Estimation of Breeding Values for Milk Production by grs11494

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									        Estimation of Breeding Values for Milk Production Traits,
         Somatic Cell Score, Conformation, Productive Life and
              Reproduction Traits in German Dairy Cattle

Version: January 2010
Last updates:
- 08-2009: Yearly shift of base for calving traits with now an own base for every breed.
           Linear trait “Foot Angle” instead of “Height of Hoof”
- 04-2009: Yearly shift of base for relative breeding values and new definition of base for
……………smaller breeds
- 01-2009: Values for bull fertility (deviation Non-Return-Rate)
- 08-2008: New relative weights in RZG for Angler (Red Breed); yearly shift of base for
           relative EBVs for calving traits
- 04-2008: Introduction daughter fertility index RZR; changes in conformation EBVs; new
           weights within RZG; yearly shift of base for relative breeding values
- 01-2008: Introduction of new model for fertility traits
- 05-2007: New relative weight in RZE and RZG for Angler (Red Breed)
- 05-2005: Shift of base for traits on natural scale (every 5 years)
- 02-2005:New genetic evaluation for milking speed and temperament
- 11-2004:New model longevity, correlations used for calculation total merit index RZG




                                           Content
Introduction
Breeding values for milk production traits and somatic cell scores
               The Random Regression Model
               EBVs for Milk Production Traits
               EBVs for Somatic Cell Scores
Breeding values for conformation traits
Breeding values for milking speed and temperament
Breeding values for functional herdlife
Breeding values for reproduction traits
Daughter fertility
Bull fertility
Calving traits
               Calving ease
               Still birth rate
Total merit index
Frequency of evaluation
Publishing of data

Annex
        Estimation of Breeding Values for Milk Production Traits,
         Somatic Cell Score, Conformation, Productive Life and
              Reproduction Traits in German Dairy Cattle

Introduction
In Germany the authorities of the federal states are responsible for the estimation of official breeding
values. VIT is responsible for genetic evaluations for the dairy breeds German Holstein (Black & White
and Red & White), German Red Cattle and Jersey.


Estimation of breeding values for milk production traits and somatic cell
scores with the random regression model
The Random Regression Model
A Multi-Lactation Animal Model (MTDAM) using all results from milk recording on daily base directly in
the evaluation model was introduced by VIT in 1996 to estimate breeding values for somatic cell
scores and in 1998 for milk production traits.
In May 2003 VIT changed from the Fixed Regression Model to a new Random Regression Model that
estimates individual genetic lactation curves.
Data base
Test day records of cows with first lactation initiated since 1990 are considered in the genetic
evaluation. All official test day records are included, if

• Age of calving is: 20 - 40, 30 – 56 and 44 - 75 month for lactations 1, 2 and 3, respectively
• Days in milk: 5. - 330. day after calving (SCS 365 days)

Pedigree information
Pedigree information traces back at least four generations from cows with own yield records. If the sire
and/or the dam of an animal are unknown, fixed genetic groups are defined representing all unknown
parents of animals based on breed, sex and birth year of animals and on origin (German/western
European HF; eastern European HF plus SMR; North American HF; Jersey; German Red Cattle; other
Red Cattle; genetic conservation population of old German Black&White; others).
Method
The main advantages of using the test day records directly instead of 305-day lactations in the model
are

• Using the original yield record on daily base (day 5 to 330 respectively 365 for SCS) from first three
  lactations as yield information for evaluation instead of cumulated 305 day yields
• Correction of management effects with a herd-day effect and with that the exact management effect
  for each cow in each herd at a certain day
• Correction of stage of lactation by simultaneously evaluated lactation curves

The special advantages of the new Random Regression Model in comparison to the previous Fixed
Regression Model are

• Test day records within lactation are not considered as a constant trait (rg = 0.5 – 0.99)
• Estimation of individual lactation curves instead of a constant deviation from the beginning to the end
  of the lactation
• The individual lactation curves are predicting the EBVs more flexible, especially when only early
  lactation information is available (records in progress).

The genetic parameters used in the Random Regression Model are estimated on the base of a
representative data set of the German Holstein population (Liu et al., 2000a,b).

The Random Regression Model remains to be a multiple lactation model, i.e. the lactations 1, 2 and 3
are considered as genetically different traits.
Reliability of estimated breeding values
Reliabilities are calculated for the Random Regression Model using the multiple trait effective daughter
contribution method (Liu et al., 2001a).


EBVs for milk production traits
Details of the evaluation for milk production traits (milk, fat and protein yield) by the Random
Regression Model are described in the following.
Standardisation of intra-herd-test-day variation
Intra-herd test day variance is standardised according to production level of herd test day and number
of cows being in the same lactation within the particular herd test day.

Data
Table 1 shows the amount of data processed in the evaluation

Table 1:             Description of the data set used for evaluation of yield traits


 April 2009                              1. Laktation         2. Laktation      3. Laktation         Gesamt
                                          st                   nd                rd
                                         1 lactation          2 lactation       3 lactation           total
 Anzahl Probemelken
                                         123.199.229          88.817.942        59.416.429        271.433.600
 Number of test day records
 Anzahl Herdenkontrolltage
                                          10.444.338                  10.136.470                   20.580.808
 Number of herd testdays
 Kühe mit Leistung
                                                                                                   15.550.780
 Cows with records
 Bullen
                                                                                                     296.492
 Sires
 Tiere gesamt
                                                                                                   20.755.355
 Animals in total


The model for milk production traits
For all animals (with and without records) breeding values of the first three lactations are estimated
with the Random Regression Model:

               3                3             3
yijklo = hil + ∑ β jlm f jlm + ∑ bklm aklm + ∑ bklm p klm + eijklo
              m =1             m =1          m =1


where
yijklo    is 24-hour test day yield, adjusted for heterogeneous herd variance of the o-th test day of lac-
          tation l of cow k;
hil       is fixed effects of the i-th herd-test-date x milking-frequency (HTD) for lactation l;
f jlm     represents the m-th regression coefficient for the j-th fixed lactation curve of lactation l;

β jlm     is the m-th term of Wilmink function with      β ..1 = 1, β..2 = d and β..3 = e −0.05 d and d denoting days
        in milk (DIM);
aklm and pklm are the m-th random regression coefficient of lactation l of cow k for genetic and perma-
          nent environmental effects, respectively;
bklm      is    the    m-th     term      of    the           third-order     Legendre         polynomials      with

          b..1 =1, b..2 = 3z and b..3 = 1 5 (3z 2 − 1) and z = (d − 5) 150 − 1 ; and
                                        2

eijklmo    is error effect.

Selective 3-times milking is accounted for by creating separate herd-test-day groups within herd
according to milking frequency. Milking frequency is recorded for each test of each cow individually.

The genetic parameters used in the Random Regression Model are estimated on the base of a
representative data set of the German Holstein population (Liu et al., 2000a,b). In the following table
parameters for 305-day lactation yields, derived from the original parameters on daily basis, are listed.
These cumulated parameters are higher then the parameters on daily base used in the model (see
figures).

Table 2: Genetic parameters for milk, fat and protein yield on 305-day basis with heritability on diago-
         nal, genetic correlations above diagonal and phenotypic correlations below diagonal


 Merkmal                                        Trait                                         Lakta-             1     2     3
                                                                                               tion

                                                                                                 1               .53   .84   .84
 Milchmenge-kg /milk-kg                                                                          2               .55   .35   .97
                                                                                                 3               .52   .54   .34

                                                                                                 1               .52   .88   .87
 Fettmenge-kg /fat-kg                                                                            2               .54   .36   .97
                                                                                                 3               .50   .53   .36

                                                                                                 1               .51   .86   .84
 Eiweißmenge-kg /protein-kg                                                                      2               .62   .38   .96
                                                                                                 3               .57   .64   .38




Figure 1: Genetic parameters on daily base shown on the example of milk kg (heritability values left;
          selected genetic correlations at the right side)
Milk kg: Heritability values on daily base

                               0,50

                               0,45
  Heritabilität (Tagesbasis)




                               0,40

                               0,35

                               0,30

                               0,25

                               0,20
                                                                             1. La
                               0,15                                          2. La
                               0,10                                          3. La
                               0,05
                                      5   30   55   80   105   130    155   180   205   230    255   280   305
                                                               Laktationstag




Milk kg: Genetic correlations between the same
day of lactation in laktation 1, 2 and 3
                               1,00
                               0,95
                               0,90
                               0,85
  gen. Korrelation




                               0,80
                               0,75
                               0,70                                  La. 2 zu 3
                                                                     La. 1 zu 2
                               0,65
                                                                     La. 1 zu 3
                               0,60
                               0,55
                               0,50
                                      5   30   55   80   105   130    155   180   205   230    255   280   305
                                                               Laktationstag
Detailed information can be found in
• Liu, Z., Reinhardt, F. und Reents, R. 2000a: Estimating parameters of a random regression test
   day model for first three lactation milk production traits using the covariance function approach.
   INTERBULL Bulletin No. 25: 74-80
• Liu, Z., Reinhardt, F. und Reents, R. 2000b: Parameter estimates of a random regression test day
   model for first three lactations somatic cell scores. INTERBULL Bulletin No. 26: 61-65
• Liu, Z., Reinhardt, F. und Reents, R. 2001a: The effective daughter contribution concept
   applied to multiple trait models for approximating reliability of estimated breeding values.
   INTERBULL Bulletin No. 27: 41-46
• Liu, Z., Reinhardt, F., Bünger, A., Dopp, L. und Reents, R. 2001b: Application of a random regres-
   sion model to genetic evaluations of test day yields and somatic cell scores in dairy cattle. INTER-
   BULL Bulletin No. 27: 159-166

Definition of estimated breeding values
The breeding value on lactation base is the sum of the EBVs from day 1-305. The published breeding
values for milk, fat and protein yield are defined as the average breeding value of lactation one to
three, and represent the desired breeding goal of high lifetime production.

