      stakeholders.

6.1   Identification of Problems in Municipal Solid Waste Management in
      Lusaka

      The following is a list of problems that have been identified from several
      studies and activities, particularly those of the Sustainable Lusaka Programme
      through its Issues Specific Working Group on Solid Waste, which was a multi-
      sectoral group involving different actors in solid waste management in Lusaka.
      This list, however, does not attempt to identify the core problems of solid
      waste management and even contains both causes and effects with regard to
      MSW management.

      •   Inadequate funding (Grant-in aid) by central government to LCC
      •   Inadequate financial, human and technical capacity at LCC
      •   Too many actors in waste management – legislation provides domain over
          MSWM to a number of institutions
      •   Lack of coordination among institutions especially at inter-governmental
          level, as well as other stakeholders (NGOs and international development
          agencies)
      •   Solid waste management is no too high on LCC’s priorities / plans
      •   There is no city-wide MSW Strategy or Plan
      •   Low waste collection rates by both the private sector and LCC
      •   Increase in population with no corresponding increase in social service
          delivery
      •   Large share (75%) of the residents live in peri-urban areas
      •   There is an increase in the number of unplanned peri-urban areas – most of
          them, if not all, have no facilities or infrastructure like roads
      •   Poor attitudes (generally) of the residents towards MSWM
      •   Low income levels among residents, particularly in the peri-urban areas
      •   No municipal by-laws to ensure compliance among the residents
      •   Poor road network making it difficult for kerbside collection system
      •   Single handling of waste – i.e. no transfer stations to break the long
          distances that have to be covered


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Lusaka City Council: Strategic Municipal Solid Waste Management Plan for Lusaka City, October 2003




•   Low participation levels by the private sector (only a contribution of 4%)
•   High capital/investment costs for the private sector
•   Waste collection services are not cost effective
•   No permanent disposal site – which makes planning difficult
•   Poor or lack of enforcement of laws or regulations by LCC
•   Political interference in the operations of RDCs, which are central to the
    fostering of community development projects
•   Poor data on waste generation rates, composition, characteristics, waste
    type, waste generators, etc.
•   Lack of comprehensive national environmental regulations and policies on
    SWM
•   Lack of awareness of the residents on health impacts of poor waste
    management
•   Low levels of involvement by business and industry in environmental
    management
•   Unclear institutional mandate between ECZ and LCC
•   Inappropriate private sector participation framework, i.e. open competition
    system
•   Service coverage area – limited to mostly conventional housing areas
•   Increase in imported good and products on the Zambian market
•   Lack of control of imports into the country, particularly in terms of their
    waste products (no eco-labelling)
•   No comprehensive legislation to deal with the full spectrum of MSWM
•   Poor licensing system by ECZ of private waste collectors and transporters
•   No separation of waste at source, in particular by residents
•   There are no waste minimisation strategies in place, e.g. recycling
•   Low capacity in the waste recycling industry
•   Increase in small and medium scale enterprises with little focus on
    environmental management
•   No national programme for infrastructure development, e.g. landfill
    development
•   Huge work force – high overheads, council does not have funds to pay
    severance packages
•   Low national budget allocation for government’s operations, especially
    social service delivery
•   No economic incentives for private sector participation in SWM
•   Lack of willingness by residents to pay for social services
•   Uneconomical fees collected for waste collection services provided by
    LCC and the private sector
•   Too many local taxes and fees, e.g. property tax, personal levy etc. putting
    pressure on the limited disposable income of residents




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      Lusaka City Council: Strategic Municipal Solid Waste Management Plan for Lusaka City, October 2003




6.2   Analysis of Problems is Lusaka’s Solid Waste Management

      Figure 5.1 below illustrates the methodology applied in problem analysis. This
      methodology has been generally applied in reaching the analysis presented
      after the figure and the goals and targets emanating from this and presented in
      section 5.3.



