Building a Garden Pond by Wickes

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Building a Garden Pond by Wickes Powered By Docstoc
					                                                                                 ISSUE 01/09


Water brings a new dimension        If you add a fountain or a small                garden, especially if you create
to any garden, allowing you to      waterfall, you’ll be able to enjoy              a three-dimensional effect by
grow a wider range of plants        the relaxing sounds of water                    incorporating a rockery behind
and to rear some attractive fish    splashing its way back into the                 it. This would also be the
- not to mention all the wildlife   pond as you sit in the garden.                  perfect site for your waterfall,
that will be drawn to your new                                                      which can run down between
pond.                               A well planned pond can be the                  the stones just like a natural
                                    visual centre piece of your                     spring.

                                    It’s surprisingly easy to create a pond in even the smallest garden, thanks to the
                                    development of long-life flexible liners. All you have to do is dig a hole in the ground, lay
                                    the liner in place over an underlay and fill it with water, ready to receive plants and fish.
                                    Add a small submersible pump, a length of hose and a second section of liner and you
                                    can easily create a fountain and waterfall too.

                                    The Wickes pond liners are made from black PVC, which gives a greater impression of
                                    depth than other colours and is more resistant to degradation by ultra-violet light.

                                    1. Decide on the location
                                    Try to choose a position where you can admire the pond from your favourite sitting-out
                                    position. The ideal pond site is in a sunny spot, sheltered from cold northerly winds and
                                    well away from trees that shed their leaves. Too much shade will encourage algal
                                    growth, while falling leaves will soon clog up the pond in autumn. In fact, it’s best to
                                    avoid sites near any large trees, since their roots could spread and damage the liner in
                                    the future.
KEEP INFORMED                       There’s no reason why you should not build your pond on a sloping site, so long as you
• Look for other Good Idea          are prepared either to cut into the slope or to build a retaining wall or bank on the
  Leaflets that could help you      downhill side of the pond. Such a site can also be a natural one for a waterfall.
  with your current project.
                                    The only thing that might cause trouble is if you live in a very marshy area, or one with
• Check that your Good Idea         a high water table (the level of natural underground water). In either of these cases, the
  Leaflets are kept up to date.     pond liner may tend to float upwards due to pressure of water from below. You can
  Leaflets are regularly changed    check this by digging a small hole to the required depth of your pond and
  to reflect product changes so     noting whether water accumulates or not. If it does to any noticeable extent the site is
  keep an eye on issue dates.       not suitable for a pond.
• If you would like to be put on
  our mailing list for the Wickes   2. Decide on the shape
  Catalogue, call our Freephone     The Wickes pond liners can be used to create a formal or informal shape. The formal
  number which is:                  will be a square, rectangle or circle, while the latter can be any shape you like within
                                    reason: it’s best to avoid curves and inlets that are too ‘sharp’. The simplest way of
  0500 300 328                      establishing the shape and size you want is to lay garden hose or rope out on the pond
                                    site, and to view it from various positions. It’s often helpful to look at it from an upstairs
• Visit our website at              window as well as from ground level. Keep a check on the size since it is easy to plan
                                                                                                   CUSTOMER CARE
Product                                                    QTY           Size      Product
                                                                                                  There are two points to remember as far
Pond Pump 650 Ltr.                                                                 194-762        as safety is concerned: electrics and
Pond Pump 3000 Ltr.                                                                194-763        children.
Pond Pump 6000 Ltr.                                                                194-764
                                                                                                  Electricity used out of doors can be
Pressurised Filter                                                                 194-770
                                                                                                  dangerous, so if you need a power
Pond Hose                                                             5 x 13mm     194-768        supply for a pump or outdoor lights,
Pond Liner                                                             4 x 3m      194-766        ensure that it is provided by a permanent
Pond Liner                                                             4 x 5m      194-767        circuit run from a spare fuseway in your
                                                                                                  consumer unit (or from an additional
                                                                      2.5 x 2m     194-765
                                                                                                  consumer unit mounted alongside if
Single Light                                                                       194-772        you have no spare fuseway).
Pond Triple Light Set                                                              194-773
                                                                                                  You are not permitted to run a spur from
1.0mm2 twin and earth cable                                             x 7.5m     156-227
                                                                                                  an existing house power circuit. The
                                                                       x 16.5m     156-228        new circuit should be run in special
3 Core Steel Wired Armoured Cable                                       x 10m      156-239        toughened outdoor cable, buried in a
                                                                        x 25m      156-240        trench at least 500mm deep running from
Exterior junction box                                                              204-972        the house to the pond. At the pond end
                                                                                                  the cable is linked to the pump flex inside
Building sand for bedding liner                                                    220-129        a special weatherproof junction box. At
Mastercrete cement 25kg bags                                                       154-100        the house end it should be wired to a
Sharp sand                                                                         220-112        piece of safety equipment called a
                                                                                                  residual current device, which will cut off
Paving slabs - wide variety to suit your needs                                                    the supply to the circuit in the event of an
                                                                                                  electrical fault. If you are in any doubt
                                                                                                  about your ability to carry out electrical
out a pond which is too big for the liner,         If you have Hedgehogs in your garden,
                                                                                                  work, call in a qualified electrician to do