The „BV base 2000“ recommended by INTERBULL is used to adjust the level of breeding values within
breed. That means the average breeding value of all cows of the same breed born in 2000 is set to
zero, and the breeding values of all animals are expressed in relation to their base (base differences
see appendix)

All relative breeding values (RZM, RZS, RZE, RZZ, RZN, RZG) are standardised to a yearly rolling
base with a mean of 100 and a genetic standard deviation of 12 points. The base usually shifts in April
and comprises the currently progeny tested bulls of a breed (at present for Holstein/red Holstein test
bulls born 1999-2001; smaller breeds bulls born 1995-2001).

Breeding values for fat and protein content
Breeding values for fat and protein contents are calculated on the base of total breeding values for the
yield traits and phenotypic means (F%*, P%*, Mkg*) of cows in second lactation included in the base.
                                                                           *
                                        BVfat-kg *100 - BVmilk- kg * F %
                              BVfat % =                          *
                                               BVmilk- kg + Mkg

                                       BVprotein-kg * 100 - BVmilk-kg * P% *
                       BVprotein %   =
                                                   BVmilk-kg + Mkg *
*) Phenotypic means for breeds:
German B&W Holstein     Mkg 8288          F% 4,10        P% 3,41
German R&W Holstein     Mkg 7221          F% 4,24        P% 3,39
R&W dual purpose        Mkg 6490          F% 4,27        P% 3,48
German Red Cattle       Mkg 7017          F% 4,77        P% 3,66
DSN:                    Mkg 6935          F% 4,11        P% 3,46
Jersey                  Mkg 5244          F% 5,74        P% 4,08


Relative breeding value milk production (RZM)
The RZM is a selection index combining estimated breeding values for production traits. The
production traits are combined with a breed specific weight.

For Holsteins and R&W dual purpose RZM includes fat kg and protein kg in the ratio of 1:4. The RZM
for this breeds includes the protein percentage as well.

The RZM for Jersey Red Cattle (Rotvieh/Angler) weights fat kg and protein kg with a ratio of 1:6.

The RZM for Red Cattle (Rotvieh/Angler) includes only protein kg.

The RZM formulas for April 2008 until January 2010 for the different breeds are:
• RZM-HOL     = 83,7 + 0,140*ZW F-kg + 0,561*ZW P-kg+ 5,047*ZW P-%
• RZM-Red Hol = 86,2 + 0,140*ZW F-kg + 0,561*ZW P-kg+ 5,047*ZW P-%
• RZM-DN      = 96,3 + 0,140*ZW F-kg + 0,561*ZWP-kg+ 5,047*ZW P-%
• RZM-DSN     =104,9 + 0,140*ZW F-kg + 0,561*ZW P-kg+ 5,047*ZW P-%
• RZM-Jersey = 91,8 + 0,104*ZW F-kg + 0,622*ZW P-kg

The RZM is standardised within breed to a yearly rolling base with a mean of 100 and a genetic
standard deviation of 12 points (currently HOL/RED HOL test bulls born 1999-2001; smaller breeds
bulls born 1995-2001).


EBVs for Somatic Cell Scores
Genetic evaluation for somatic cell scores was established at VIT already in 1996 using the Fixed
Regression Model. Since May 2003, the genetic evaluation model has also changed to the Random
Regression Model.
Logarithmic transformation
Original data from milk recording are cells/ml milk and must be transformed to get a standard normal
distribution:
                         SCS = log2 (Zellzahl / 100000) + 3


Data
The table shows the amount of SCS data processed in the actual run with the Random Regression
Model.

Table 2:        Description of the data set used for evaluation of somatic cell scores

                                1. Laktation       2. Laktation        3. Laktation       Gesamt
April 2009                       st                 nd                  rd
                                1 lactation        2 lactation         3 lactation         total
Anzahl Probemelken
                                127.080.323        91.237.801          61.215.134        279.533.258
Number of test day records
Anzahl Herdenkontrolltage
                                10.256.234                     10.030.502                20.286.736
Number of herd testdays
Kühe mit Beobachtung
                                                                                         15.497.337
Cows with records
Bullen
                                                                                          296.233
Sires
Tiere gesamt
                                                                                         20.686.940
Animals in total

The model for Somatic Cell Scores
The Random Regression Model applied for genetic evaluation of SCC is the same as for production
traits, except calving interval is not included in the fixed lactation curves because no effect was found
on somatic cell scores.

The genetic parameters used in the Random Regression Model are estimated on the base of a
representative data set of the German Holstein population (Liu et al., 2000a,b). The table gives derived
parameters on 305-day lactation basis. These cumulated parameters are higher than the original
parameters on daily base (see figure 1).

Table 3:        Genetic parameters for somatic cell scores on 305-day base with heritability on diago-
                nal, genetic correlations above diagonal and phenotypic correlations below diagonal

                   Laktation
                                         1                 2                 3
                   lactation
                       1                .16               .95                .89
                       2                .34               .16                .97
                       3                .28               .42                .17

Expression of proofs for Somatic Cell Scores
The model provides separate EBVs for SCS in the first three lactations. These three EBVs are
combined into an overall EBV for SCS by index weights of .26, .37, .37 for EBV for somatic cell scores
in lactations 1, 2, and 3, respectively.

SCS proofs are expressed as relative EBV Somatic Cell Score, called RZS. The scale of the relative
breeding value RZS is reversed to indicate undesirable proofs with values below 100. It is
standardised to a mean of 100 and a genetic standard deviation of 12 points (at present HOL/RED
HOL test bulls born 1999 – 2001; smaller breeds bulls born 1995 - 2001).


Estimation of breeding values for conformation traits
Starting in June 1993 linear type traits are routinely evaluated using a Best Linear Unbiased Prediction
(BLUP) animal model. The estimation is carried out for German Holstein and German Red Holstein
together in one run and separately for German Red Cattle.

Data base
The traits considered are 17 linear type traits between the biological extremes on a scale from 1 to 9.
Additionally, the four general characteristics angularity, body, feet & legs and udder are classified with
a score of 65 to 88. The heritabilities are shown in table 6.
The evaluation uses classifications of cows in first lactation since 1984.

Table 4:          Description of the data set used in the current evaluation

                                              Schwarzbunt / Rotbunt              Rotvieh/Angler
April 2009
                                              Holstein / Red Holstein           Red Breed/Angler
Anzahl Tiere, insgesamt
                                                                 3.313.190
Animals total
davon beurteilte Tiere (Kühe)
                                                1.631.415 / 239.581                   22.472
Animals classified
Bullen mit beurteilten Töchtern
                                                   22.151 / 4.452                       466
Bulls with classified daughters

The statistical model for conformation traits
For genetic evaluation multi trait animal models within the three composites angularity/body, feet and
udder are used. The model includes classifier*year, herd*year or region*herd level*year, age at first
calving, and stage of lactation fixed effects and a random additive genetic effect. Classifiers differ not
only in their average scores but also in the respective standard deviations. Heterogeneous variances
are pre-standardised within classifier and year.

The statistical model for the genetic evaluation is

Yijklmn= Class*Yeari + Herd*Year*HF%j + Agek + Stage_of_lact.l + am + eijklmn

Yijklmn                     = observed score
Class*Yeari                 = classifier * year
Herd*Year*HF%j              = herd * year for large herds, otherwise region * herd level * year
                               (HF% account for herd*German Holstein interaction)
Agek                        = age at first calving
Stage_of_lact.l             = stage of lactation
am                          = random additive genetic effect
eijklmn                     = random error effect

All known relationships are considered in the evaluation.

Reliability
As shown in table 6, the linear type traits differ substantially in heritability. Therefore reliability differs
between traits within bulls.