        E                                                                                                   Lack of coordination
                        Low participation
        F                                                                                                   among institutions/-
                        by private sector
        F                                                 Little LCC initiatives within                     stakeholders involved
        E
                                                          MSW minimisation, recycling,
        C
        T                                                 collection, transport, treatment,
        S                                                 disposal




                                                                  No City-wide MSW
        CORE PROBLEM                                              Strategy and Plan




                                                                                                      No comprehensive national
        C               Inadequate finan-
                                                                                                      policies, strategies and
        A               cial, human, techni-                                                          regulations within MSWM
        U               cal resources
        S
        E
        S
                                            MSW not high on                      Too many actors in
                                            LCC’s priority list                  MSWM



      Figure 5.1         Problem analysis illustration

      The most immediate problem in solid waste management in Lusaka at present
      is the lack of an overall structure for this management, i.e. the lack of a
      Strategy and an Action Plan. Lusaka City Council has therefore not yet
      developed the necessary by-laws to approach the waste management issues in
      the City in a structured manner. This is partly due to the absence of a national
      policy and strategy on MSW management. Further, ECZ’s powers with regard
      to licensing of waste transporters interfere with LCC’s need to control and
      monitor waste management in the City.




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      Lusaka City Council: Strategic Municipal Solid Waste Management Plan for Lusaka City, October 2003




      The above in combination with lack of funding for waste management – again
      due to an improperly developed fee structure for payment of waste
      management and the general community’s lack of will or ability to pay for the
      services – result in waste collection in the City being insufficient. Presently it is
      estimated that only about 15% of the waste generated in the City is collected
      and transported out of the City, while the remaining waste piles up along the
      roads and in open spaces as well as at markets places. Here it does first of all
      result in direct inconveniences due to odour emission and attraction of vermin,
      but also in secondary nuisances because it is often burned on the spot.

      This is especially a problem in the poor, peri-urban areas where household
      income is low and there is often neither the internal administrative and
      practical structure to address waste problems, nor awareness among the
      inhabitants of the health risks associated with the lack of cleanliness. Even
      where these problems are met and primary waste collection out of the areas
      takes place, this is to little avail because LCC has neither the funding nor the
      practical capacity to take care of the secondary transport, i.e. from the peri-
      urban areas to the disposal site.

      Further, even the waste transported out of the City is not satisfactorily
      managed. Till early 2001 Lusaka City mainly disposed of its waste at the
      Libala dump south of the City, established as a temporary site in the early
      1990’es. However, this site being localised in a ground water recharge area that
      is very important to the water supply of Lusaka, ECZ in late 2000 ordered LCC
      to terminate the use of this site. Since then, a new site has been established at
      Chunga north of the City, but this site is also only assumed temporary and a
      new site where a well designed and operated engineered landfill can be
      established is presently sought for. An EIA for two potentially suitable sites is
      presently conducted.

6.3   Overall Goals and Targets in Lusaka’s Solid Waste Management

      The overall goals and targets in development of a solid waste management
      Strategy and Action Plan for Lusaka will thus be to address the above
      problems. This was also the basis for the LSWSMP from which the present
      Strategic Plan is a major output.

      In brief, the overall goals and targets for the Lusaka Strategic Solid Waste
      Management Plan will be

      •    A City-wide, affordable MSW collection service to ensure that waste is
           brought out of the City established and operational by the end of 2004;
      •    An environmentally sound landfill on which the waste can be disposed
           designed and realised by the end of 2006;
      •    By the end of 2003, a sound and economically self-sustainable
           administrative structure within the LCC administration established and


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Lusaka City Council: Strategic Municipal Solid Waste Management Plan for Lusaka City, October 2003




     mandated to initiate, operate and supervise these developments, and to
     provide this structure with the necessary legal and financial background to
     carry out its duties; and
•    A public education and awareness campaign developed and implemented
     by 2003 to establish an understanding in the public that a properly working
     MSW collection and disposal service in a necessity for the functioning and
     well-being of the City and its citizens, and that it has to be paid for in order
     to be sustainable

These overall goals and targets together with the waste forecast in chapter 6 and
the various options for solving the problems presented in the chapters 8 and 9 form
the basis for Strategic Waste Management Plan activities and outputs presented in
chapter 10 of this Strategic Plan.




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