and liners are not intended to be joined.          think about providing a sloping beach for
                                                                                                  the job for you. You will also need
                                                   them to climb up if they fall in, or use
                                                                                                  professional help if a new consumer unit
3. Decide on the type                              plants to help them escape.
                                                                                                  is required.
You can create a pond either by sinking a
preformed rigid plastic or glass fibre shell       5. Plan a power supply
                                                                                                  If you have small children in the family,
in the ground, or by lining the excavation         If you’re using a pump to circulate water
                                                                                                  the main risk is of them falling into the
with a flexible liner. The latter is the more      to a fountain or waterfall, and perhaps
                                                                                                  pond. You can guard against this in
popular choice for several reasons: it’s           using outdoor lights, you’ll need a power
                                                                                                  several ways. One is to erect a low
easier to transport since it comes folded          supply to the vicinity of the pond. This
                                                                                                  fence around the pond, or to build a
in a box; it’s easier to install, it also allows   must be a permanent supply run
                                                                                                  raised pond rather than a ground-level
you complete freedom of choice as far as           underground from the house using
                                                                                                  one. The alternative is to create a water
the pond shape and depth is concerned,             toughened cable, not a trailing flex
                                                                                                  feature that has no deep water -
and this is the type that Wickes sell. The         plugged into a socket outlet. For
                                                                                                  perhaps as a waterfall linking a small
thickness of the liner ensures long life so        complete safety, the circuit to the pond
                                                                                                  header pond at the top to a fountain
long as it is properly installed, it can be        should be protected by a 30mA residual
                                                                                                  that discharges into a shallow basin
repaired easily with patches if it is              current device (RCD). - see CUSTOMER
                                                                                                  filled with pebbles at the bottom. With
punctured accidentally. Also, the fact that        CARE and also step 12.
                                                                                                  this arrangement however, you won’t
it follows the contours of the ground
                                                                                                  be able to keep fish.
results in a much more natural-looking             All electrical work must conform to
pond.                                              BS 7671 the current IEE Wiring
                                                   Regulations, and Part P of Building             USEFUL TOOLS FOR HIRE
NOTE: You can use flexible liners for              Regulations. You are advised to check
above ground formal ponds with raised              with your local authority’s Building Control
                                                                                                  If you are planning a large pond or you
brick or stone walls too.                          Department, or an Authorised Competent
                                                                                                  have particularly rocky subsoil, it may be
                                                   Person, before starting. If in any doubt
                                                                                                  worthwhile hiring a powered breaker or
4. Think about extra features                      about electrical work, contact a qualified
                                                                                                  even a mini excavator to make the
Decide at this stage whether you want to           electrician.
                                                                                                  digging easier. A builder's barrow is worth
incorporate extra features such as a
                                                                                                  hiring for moving spoil if you have only a
waterfall, a fountain, garden lighting, and        6. Think about spoil disposal
                                                                                                  flimsy gardener’s barrow. And if you’re
the like in your pond construction. Apart          Digging big holes creates a surprisingly
                                                                                                  disposing of a lot of soil, a power barrow -
from the relaxing sound moving water               large amount of spoil, so unless you can
                                                                                                  a motorised wheelbarrow - will make light
creates, the movement helps to aerate the          disperse it elsewhere in the garden or you
                                                                                                  work of moving it from pond to skip.
water too. A fountain brings a                     are planning to use it as the base for a
                                                                                                  A large angle grinder will be necessary if
three-dimensional effect to your pond, and         rockery or other raised feature,
                                                                                                  you intend to cut paving slabs to fit
can look sensational at night coupled with         you will have to order a skip and
                                                                                                  around the perimeter of the pond.
outdoor lights around the pond.                    have it taken away.
                                                                                                  See Good Idea Leaflet 14.
Most ponds will attract a variety of               Above is a list of products you’ll possibly
animals found in the garden. Therefore             need for the project shown in this leaflet.
think about providing for them too.                You can base your own requirements on
                                                   this list.
FIG. 1                                                                                                          WORK SEQUENCE
                                                                                                              1.    Decide on the site, and mark out
                                                                                                                    the pond shape with hose or rope.
                                                                                                              2.    Cut and remove turf from the pond
                                                                                                                    site, saving it for use elsewhere in
                                                                  MAX DEPTH                                         the garden if required.
                                                                  MAX DEPTH                                   3.    Excavate the pond site to the level
                                                                                                                    of the marginal shelf.
                                                             MAX LENGTH                                       4.    Mark out and excavate the ‘deep