Definition of breeding values
The breeding values for linear figures are expressed only as relative breeding values with an average
of 100 and a standard deviation of 12. For Holstein and Red Holstein base is defined according to the
relative breeding values for other traits (at present test bulls born in 1998-2000). The breeds with small
population, Red Cattle-Angler and R&W dual purpose, have a different base definition (all bulls with
EBVs based on classified daughters).

Linear composites and total composites
The breeding values for the single linear traits are combined to „linear“ composites for angularity, body,
feet and udder. For the relative weights of the linear traits within the composites see table 6.

Table 6:   Used heritabilities of type traits and relative weight in the indices

                                                                                       2
Linearmerkmal                       Abkürzung               Extremwerte            h       Gew. im Index
/ Trait                             Abbreviati-               /Extremes                     Weight in in-
                                         on                                                     dex
                                    Milchcharakter / Dairy character
Milchcharakter / Dairy character MCh / DC              derb          scharf/edel   0,24        1,00
Körper / Body
Größe / Stature                      Grö / Sta         klein             groß      0,41        0,20
Körpertiefe / Body depth             KTi / BD          wenig              viel     0,24        0,25
Stärke / Chest width                 Stä / CW        schwach             stark     0,18        0,15
Beckenneigung / Rump angle           BNe / RA     ansteigend          abfallend    0,26        0,20
Beckenbreite / Rump wide             BBr / RW         schmal             breit     0,28        0,20
Body Condition Score / BCS          BCS / BCS         mager               fett     0,25          -
                                            Fundament / Feet
Hinterbeinwinkelung                     HWi             steil         gewinkelt
                                                                                   0,15        0,20
/ Rear leg set side view               / RLs
Klauenwinkel / Foot angle            KWi / FA          flach             steil     0,12        0,20
Sprunggelenk / Hock quality          Spr / HQ          derb            trocken     0,15        0,20
Hinterbeinstellung                      HSt       hackeneng            parallel
                                                                                   0,15        0,20
 / Rear leg set rear view              / RLr
Bewegung / Locomotion                Bew / Loc         lahm               gut      0,07        0,20
                                              Euter / Udder
Hintereuter / Rear udder height HEu / RUH          tief/schmal       hoch/breit    0,22        0,20
Zentralband / Central ligament       ZBa / CL        schwach             stark     0,13        0,10
Strichplatzierung vorne                 SPv           außen             innen
                                                                                   0,22        0,10
             / Teat placement front    / TPf
Strichplatzierung hinten                SPh           außen             innen
                                                                                   0,28        0,10
              / Teat placement rear    / TPr
Vordereuteraufhängung               VEu / FUA           lose              fest
                                                                                   0,21        0,20
          / Fore udder attachment
Eutertiefe / Udder depth             ETi / UD            tief            hoch      0,26        0,20
Strichlänge / Teat lenght            SLä / TL           kurz             lang      0,25        0,10
                                      Einstufungsnoten / Scores
Milchtyp / Dairy type                Mty / DT                                      0,28
Körper / Body                       Körp / Body                                    0,28
Fundament / Feet and legs           Fund / F&L                                     0,17
Euter / Udder                       Eut / Udder                                    0,22


In the index 13 linear traits are taken into account as linear maximum traits (as higher EBVs as better).
The EBVs for 4 linear traits (Rump Angle, Rear Legs Side View, Teat Placement Rear, Teat Length)
are taken into account with an intermediate optimum. For Rump Angle, Teat Placement Rear and Teat
Length the optimum is the average (EBV 100) and figures below and above result in the same lower
values for the composite. For Rear Legs Side View the optimum is not the average but slightly straight
legs as can be shown with the correlation to longevity. In addition more straight legs don’t cause prob-
lems (within a wide range) but curved legs result in more and earlier culling. The regression between
curved legs and longevity is not linear but squared. According to this Rear Legs Side View are taken
into account in the composite index Feet&Legs.

Figure: Weighting of stature, depth, strength, rump angle, rear legs side and teat placement front
        within the corresponding composite index


                            40
   Effect on linear index




                             0




                            -40                                                 linear
                                                                                Sta/BD/Str
                                                                                RA/TPf/TL
                                                                                RLS
                            -80
                                  64      70     76    82      88        94     100    106     112     118     124   130      136
                                                            Relative breeding value linear trait



These linear composites and the breeding values for the general characteristics angularity, body,
feet&legs and udder are combined to the „total“ composites.

Table 7: Combining indices for linear traits and scores to composite traits

                                                                    + ZW Note /              = veröffentlichter Zuchtwert /
                                       Index
                                                                    + EBV score                    = published EBV
Milchtyp /
                                                50%           Milchtyp            50%                  Milchtyp
Dairy type
Körper /
                                                75%            Körper             25%                   Körper
Body
Fundament /
                                                50%          Fundament            50%                Fundament
Feet and legs
Euter /
                                                75%            Euter              25%                      Euter
Udder

All indices are standardised to an average of 100 and a standard deviation of 12.

EBV total conformation (RZE)
The 4 total composites are combined to a relative breeding value for total conformation called RZE
Table 8:                               Relative weights for combined RZE

Gewicht im RZE /                                       Abkürzung/             SBT/RBT /           DN /                 Angler /
Weight in RZE (total con-                              abbreviation            Holstein       R&W dual purp.          Red Breed
formation)
Milchtyp / Dairy type                                       Mtyp                0,10                 20*                     -
Körper / Body                                               Körp.               0,20                 20                    0,20
Fundament / Feet and legs            Fund.          0,30               30                  0,40
Euter / Udder                        Euter          0,40               30                  0,40

As all relative breeding values also the RZE is standardised to a mean of 100 and a genetic standard
deviation of 12 (base currently for HOL/RED HOL test bulls born 1999-2001; smaller breeds bulls born
1995 - 2001) within breed.

EBVs for conformation traits are published if min. 20 daughters within 10 herds are included in the
evaluation.

Milking Speed and Temperament

VIT introduced a genetic evaluation for milking speed and temperament during milking in August 2004
for Holstein, Red Holstein, Red&White dual purpose and Red Breed/Angler. Since February 2005 the
results for bulls are published.


Data
Data are all information on milking speed from measuring and subjective classification by the owner.
Temperament is based purely on subjective classification. The following data are used in the genetic
evaluation:
    - linear classification for milkabily (milk flow) and temperament during milking by the owner re-
        corded during linear description for conformation traits (scale 1 – 5)
    - linear description for teat placement rear and front teat length as predicting traits
    - measured milk flow (average in kg/min), DMG.
                st
Only data from 1 lactation since 1990 are included.

Since data recording for milking speed and temperament showed a wide range for amount and form
across regions, the database differs a lot between bulls. In the western regions mainly owners classifi-
cation can be found, sometimes added by measures. In the eastern regions with the big herds own-
ers/milkers scoring is difficult and mainly measures of milk flow are found. In Bavaria and Schleswig-
Holstein official milk recording is carried out with Lactocorders giving measures for milk flow from
every test. These are included as repeated information. The table shows the amount of data in the
model.

Table:          Data base for genetic evaluation of milking speed and temperament during milking
                                                     SBT, RBT, DN und Angler
                April 2009
                                                     Hol, Red Hol, R&W, Angler
                Leistungsrecords gesamt
                                                           3.952.861
                data records total
                DMG-Messungen
                                                           3.287.358
                 measures miking speed
                     - davon Lactocordermessungen
                                                           2.797.204
                     - from that with Lactocorder
                 Tiere MBK/MVH-Befragung
                                                            734.770
                 animals with scores
                 Tiere mit Eigenleistung
                                                           1.408.051
                 animals with data
                 Tiere im Modell gesamt
                                                           2.469.664
                 animals total in model


Model
The applied method is a Multiple Trait-BLUP-Animal Model. For the trait ‘Measured milk flow’, DMG
repeated measures are included as well. The genetic parameters are shown in the table.

Table:          Genetic parameters (Heritability on diagonal, genetic correlations off-diagonal)
                            Melkbarkeit           Melkverhalten          Hilfsmerkmale
                            miking speed           temperament           predicting traits
                         DMG          MBK               MVH            SPv             Slä
                           measures         scores          scores   teat placem.   teat length
            DMG              0,28*           0,79            -0,03       0,10          -0,19
            MBK                              0,10             0,00       0,10          -0,23
            MVH                                               0,07       0,05          -0,09
            SPv                                                          0,25          -0,26
            SLä                                                                         0,29
                                                 st
           *) repeatability for measures within 1 La. = 0,47

The statistical models are:

• for measured milk flow, DMG:
Y ijklmn = B * T * M i + LT j + EKAk + al + apm + eijklmn

Y ijklmn           observation
B*T*Mi             herd*day*milking frequency (fix)
LT j               days in milk at measure (fix)
EKA k              age at first calving (fix)
al                 breeding value (random)
apm                permanent effect of animal
eijklmn            error (random)

• for scores milking speed, temperament, front teat placement and front teat length
Yijklmn = B * Ti + LTj + EKAk + Be * Jl + am + eijklmn

Y ijklmn           observation
B*Ti               herd*day (fix)
LT j               days in milk (fix)
EKA k              age at first calving (fix)
Be*Jl              classifier*year (fix)
am                 breeding value (random)
eijklmn            error (random)


The Relative Breeding Values Milking speed (RZD) and Temperament (MVH)
The breeding values for measured milking speed and owner scored milking speed are combined to a
total relative breeding value milking speed, RZD. Within this relative breeding value milking speed,
RZD, the EBV measured milking speed and EBV scored milking speed each get a weight of 50%. The
relative breeding value Temperament, MVH, includes only the EBV for scored temperament during
milking.