                                                                          MAX WIDTH

                                                                                      MAX DEPTH

                                                                                                  MAX DEPTH
                                                                                                              5.    Line the hole with a layer of
                                                                                                                    soft building sand and an underlay
                                                                                                              6.    Remove turf to allow for the
                                              N.B. IF YOU WANT A POND 1 METRE WIDE,                           7.    Position the liner over the hole.
                                              2 METRES LONG AND 0.5 METRE MAXIMUM
                                              DEPTH, THE SIZE OF POND LINER REQUIRED
                                                                                                              8.    If you are having a waterfall,
                                              WILL THEREFORE BE:                                                    position a liner for it.
                                              POND LINER WIDTH = 1m WIDTH + (2 x 0.5m                         9.    Start filling the pond liner.
                                              DEPTH) + (2 x 0.23m OVERLAP FOR EDGING)                         10.   Trim off excess liner when the pond
                                              = 2.46m                                                               is full.
                                              POND LINER LENGTH = 2m LENGTH + (2x                             11.   Lay paving stones or other edging
                                              0.5m DEPTH) + (2 x 0.23m OVERLAP FOR                                  material.
                                              EDGING) = 3.46m
                                                                                                              12.   Run in and connect the power
                                              UPDATE THE ABOVE TO WORK OUT YOUR                                     supply.
                                              INDIVIDUAL SIZE REQUIREMENTS.
                                                                                                              13.   Stock the pond.
                                                                                                              1. DECIDE ON THE SITE & MARK
                                                                                                                 OUT THE SHAPE
FIG. 2
                                                                                                              Take your time in deciding what shape of
                                                                                                              pond you want, adjusting the hose
                                                                      GROUND LEVEL
                                                                                                              position and viewing the shape from an
                                                                                                              upstairs window to get a better idea of
                                                                                                              how its shape and proportions fit in with
                                                                                                              the garden as a whole. If you are having
                                                                                                              an informal shape, avoid sharp curves;
                                                                                                              gentle sweeps look more natural. FIG. 1
                                                                                                              shows a few possible layouts.
                                                                                                              Don’t forget that you need a minimum
                                                                                                              surface area of about 3m2 (32sq.ft) if you
         SIDE AT APPROX      FIRST DIG TO A DEPTH OF                                                          expect your pond to become self-
            45° ANGLE          ABOUT 320mm BELOW                                                              supporting as far as plant and aquatic life
                             GROUND LEVEL OVERALL
                                                                                                              is concerned; smaller ponds may not
                                                                                                              contain enough oxygen and so tend to
                                                                                                              2. CUT & REMOVE TURF
                                                                                                              When you’re happy with the shape and
                                                                                                              size, cut round the perimeter with a spade
FIG. 3                                                                                                        or lawn edger. Then cut across the pond
                                                                                                              area in parallel lines about 300mm apart,
                             SOME MARGINAL SHELF
                          POSSIBILITIES SHOWN SHADED                                                          and lift the resulting strips of turf. If you want
                                                                                                              to reuse them elsewhere, roll the strips up
                                                                                                              carefully, stack them out of the way and
                                                                                                              keep the stack moist until you are ready to
                                                                                                              re-lay them. If you don’t want them, offer
                                                                                                              them to neighbours, turn them into compost
                                                                                                              or dispose of them in your skip.
                                                                                                              3. EXCAVATE TO MARGINAL SHELF
                                                                                                              Start excavating the pond area down to
                                                                                                              the marginal shelf level, saving good
                                                                                                              topsoil for use elsewhere in the garden.
                                                                                                              For the deluxe pond, dig down to a depth
                                                                                                              of about 320mm (121/2") below ground
                                                                                                              level which will give you an eventual water
                                                                                                              depth of about 230mm (9"). Slope the
                                                                                                              sides at an angle of about 45°, clearing
                                                                                                              any roots and sharp stones as you work,
                                                                                                              then check that the base of the excavation
                                                                                                              is roughly level using your spirit level set
                                                                                                              on a timber straightedge. See FIG. 2.
                                                                                                              4. EXCAVATE THE DEEP END
                                                                                                              Next, mark out the area that will form the
                                                                                                              ‘deep end’ of the pond. This is normally the
                                                                                                              central area, but it is not essential to have
                                                                                                              a marginal shelf all the way round.
                                                                                                                   Indoors, run 1.0mm2 twin and earth cable
      FIG. 7                WATER LEVEL 25mm BELOW TOP                                                             to the consumer unit position and connect
                            OF LINER
                                                                                                                   to either a spare fuseway or miniature
                                                                                                                   circuit breaker (MCB) in a new consumer
                                                                               CUT OFF EXCESS LINER
                                                                                                                   unit mounted nearby. You must call a
                                                                                                                   qualified electrician or your local
                                                                                                                   electricity company to connect this
                                                                                                                   unit to your mains supply. Fit a 6-amp
                                                                                                                   fuse in the fuseway, or use a 6-amp
                                                                                                                   MCB, and label it ‘POND SUPPLY’.
                                                                                                                   See FIG. 8 (below) for full wiring details.