The base for the two relative breeding values RZD (milking speed) and MVH (temperament) is defined
according to all other relative breeding values (currently for HOL/RED HOL test bulls born 1999 –
2001; smaller breeds bulls born 1995 – 2001). The average within the base is 100 and the genetic
standard deviation is 12.


Reliability and Publication
The reliability is calculated with the Effective-Daughter-Contribution Method. The published reliability
for the combined relative breeding value milking speed, RZD, is the highest of the two included traits.

Published are the relative breeding values RZD (milking speed) and MVH (temperament) for bulls with
at least
• RZD:          10 daughters with milking speed measures in 5 herds,
                or 20 daughters with milking speed scores in 10 herds
• MVH:          20 daughters with temperament scores in 10 herds.

The genetic evaluation is carried out together with the evaluation for the other traits. Results are
published via the bull data base in the VIT homepage (www.vit.de) and are included as well in the
BULLI-CD with all breeding values for published A.I. bulls.
Genetic evaluation for functional herd life (fHL)
Functional herd life (fHL) is considered to be a characteristic describing the health and constitution of
a cow and is evaluated at VIT since 1996.

Data
                                                                                                  st
The data consists of records of the productive life of all cows with a first calving on or after 1 January
1980 and with A.I. sire and A.I. maternal grand sire. Cows from West-Germany were considered for
                                    st
evaluation when alive on or after 1 January 1985, cows from East-Germany only when alive on or
       st
after 1 January 1991. Data of heifers, that calved less than 365 days before data collection, is not
included in the evaluation. Breeding values for Black-and-White and Red-and-White bulls are esti-
mated in one combined run.

Cows sold for dairy purposes are treated as censored observations. The programs recognizes cows
changing herds if the information can be derived from the data. The observed length of productive life
for these cows is the actual herd life in all herds.

Trait definition
Difference has to be made between voluntary culling and culling related to health (involuntary). For
breeding purposes herd life corrected for voluntary culling is more informative, because it is then a
more precise indicator of the genetic vitality, health, robustness and fertility. Voluntary culling is mainly
related to the relative level of production within herd (high yielding cows get more ‘chances’ e.g. treat-
ments, re-inseminations etc.). Therefore the productive life is corrected for the yield deviation within
herd (protein + fat kg) to achieve an unbiased trait for the genetic ability of a cow to resist involuntary
culling, called functional herd life.

A problem for selection for longevity and breeding value estimation for fHL is that for cows still alive the
definitive life span is unknown. Animals currently interesting for breeding would be excluded from the
evaluation by waiting until culling has occurred. Thus generation interval would be extremely long and
genetic improvement would practically be impossible. Therefore cows still alive are included in the
evaluation as censored observations.

Method
Survival analysis offers the possibility, to consider the longevity of animals alive up to a certain date
(date of estimation of breeding values) statistically as a censored observation. Thus animals alive are
informative as well as culled animals, but are given less weight in the evaluation because their informa-
tion is not yet complete. The Weibull regression model is a well-known method of survival analysis and
can therefore be used for estimation of breeding values for fHL. Ducrocq of INRA in France and Sölk-
ner of the University of Vienna developed in co-operation a set of programs for routine breeding
evaluation of fHL, which also was made available to the German computing centres.

The distribution of the observed random variable fHL is described through the hazard function

h(tj,l,s,z)j = h0(tj,l,s) * e(x'(t)b+z’u)
with
•         h(t,z)i    as relative risk of culling at time (t) for animal (j) under occurrence of the factors
                     considered in the vectors x(t) and z
•         h0(tj,l,s) as base hazard function in year (j) for a cow in lactation (l)
                     and lactation stage (s)
•         b          as solution vector for all environmental effects considered in x(t)
•         u          as solution vector for all genetic effects

The common average risk of culling for all animals in year (j), lactation (l) and lactation stage (s) at
                                                                                              (x’(t)b+z’u)
time (t), h0(tj,l,s) is multiplied for every animal with an individual multiplication factor e            , which is
defined by all additional environmental and genetic effects. Changes over time in the environmental
effects can be taken into account in vector x(t). Estimation of the solutions for h0(tj,l,s), (b) and (u) oc-
curs through maximizing a probability-function. The solutions reflect the relative risk of culling in all
effect-classes.
Statistical Model
The evaluation in VIT is based on a model, in which a combined effect of a bull is estimated as sire
and maternal grand-sire. Relationships among bulls are taken into account through their sires and
                                                 2
maternal grand-sires. The assumed heritability (h ) of fHL is 0.10.

The following information is taken into account through the base hazard function and in the
argument of the e - function of (x’(t)b+z’u) as effects on fHL.

Parameter for shape of base hazard function'
-     year * lactation * lactation stage

Random time-dependent effect through the base hazard function
•     herd * year

Fixed time-independent effect as class variable in (x’(t)b)
•       age of first calving

Fixed time-dependent effects as class variables in (x’(t)b)
•       parity * stage-of-lactation
•       relative milk yield within herd * region * year
        (the selection pressure within herd is taken into account when estimating fHL. The relative de-
        viation for fat and protein yield (with weights of 1:4) of the cow from the herd average adjusted
        for parity is defined as effect. Because selection pressure may be different between regions
        and years and within years, the interaction of relative milk yield with region*year-season is
        taken into account)
•       relative change of herd size within year
                                                                st
        (the change of herd size relative to the herd size at 1 January is defined as effect in classes of
        10 %)

Random genetic effect as class variable in (z’u)
   • the combined genetic effect of a bull as sire and maternal grand-sire

Heritability for functional herd life is 0.16.

The solutions from this estimation system relate exclusively to the direct fHL (based on culling/survival
information). These solutions are not published, but are summarised with information from auxiliary
traits to combined proofs for fHL.

Combined breeding value for functional Herd Life
The solutions from the direct evaluation of length of productive life are combined with evaluations of
auxiliary traits through selection index to increase the accuracy of the estimated breeding value. Trait
definition and scale are not affected by this combination.
Genetic correlations and the reliability of the information (estimated breeding values) are considered
for selection index. Currently, estimated breeding values for somatic cell score, body depth, feet & legs
score, fore udder attachment and maternal calving ease are considered as auxiliary traits.

Table 9:          Used correlations for information traits on direct longevity and among each other
                  (Black Holstein above, Red Holstein below diagonal)

                                           ND    Fund.        KTi      ETi        RZS        mTG
Nutzungsdauer direkt(ND) /
                                             -   0,26         -0,27   0,30        0,39        0,16
funct. herdlife direct
Fundamentnote (Fund.) /
                                                   -          -0,06   0,17        0,02        0,09
feet&leg score
Körpertiefe (Kti) /
                                                                -     -0,32       -0,13      -0,08
body depth
Eutertiefe (ETi) /
                                                                        -         0,29       -0,01
udder depth
RZS /
                                                                                    -         0,04
Udder health (SCS*-1)
Rel. ZW mat. Totgeburten (mTg)
                                                                                                -
maternal still birth rate *-1
*reversed scale against SCS (higher values RZS = lower SCS)
The following figure shows schematically, how the importance of the auxiliary traits in the combined
RZN decreases with increasing reliability until in the end culling/survival information is determining RZN
exclusively at maximum reliability. The estimated breeding value for somatic cell score clearly is most
important, because it has a relatively close relation to fHL and is estimated accurately already early.

Figure 3:       Importance of source of information in combined RZN dependent on reliability


               100%

    ND-Pi life
    P.I. herd

    ND herd life
     dir.

    Exteri
     conformation

    ZZ count
     cell

    Fruchtb
     mat. SB
                0%

               1.ZW Milch
                1st index young bull                          99% Si.
                                                         99% reliability



Correlations and the trait combination are checked regularly and changed if necessary.

Breeding value definition and relative breeding value functional herd life
Breeding values of bulls are published in lists and direct data access as relative breeding value fHL
(RZN). For interpretation purposes approximated fHL in days is published as well. For the approximate
derivation of the survival curves and the breeding values in days-LPL, the average culling rate in the
first lactation for all cows was assumed to be 20 %.