                                                                                                                   Now connect the waterfall hose to the
                                                                                                                   pump outlet, and set the pump in the
                                                                                                                   pond on bricks or pieces of paving slab so
                                                                                                                   the fountain jet is just above water level.
               LEAVE 230mm OF LINER TO LIE
               FLAT UNDER PAVING                                                                                   Switch on the power by turning the
                                                                                                                   residual current device to ON, so you can
                                                                                                                   test the system. Adjust the water flow as
    See FIG. 7. If you are planning to turf-up            12. RUN IN & CONNECT                                     necessary using the flow adjuster. Do not
    to the pond edge at any point, cut slits in           THE POWER SUPPLY                                         restrict the flow too much as this can
    the overlap so the grass roots can grow               Run in the power supply, using 1.5mm2                    damage the pump over a period of time.
    through them into the soil below.                     toughened twin and earth cable buried
                                                          at least 500mm (20") underground                         13. STOCK THE POND
    11. LAY PAVING STONES                                 between the house and the pond site. At                  Complete the pond installation by adding
    Tidy up the site, and lay the edging                  the pond end, pass the pump flex through                 marginal, deep-water and oxygenating
    stones round the pond on a 25mm (1")                  the pipe or conduit under the perimeter                  plants. Remember that your pond will only
    thick mortar bed. It is not safe to bed them          paving and connect it to the toughened                   support plant and aquatic life if the
    on sand, as you would on a patio, since               cable within a weatherproof junction box;                surface area is about 3m2 (32sq.ft) or
    someone standing on the edge might tilt               then form an above-ground chamber for                    larger. Don’t worry if the water goes green
    the slab and be thrown into the water.                the box which you can later conceal with                 initially; it will clear as the plants establish
    Check that the slabs are level, and point             rocks or shrubs. The simplest solution is                themselves. Wait a few weeks before
    between them. If you are having a pump                to set the box on a brick or block and                   stocking the pond with fish.
    and waterfall, conceal the hose to the                cover it with a ridge tile; alternatively,
    waterfall by positioning it between two               mount it on a low timber post and shield it
    slabs, and set a short length of copper               from the weather by making a small
    pipe or plastic conduit beneath the slabs             canopy for it from exterior quality plywood
    to allow the pump flex to be passed                   or fencing offcuts.
    through safely and unobtrusively.