Table 10:       Average herd life (years/days) with different RZN (∅ culling rate in 1. lactation: 20%)
                                             ZW-Nutzungsdauer            Zeitpunkt 50% Tö. gemerzt
                      ZW-Ausfallrisko            EBV herd life            time until 50% are culled
     RZN
                       Relativskala
                                          Jahre /years (Tage/days)      Jahre/years      (Tage/days)

      88                  1,221               - 0,49   ( - 179 )              2,83       ( 1033 )

      100                 1,000                 0,00        (0)               3,08       ( 1124 )

      112                  0,819              +0,53    ( +193 )               3,48       ( 1273 )


The table shows that the EBVs for culling risk and for the approximate days fHL are not linear related
to the relative breeding value RZN.

The base for the relative breeding values is defined as for all other relative breeding values (currently
HOL/RED HOL test bulls born 1999 – 2001; smaller breeds bulls born 1995 – 2001; exclusively includ-
ing bulls with minimum reliability 50%). Relative breeding values of bulls in the base are standardized
to a mean of 100 and a genetic standard deviation (of the true breeding values) of 12. Reliabilities are
                                                                  2
calculated as the approximate percentage of determination (rgi ) between real breeding values and
estimated breeding values.

Breeding values for fHL are calculated with every German routine run. The data base for the most
recent run is given in the following table.

Table 11:       Data base for evaluation of functional herdlife
                            Tiere gesamt /     Bullen gesamt /     Bullen veröffentlicht /
      April 2009
                             animals total        bulls total        Bulls published
Funkt. Nutzungsdauer
                              8.972.399            47.221                  29.554
functional herdlife
Genetic evaluation for reproduction traits
In Germany breeding values for all reproductive traits are estimated since 1995. The composite repro-
duction index (RZZ) includes calving ease, stillbirth rate and fertility.

Daughter Fertility

In January 2008 a new multi-trait-model for evaluating daughter fertility was introduced including new
traits and trait definitions.

Trait definitions
Up to August 2008 the only trait evaluated for daughter fertility was Non-Return-Rate 90 days. In the
new model daughter fertility is described more detailed:
    - Heifer and cow traits are (partly) treated as independent traits.
    - The ability to conceive is evaluated by two traits, the Non-Return-Rate 56 days and the time
        from first to successful insemination.
    - With the time from calving to first insemination now the ability to recycle after calving is as well
        evaluated.

The detailed trait definition and the used abbreviations are:
       NRh/NRc = Non-Return-Rate-56 heifers (h)/cows (c):
       Is a re-insemination registered within 56 days after the first insemination (for cows yes/no; for
       bulls as % successful first inseminations).

        FLh/FLc = First-to-Last heifers/cows:
        Time from first to successful insemination in days. Only calculated if the following calving has
        taken place within a logical pregnancy length.

        CFc = Calving-to-First insemination:
        Time from calving to first insemination in days.

        DOc = Days Open:
        Days open is not a direct evaluation trait, but this Interbull trait is calculated from the EBVs
        CFc + FLc (time from calving to first insemination plus time from first to successful insemina-
        tion).

Data
For the genetic evaluation all matings (inseminations and natural services) from 1995 onward on all
heifers and cows from the milking breeds (Holsteins, Red Holsteins, Angler/Red Breed, Jersey,
Red&White dual purpose, German Black&White cattle) in herds under milk recording are used. The
data from lactation 2 to 5 are used as repeated observations.

Only plausible mating data are used:
    - Animal base:
             The time from first to successful insemination is only used if the subsequent calving has
             proven the last insemination as the successful insemination by a logical pregnancy length.
    - Herd*year base:
             Only data from herd*year classes with plausible Non-Return-Rates; i.e. dependent from
             the size of the herd*year class maximum 3 standard deviations above population average
             (separate test for heifer and cow herd*year classes). For herd*year classes with Non-
             Return-Rates above +3 standard deviations it is assumed that not all matings are re-
             ported (e.g. only successful inseminations).

Tabelle:         Datenumfang in der Zuchtwertschätzung Töchterfruchtbarkeit
                 Data base for evaluation of daughter fertility
                                            Tiere mit
                                                              Beobachtungen
April 2009                              Beobachtungen
                                                                observations
                                             animals
Non-Returnrate Rinder (NRh)
                                                      7.495.902
Non-Return-Rate heifers (NRh)
Verzögerungszeit Rinder (VZh)
                                                      5.646.983
First to successful insemination (FLh)
Non-Returnrate Kühe (NRc)
                                            8.876.931           8.876.931
Non-Return-Rate cows (NRc)
Verzögerungszeit Kühe (VZc)
                                            6.660.186           6.660.186
First to successful insemination (FLc)
Rastzeit Kühe (RZc)
                                            8.980.167           8.980.167
Calving to first insemination (CFc)


Method
The new model developed by VIT is a BLUP-Multi trait-Animal-Model with repeated observations. The
breeding values for daughter fertility are calculated with correction for the following fixed non-genetic
effects:

    -   Herd*year
    -   Month of insemination
    -   Age at insemination
    -   Parity*age at insemination
    -   Status of insemination bull
            (young sire/proven sire)*AI-stud of bull*insemination season
    -   Effect of insemination bull

The used genetic parameters (evaluated on German data) are shown in the table.

Tabelle:           Genetische Parameter in der Zuchtwertschätzung Töchterfruchtbarkeit (Korrelationen
                   im züchterischen Sinne; z.B. NRk/VZk +0,39 = eine höhere Non-Returnrate Kühe ist
                   mit kürzerer Verzögerungszeit bei Kühen verbunden)
                   Used parameters in evaluation for daughter fertility
 2
h (Diagonale) u. Korrelationen           RZk     NRr     NRk      VZr   VZk gen. Streu.
 2
h (diagonal) and correlations            CFc     NRh     NRc      FLh    FLc  genetic s
Rastzeit (RZc)
                                         3,9% 0,02 -0,05 0,14           0,37   6,9 Tg.
Calving to first insemination (CFc)
Non-Return-Rate Rinder (NRr)
                                                 1,2% 0,63        0,53  0,15    4,8 %
Non-Return-Rate heifers (NRh)
Non-Return-Rate Kühe (NRk)
                                                        1,5% 0,25       0,39    6,0 %
Non-Return-Rate cows (NRc)
Verzögerungszeit Rinder (VZr)
                                                                 1,4% 0,48     7,4 Tg.
First to successful insemination (FLh)
Verzögerungszeit Kühe (VZk)
                                                                        1,0%   4,9 Tg.
First to successful insemination (FLc)

The daughter fertility index RZR and the conception index
Within the summarizing daughter fertility index RZR (R=Reproduction) the four conception traits –
themselves summarized in the conception index CON – get a relative weight of 75%. The ability to
                                                                   st
recycle after calving – represented by the trait ‘Time Calving to 1 Insemination’ – gets 25% weight.
Both complexes cause about half of the genetic variation for calving interval, but the costs for a pro-
longed calving interval by bad conception are higher. Beside the lower milk yield longer calving interval
from bad conception causes extra costs for the (re-)insemination. The composition of the daughter
fertility index RZR is shown in the figure.

Figure: Relative weights within the fertility index RZR (R=reproduction)
  Begin
                Calving to 1st (CF)                           25%

  cycle
                                             cows



                                      heifers   12.5 %

                  NonReturn                                                Relative index
                    (NR)                                                   Reproduction
                                      cows          25 %   Relativ index
   Conception




                                                           Conception
                                                                             RZR
                                                             (CON )
                                      heifers   12.5 %
                    1st to last
                                                             75 %
                       (FL)
                                      cows          25 %




Definition of relative breeding values and publication
All breeding values are published as relative breeding values with an average of 100 in the breed base
(currently HOL/RED HOL test bulls born 1999 – 2001; smaller breeds born 1995 - 2001) and a genetic
standard deviation (true breeding values) of 12 in the base. Because relative breeding values above
100 are defined as positive compared to the breeding goal, the time values have to be reversed in
scale (e.g. relative breeding values above 100 for time of calving to fist insemination mean less days).
The breeding value for each of the five original traits is published if the reliability is minimum 30% and
the EBV is based on at least 10 daughters in 10 herds. The daughter fertility index RZR and the rela-
tive EBV CON are published if at least one cow conception trait (NR cows) is published.


Interbull conversion for daughter fertility traits

Interbull converts the following daughter fertility traits
    - Heifer conception (Heifers ability to conceive, confirmed conception)Non-Return-Rate cows
         (Cows ability to conceive, % trait )
    - Cows conception (Cows ability to conceive, interval trait)
    - Time from calving to first insemination (Cows ability to recycle)
    - Days open/calving interval (Cows calving to conception).

VIT provides all the single traits according to the definition (‘Days Open’ as sum of ‘Time Calving to 1st
Insemination’ plus ‘First to Successful Insemination).

Because many other countries have only one national fertility trait or at least not all traits converted by
Interbull many international bulls have not all EBVs for daughter fertility on German base. If EBVs for
some traits in the daughter fertility index RZR are missing the index is calculated using the pedigree
index for that trait. The reliability of indices calculated with pedigree indices is therefore lower.


Bull fertility (deviation Non-Return-Rate)
Since January 2009 information on bull fertility is available besides breeding values for daughter fertil-
ity; i.e. the deviation for Non-Return-Rate. This figure is derived from the fixed effect of the service sire
in the genetic evaluation for daughter fertility. Therefore bull fertility is not a breeding value, but repre-
sents the permanent effect of the fertility of the semen using this service sire.
Bull fertility is expressed on the Non-Return scale, i.e. as whole percentages deviation Non-Return rate
from average. The base is defined corresponding to relative breeding values (currently A.I. bulls born
1998-2000 as zero). Except from some outliers the range for bull fertility is approximately –5% to +5%
Non-Return. Bull having –2% to +2% can be scored as average. Bull fertility is published if based on at
                 st
least 1,000 1 inseminations. Therefore bulls having exclusively data from the test period don’t have
published figures for bull fertility.

The semen fertility can fluctuate within bull during time and the published figure is based on all regis-
       st
tered 1 matings of the particular bull. From this it follows that publishing figures for bull fertility can not
replace the monitoring of current semen fertility by A.I. studs/distributors.
Calving traits
Genetic evaluation for the calving traits calving ease and still birth rate (each maternal and di-
rect/paternal) is carried out once a year with the August evaluation.

Trait definition:
Calving ease
The difficulty of calving is recorded in five classes for all cows under milk recording in all parities. The
proportions of the calving ease classes are transformed to class means on the standard normal distri-
bution for every region*year*month.
Stillbirth rate
Stillbirth is defined as "All-or-None" trait. A calving where the calf was born dead or died within 48
hours is considered as stillbirth.

Data
Calving data of all cows/heifers under milk recording for German Holstein, Red Holstein, Red
Breed/Angler and Jersey cows are included. Data from 1995 onwards was considered for estimation of
breeding values.

Statistical Method and models
Estimation is carried out by a BLUP animal model developed at the Bavarian State Institute for Animal
Production (BLT) for calving traits was adapted by VIT for the breeds included in the model. Direct and
maternal genetic effects on the traits are considered in the models. The direct or paternal effect for
calving ease and still birth is the effect of the calf itself (form, size) and the maternal effect is the effect
of the cow (form and size of rump). Subsequent calvings of a cow are taken into account by including
a permanent environmental effect.

Factors considered in the models for calving difficulties and stillbirth are:
- Fixed environmental effects
•       herd-year
•       calving month
•       age-of-calving * parity
•       sex of calf

- Random permanent environmental effects of the cow
•      permanent environmental effect of the cow (e.g. consequences of sub-optimal rearing)

- Random genetic effects
•      direct genetic effect of the calf (size, shape)
•      maternal genetic effect of the dam (bearing qualities)

The genetic parameters used in the evaluation for calving ease, stillbirth and NRR 90 are presented in
the following table.

Table 9:          Used parameters for reproduction traits

                                              2
 Merkmal /                                   h             Wiederholbarkeit         gen. Korr. pat./mat.
 trait                              pat. u. mat. Effekt         (w)                     ( rg (pat/mat) )

 Kalbeverlauf /
                                           0,05                   0,15                      -0,10
 calving ease

 Totgeburtenrate /
                                           0,05                   0,15                      -0,10
 still birth rate
Relative breeding values
The breeding values on the original scale are based on the cows born in 2000 (mean is 0). The base
for the relative breeding values is defined as for the other traits (currently HOL/RED HOL test bulls
born 1999 – 2001; smaller breeds born 1995 - 2001). Relative breeding values of basis bulls are stan-
dardized to a mean of 100 and a genetic standard deviation (of the true breeding values) of 12. For
calving difficulties and stillbirth, the breeding values have to be inverted to obtain desirable breeding
values above 100.

Reliabilities are calculated as the approximate percentage of determination (r(gi)²) between real breed-
ing values and estimated breeding values. Reliabilities are calculated for direct and maternal effects
separately. Reliabilities for the two calving traits are equal, because the data for the two evaluations are
based on the same calving data, and the same genetic parameters are assumed.

Breeding values for reproduction traits are estimated once a year with the August run. The data base
of the most recent evaluation run is given in the table.

Table 13:        Data base for evaluation of reproduction traits (evaluation 1x per year in August)

 August 2009                                                                 Bullen / bulls
  Merkmal /       Beobachtungen /             Tiere /           Geschätzt    KB veröffent/ KB veröffent./
    Trait          observations              animals               alle/     A.I. published published
                                                               Evaluated all    paternal     maternal
   KV, TG /
                     31.296.040          40.759.420              201.614          25.057          27.655
   CE, SB




The total merit index (RZG)
To achieve the maximum overall genetic gain in dairy cattle breeding, a Total Merit Index is applied to
improve all traits according to their relative importance in the breeding goal. This Total Merit Index is
called RZG (Relativ Zuchtwert Gesamt) and is applied to Holstein, Red Holstein, Red and White dual
purpose and Red Cattle-Angler. Relative weights for included traits were revised in August 2002 and
are different for Red Cattle-Angler and the other breeds (see table).

Calculation of total merit index (RZG)
The derivation of the Total Merit Index (RZG) is based on selection index theory. This is providing the
optimum overall selection response in all traits. The relative breeding values (composites) are
considered as information traits. Included traits, relative weights and genetic parameters are given in
the table.

Within the index program using this parameters and the reliability of the EBVs, for each bull RZG is
calculated with an individual formula. All official EBVs (reliability ≥50%) are included and RZN when
based on at least daughter information for the auxiliary traits (RZS, conformation).

Table 15:        Parameters and relative weights of traits in RZG

    Merkmalskomplex                   Gen. Korrelationen               SBT/RBT /       DN /        Angler /
composite                     RZM     RZN RZE* RZS             RZR      Holstein    R&W dual p.   Red Breed
Milchleistung
                  RZM                                                      45 %       45 %          40 %
Yield
Nutzungsdauer
                  RZN         -0,10                                        20 %       20 %          20 %
Functi. herd life
Exterieur
                  RZE         0,15    0,30                                 15 %       15 %          20 %
conformation
Zellzahl
                  RZS         -0,10   0,40** 0,20                          7%          7%           10 %
Somatic cells
Fruchtbarkeit
                  RZR         -0,30   0,40     0,05     0,15               10 %       10 %          10 %
Fertility
Kalbemerkm.                   0,00    0,20     0,10     0,10    0,15       3%          3%             -
Calving traits
*)already taken into account in combined RZN
The RZG is standardised to a mean of 100 in the base (currently HOL/RED HOL test bulls born 1999-
2001; smaller breeds bulls born 1995 - 2001) and a genetic standard deviation of 12.

Publication of RZG
The RZG is only published, if a bull has an official index for production (RZM), somatic cell score (RZS)
and conformation traits (RZE). For evaluation runs without new calving and fertility EBVs RZZ is
calculated with the most recent EBVs.

The official ranking for top bulls is by RZG.

Standard deviations of evaluated breeding values for RZG and the included traits are given in the
appendix.


Estimation frequency

In 2001 the German Holstein Association decided to cancel the evaluation in November. So, since
2001, breeding values are estimated three times a year. Proofs are published in the beginning of
January, April and August according to the INTERBULL runs. Calving traits are only estimated in
August.


Publishing of data

Bulls get EBVs, if reliability is ≥50%. All EBVs for all bulls and cows are available in the herd book data
base. The results for the published A.I. bulls (yield: ≥75% Rel., ≥20 daughters with 120 days in milk;
conformation: ≥20 daughters in 10 herds) are published via internet (www.vit.de) and for domestic A.I.
bulls on the CD ‘BULLI’ (subscription zws@vit.de). All Interbull results for international and domestic
bulls are published on the INTERBULLI CD (subscription zws@vit.de).

To be ranked in the official breed top list by RZG the bull must be officially A.I. tested in Germany and
have RZM, RZE and RZS from the national VIT evaluation.

Minimum figures a bull has to fulfil to be ranked ...% are printed in table 21 in the annex.
Tabellenanhang/ Annex

Table 16:     Average EBVs of bulls within year of birth (reliability > 50 %)

a) German Holsteins


 April 2009     Anzahl     Milch-kg      Fett-kg      Fett-%       Eiweiß-kg    Eiweiß-%   RZM
                Bullen
   1994           860         118          1,5         -0,03          0,9        -0,03     84,2
   1995           951         216          1,9         -0,07          4,4        -0,03     86,3
   1996          1018         386         7,7          -0,08         10,2        -0,03      90,3
   1997          1059         365         8,7          -0,06         11,5        -0,01      91,3
   1998           932         477         13,2         -0,06         15,0        -0,01      93,9
   1999           890         639         19,2         -0,07         20,3        -0,01      97,7
   2000           894         860         19,8         -0,16         25,4        -0,04     100,5
   2001           861         885         22,2         -0,14         27,1        -0,03     101,8
   2002           882         818         21,8         -0,12         24,1        -0,04     100,1
   2003*          859         882         20,9         -0,16         23,7        -0,06      99,6
   2004*          214         914         24,3         -0,13         27,6        -0,03     102,4


b) German Red Holstein


 April 2009     Anzahl     Milch-kg      Fett-kg      Fett-%       Eiweiß-kg    Eiweiß-%   RZM
                Bullen
   1994          167          71          0,3          -0,02         -0,5        -0,03      85,8
   1995          147          35          5,6           0,07          1,2        0,01       87,7
   1996          148          285         14,5          0,05         11,0         0,02      94,5
   1997          164          338         11,1         -0,03         11,4        0,00       94,2
   1998          133          495         19,8          0,00         15,4        -0,01      97,6
   1999          154          527         22,3          0,01         15,6        -0,03      98,0
   2000          146          723         21,5         -0,10         20,0        -0,05     100,1
   2001          191          633         25,2         -0,01         20,7        0,00      101,3
   2002          139          833         33,5         -0,01         26,7        -0,01     105,8
   2003*         133          911         37,6          0,00         29,8        -0,01     108,1
   2004*          6           437         23,5          0,07         18,0        0,04      99,8


c) Red and White Dual Purpose


 April 2009     Anzahl     Milch-kg      Fett-kg      Fett-%       Eiweiß-kg    Eiweiß-%   RZM
                Bullen
   1993          19          -314         -8,6          0,08         -6,7         0,07      91,7
   1994          15          -307         -1,2          0,20         -2,4         0,14      95,5
   1995          12          -169          0,6          0,14         -2,6         0,06      95,2
   1996          13          -130         -8,0         -0,04          0,7         0,08      96,0
   1997           9          -104          5,3          0,15          4,5         0,13     100,2
   1998          14          105          2,7          -0,03         10,8         0,10     103,2
   1999           7          117          11,0          0,09          9,1         0,08     103,4
   2000          10           91           7,0          0,06          8,0         0,07     102,1
   2001*          9           -53         7,6           0,17          7,1         0,15     102,1
   2002*          5          -116          3,2          0,14          4,5         0,13      99,9


d) Red Cattle / Angler

 April 2009     Anzahl     Milch-kg      Fett-kg       Fett-%      Eiweiß-kg    Eiweiß-%   RZM
                Bullen
   1993          12          -168         -13,1        -0,07          -7,3       -0,02     87,6
   1994          17           16           -4,1        -0,05           1,0        0,01     93,4
   1995           11         -18         -5,0          -0,05             -3,8            -0,04      90,1
   1996*          14        104           3,4          -0,01              4,9             0,02       96,1
   1997*          14        420          12,4          -0,10             12,9            -0,03      101,7
   1998           13        236           9,4          -0,02              4,1            -0,06       95,6
   1999            8        696          31,2          -0,03             22,9            -0,03      108,7
   2000            9        129           4,5           0,00              5,5             0,02       96,5
   2001           19        547          27,0           0,03             22,7             0,04      108,6
   2002*          12        1023         38,8          -0,11             34,6            -0,03      116,9
   2003*           2        111          22,9           0,25              7,2             0,04       97,7
*Daughters from bulls born in these years partly don’t have 2. and 3. lactation. Therefore variance is
lower.



Table 17: Pooled standard deviation of EBVs milk traits for bulls within base (Hol./Red Hol 1998 –
2000, Red Dual Purpose/Angler 1994-2000)

                         Milch-kg           Fett %             Fett-kg          Eiweiß %         Eiweiß-kg
     April 2009
                          milk-kg             fat %            fat-kg           protein %        protein-kg
Schwarzbunt
                            598               0,29              23,0              0,12             17,9
German Holstein
Rotbunt
                            516               0,31              22,2              0,13             15,2
Red Holstein
Rotbunt – DN
                            449               0,24              18,0              0,12             15,6
Red Dual Purpose
Rotvieh/Angler
                            539               0,31              24,9              0,12             18,3
Red breed/Angler
DSN
                            449               0,24              18,0              0,12             15,6
Jersey
                            425               0,47              21,6              0,19             13,1

Table 18:      Pooled standard deviation of relative EBVs for bulls within base (Hol./Red Hol 1998 –
2000, Red Dual Purpose/Angler 1994-2000 except conformation)

    April 2009            RZM          RZE            RZS              RZN          RZR             RZG
Schwarzbunt
                          12,3         11,1           11,7             10,0          9,5            11,9
German Holstein
Rotbunt
                          10,9         12,2           10,8              9,0          8,2            9,9
Red Holstein
Rotbunt – DN
                          10,9         11,2           11,1              8,0          6,9            10,9
Red Dual Purpose
Rotvieh/Angler
                          12,8         16,0           11,2              9,4          9,5            13,1
Red breed/Angler
DSN
                          10,9         11,2           11,1              8,0          6,9            10,9
Jersey
                            9,6         -             9,5                -           8,6              -
*)base 1994-1999
**)base all bulls (since about 1980)
Table 19:     Base differences between breeds for yield traits and somatic cell count (RZS)

                                  SBT       RBT         Angler        DN         DSN       Jersey
            April 2009
                                  Hol.     Red Hol.      RDC       Dual purp.   Friesian
             Milch kg
                                   0         -384        -916         -673      -1112      -1951
             Milk kg
             Fett-%
                                   0         0,05        0,42         0,06       0,06      1,35
              Fat-%
             Fett-kg
                                   0         -12,4       -10,1        -24,4      -40,7     -14,8
              Fat-kg
            Eiweiß-%
                                   0         0,05        0,17         0,06       0,03      0,50
            Protein-%
            Eiweiß-kg
                                   0         -11,7       -19,8        -19,1      -36,1     -43,5
            Protein-kg
    *) no average base difference because different traits/weights in RZM
Table 20:         Base differences between Holstein and Red Holstein for conformation traits


                                     SBT         RBT           Angler        DN           DSN              Jersey
            April 2009
                                     Hol.       Red Hol.        RDC       Dual purp.     Friesian


               RZM                     0          -10,7        n.v. *        -23,4         -47,0           n.v. *
               RZS                     0            1,2          4,1          -0,1           2,1            3,2
               RZE                     0           -8,1        -14,9         -28,5          - **             -
               RZN                     0           -1,7         4,7           -1,0          14,6           12,1
               RZR                     0            6,0         15,0          25,7          30,4           16,7

       RZD / milking speed             0          -2,4          -5,0          -5,7          - **             -
       MVH / temperament               0          -0,3          -0,6          -2,6          - **             -

      Milchtyp / dairy type            0          -4,9         -19,8         -23,1          - **             -
         Körper / body                 0          -4,0         -21,1         -16,0          - **             -
     Fundament / feet&legs             0          -4,8          0,0           -4,0          - **             -
         Euter / udder                 0          -6,7         -14,3         -33,2          - **             -

         Größe / stature               0           -4,7        -22,7         -35,0          - **             -
     Milchcharakter/angularity         0           -4,7        -16,6         -20,7          - **             -
    Körpertiefe / body depth           0           -0,9         -8,5          -0,3          - **             -
       Stärke / strength               0           -0,8         -5,0          15,5          - **             -
    Beckenneig. / rump angle           0           -2,3          2,7          26,5          - **             -
    Beckenbreite / rump width          0           -1,9         -9,5           2,3          - **             -
    Hinterbeinwink./ RLSV              0           0,6           3,3          -8,6          - **             -
    Klauenwinkel/foot angle            0           -3,3          2,9           3,3          - **             -
     Sprunggelenke / hock              0           -2,5          5,0          -8,1          - **             -
    Hinterbeinstell. / RLRV            0           -2,2          0,2           5,2          - **             -
    Bewegung / locomotion              0           -4,1          3,6           4,7          - **             -
    Hintereuter / rear udder           0           -5,7        -11,0         -29,3          - **             -
     Zentralband / ligament            0           -8,9        -13,2         -25,7          - **             -
    Strichplatz. Vorne/ TPF            0           -6,9        -10,8         -22,4          - **             -
    Vordereuter / fore udder           0           -0,7         -4,4         -16,2          - **             -
    Eutertiefe / udder depth           0           -1,5         -3,3         -13,1          - **             -
    Strichlänge / teat length          0           -0,3         -2,9           8,6          - **             -
    Strichplatz.hinten / TPR           0          -10,5        -14,0         -27,2          - **             -
              BCS                      0            2,2         10,1          29,6          - **             -

         Rastzeit / CFI                0           4,4          14,2         19,1          24,3            17,1
    Konzeption / conception            0           4,6          10,1         19,4          22,2            10,7
     NR-Rinder / NR heifer             0           1,1           3,4         10,0           8,5            -1,2
    VZ-Rinder/ 1st to last ins.        0           2,9           8,2         17,1          18,5             6,3
      NR-Kühe / NR cows                0           2,9           5,0         12,8          15,5             5,0

    KV mat./cal. ease mat.              0           -2,2        1,2           0,9          -0,9             2,8
    KV pat./cal. ease pat.              0           -0,7        0,7          -0,1          0,4              9,0
    TG mat./still birth mat.            0           1,7         3,8           3,8          3,6              2,6
    TG pat./still birth pat.            0           1,1        -0,5          -1,1          0,0              3,4
'                              *) no fix base difference because of different relative weights of traits
                               **) no base difference because of separate evaluation for breed
Table 21:     Minimum figures a bull has to have to be ranked …%

German Holstein
Januar 2010
 % Grenze      RZM    RZE      RZS     RZN     RZR     RZG      ZW     ZW     ZW     ZW     ZW
  rank ... %                                                   Mkg     F%     Fkg    E%     Ekg
     99         125    127     126     124      125     126    2108    0,61    69    0,26    60
     98         122    123     123     121      122     123    1949    0,52    63    0,23    56
     97         119    121     121     119      121     121    1832    0,46    59    0,20    53
     96         118    120     120     117      120     119    1753    0,42    56    0,19    51
     95         117    118     119     117      118     118    1673    0,38    54    0,17    49
     90         112    114     115     113      115     113    1432    0,27    45    0,13    42
     85         109    111     113     111      112     110    1269    0,19    39    0,09    37
     80         106    109     111     109      111     108    1144    0,13    35    0,07    34
     75         104    107     109     107      109     106    1042    0,08    31    0,05    30
     70         102    105     107     106      108     104     943    0,03    27    0,03    27
     65         100    103     106     105      106     102     864   -0,01    24    0,01    25
     60         99     102     104     104      105     100    786    -0,04    21    0,00    22
     55         97     100     103     102      104      99    709    -0,08    18   -0,01    20
     50         96     99      101     101      103     97     626    -0,12    15   -0,03    18


German Red Holstein
 Januar 2010
  % Grenze   RZM       RZE     RZS     RZN     RZR      RZG     ZW   ZW       ZW     ZW     ZW
  rank ... %                                                   Mkg F %        Fkg    E%     Ekg
     99       126      130     122     121      122     125    1907 0,76       76    0,34    56
     98       122      125     120     118      121     123    1684 0,66       69    0,28    50
     97       121      123     118     117      118     121    1591 0,61       64    0,26    48
     96       120      121     117     116      117     119    1519 0,57       62    0,23    46
     95       119      120     116     115      116     118    1452 0,54       61    0,21    45
     90       115      115     113     112      113     114    1257 0,41       52    0,17    40
     85       112      112     110     110      110     111    1135 0,33       45    0,13    35
     80       109      110     109     108      109     108    1040 0,26       41     0,1    31
     75       106      108     107     107      107     107     934 0,21       37   0,08     28
     70       105      106     106     105      105     105     856 0,17       33   0,06     26
     65       103      104     104     104      104     103     776 0,11       29   0,05     24
     60       101      103     103     103      103     102     694 0,07       26   0,03     22
     55       100      101     101     102      102     101     613 0,03       23   0,01     19
     50        98      100     100     101      101      99     541 -0,01      20   -0,01    16
Table 22:       Besitzerverzeichnis (Owner address)

Abbreviation:    Adress
BG Gö.   Besamungsgenossenschaft
                                                      RBG A.   Rinderbesamungsgenossen-
         Göttingen
                                                               schaft Albersdorf eG
         Götzenbreite 10
                                                               Bahnhofstraße 15
         37124 Rosdorf
                                                               25767 Albersdorf
Greif.   Besamungsstation Greifenberg
         Hochenwanger 10                              RBW      Rinderunion
         86926 Greifenberg                                     Baden-Württemberg e.V.
                                                               Erisdorfer Straße 42-44
Grub     Prüf- und Besamungsstation
                                                               70599 Stuttgart
         München Grub eV
         Senator Gerauer Straße 19
                                                      RMV      Rinderzucht
         83536 Grub
                                                               Mecklenburg-Vorpommern GmbH
Hoech.   Besamungsvereinigung                                  Am Bullenberg 1
         Nordschwaben eV                                       17348 Woldegk
         89420 Hoechstaedt / Donau
                                                      Rosen.   Besamungsstation Rosenheim
Lands.   Besamungsgenossenschaft                               Schönfelderstraße 12
         Niederbayern eG                                       83022 Rosenheim
         Gut Altenbach
         84036 Landshut                               RSA      Rinderzuchtverband
                                                               Sachsen-Anhalt eG
LTR      Landesverband Thüringer Rinderzüch-
                                                               Bahnhofstraße 32
         ter eG
                                                               39576 Stendal
         Stotternheimer Straße 19
         99084 Erfurt                                 RSH      Rinderzucht
                                                               Schleswig- Holstein eG
MAR      Masterrind GmbH
                                                               Rendsburger Straße 178
         Osterkrug 20
                                                               24537 Neumünster
         27283 Verden / Aller
                                                      RUW      Rinder-Union West eG
Meg.     Meggle Milchindustrie                                 Schiffahrterdamm 235
         Rottmoos                                              48147 Münster
         83512 Reitmehring
                                                      VOSt     Verein Ostfriesischer
Memm.    Rinderbesamungsgenossensch.                           Stammviehzüchter
         Memmingen eG                                          Ostfriesische Viehverwertung eG
         Buxheimer Straße 104                                  Viehhof
         87700 Memmingen                                       26770 Leer
Neust.   Besamungszentrale Neustadt eG                WEU      Weser-Ems Union eG
         Karl-Eibl- Straße 1727                                Kayhauserfeld
         91413 Neustadt / Aisch                                Feldlinie 2a
                                                               26160 Bad Zwischenahn
OHG      Osnabrücker Herdbuch eG
         Föckinghausen                                ZBH      Zucht- und Besamungsunion
         49324 Melle                                           Hessen eG
                                                               An der Hessenhalle 1
RBB      Rinderproduktion                                      36304 Alsfeld
         Berlin-Brandenburg GmbH
         Mielestraße 2
         14542 Werder

Abbildung: Zuchtwerttrend der Besamungsbullen (Schwarzbunt, Rotbunt) für wichtige Merkmale
            Trend of EBVs by birth year for A.I. bulls (Holstein, Red Holstein)

Schwarzbunt (Holstein)
                                 RZM SBT

110,0


105,0

100,0


 95,0

 90,0


 85,0


 80,0
        93   94   95   96   97     98   99   00   01   02   03   04




                                 RZE SBT

110,0

105,0


100,0


 95,0


 90,0


 85,0


 80,0
        93   94   95   96   97     98   99   00   01   02   03   04
                                 RZN SBT

110,0


105,0


100,0


 95,0


 90,0


 85,0


 80,0
        93   94   95   96   97     98   99   00   01   02   03   04




                                 RZS SBT

110,0

105,0


100,0


 95,0


 90,0


 85,0


 80,0
        93   94   95   96   97     98   99   00   01   02   03   04
                                 RZR SBT

110,0


105,0


100,0


 95,0


 90,0


 85,0


 80,0
        93   94   95   96   97     98   99   00   01   02   03   04




                                 RZG SBT

110,0


105,0


100,0


 95,0


 90,0


 85,0


 80,0
        93   94   95   96   97     98   99   00   01   02   03   04
Rotbunt (Red Holstein)

                                        RZM RBT

   115,0


   110,0

   105,0


   100,0

    95,0


    90,0


    85,0
            93   94      95   96   97     98   99   00   01   02   03   04




                                        RZE RBT

    115,0

    110,0


    105,0


    100,0


     95,0


     90,0


     85,0
            93   94      95   96   97     98   99   00   01   02   03   04
                                 RZN RBT

115,0


110,0


105,0


100,0


 95,0


 90,0


 85,0
        93   94   95   96   97     98   99   00   01   02   03   04



                                 RZS RBT

115,0

110,0


105,0


100,0


 95,0


 90,0


 85,0
        93   94   95   96   97     98   99   00   01   02   03   04
                                 RZR RBT

115,0


110,0


105,0


100,0


 95,0


 90,0


 85,0
        93   94   95   96   97     98   99   00   01   02   03   04




                                 RZG RBT

115,0


110,0


105,0


100,0


 95,0


 90,0


 85,0
        93   94   95   96   97     98   99   00   01   02   03   04
Figure 5: Description of linear traits and classifiers scores

								
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