    FIG. 8

                              WIRING IF SPARE FUSEWAY IN CONSUMER UNIT
                              CIRCUIT MUST BE RCD PROTECTED                                                        WEATHERPROOF
                              ALL INTERIOR WIRING SHOULD BE IN 1.0mm 2 TWIN AND EARTH CABLE

                                   CONSUMER UNIT                                                              PUMP FLEX
                                    WITH SPARE 6                     WEATHERPROOF                                             PUMP
                                    AMP FUSEWAY                        EXTERNAL
                                             MAINS IN

                              WIRING IF NO SPARE FUSEWAY IN CONSUMER UNIT
                              CIRCUIT MUST BE RCD PROTECTED
                              ALL INTERIOR WIRING SHOULD BE IN 1.0mm 2 TWIN AND EARTH CABLE

                                                                       EXTERNAL               WEATHERPROOF
                                                                        SWITCH                 JUNCTION BOX

                                                                                                              PUMP FLEX
                                                                   NEW TWO WAY CONSUMER UNIT
                                                                   WITH 6 AMP MCB                                             PUMP

                                                                     NEW PAIRS OF METER TAILS 710-003

                                                   MAINS IN

                                                                                                         protection. Lay the stones in place so they
 FIG. 4                                                                                                  overlap the pond edge by about 50mm
                                        FOR DELUXE MODEL
                                                     DEPTH FOR SLABS
                                                                                                         (2"), and mark their outer edges on the
                                                       AND MORTAR                                        grass with your spade. Then lift the slabs
           LEVEL                                                                                         aside, cut and lift the turf and remove the
                                                                                                         topsoil to a depth of about 65mm (21/2") -
                                                                                                         enough to allow the slabs to be bedded
                                                                                                         on mortar once the pond is filled. See
                                                                                                         FIG. 4. Check that this perimeter strip is
                                                                                                         perfectly level all round; if it is not, parts of
                                                SHELF DEPTH                                              the liner will be exposed above the water
                                                   320mm                                                 level, and will begin to deteriorate due to
                                                                                                         exposure to sunlight.
                                                                                FULL DEPTH
                                                                                    TO                   7. POSITION THE LINER
                                                                                  700mm                  Drape the liner over the excavation
                                                                                                         without disturbing the sand or any
                                                                                                         underlay, aiming for an even overlap all
                                                                                                         round. On concave curves, pleat and fold
                                                                                                         it neatly. Don’t make it fit the pond
                                                                                                         contours precisely at this stage though. It
                                                                                                         will look better if it is allowed to stretch
                                                                                                         slightly as it is filled, since this will help to
 FIG. 5                                                                                                  pull out many of the creases. When you’re
                                                                                                         happy with its positioning, anchor its
                                                                                                         perimeter with bricks or stones. See FIG. 5.

                                                                                                         8. POSITION THE WATERFALL LINER
                                                                                                         If you are having a waterfall, now is the
                                                                                                         time to install a liner - in an existing
                                                                                                         rockery, or on a new earth bank. Use an
                                                                                                         offcut from the main liner. Form the top
                                                                                                         pool first with a depth of about 120mm
                        LAY LINER EVENLY OVER EXCAVATION AND HOLD DOWN                                   (41/2"), then create a channel for the liner
                                     WITH BRICKS OR STONES                                               down to the pool. One of the easiest ways
                                                                                                         of doing this is to lay roof ridge tiles
                                                                                                         upside down in the channel to form the
 FIG. 6                           RIDGE TILES OR SLABS CAN BE                                            cascade, and then to position the liner
                                  STAGGERED TO CREATE SMALL                                              over them and tuck the excess material
                                                                                                         underneath. See FIG. 6.
                                                                                                         Alternatively, lay the liner directly in the
                                           INVERTED RIDGE TILES
                                                                                                         channel, anchor its edges with stones,
                                                                                                         and use pieces of paving slab underneath
                                                                                                         it to help form steps over which the flow
                                                                                                         can cascade. Position another slab at the
                                                                                                         point where the waterfall will discharge
                                                                                                         into the pond, to ensure that the water
                                                                                                         does not ‘miss’ the pond edge. Then bury
                                                                                                         a length of 25mm (1") hose running from
                                                                                                         the pump position in the deep end of the
                              SOIL                                                                       pond, over the pond edge and up the
                                                                                                         slope to the top of the waterfall, covering it
                                                                                                         with pieces of slate, tile or similar so it is
See FIG. 3 shows some layout possibilities.          the excavation with a maximum 25mm                  not squashed when buried or pierced by
                                                     (1") thick layer of damp building sand,             gardening tools.
Excavate the main section to a depth of              patting it into place on the slopes and
between 550 and 700mm (21 to 27")                    firming it down on the bottom and the               9. START FILLING THE POND
below ground (lawn) level; the latter is             marginal shelves. This will help to cushion         Start filling the liner with water from a
better, since it guarantees that the pond            the liner and prevent any rogue stones              garden hose. As it fills, neaten folds as
cannot freeze solid in winter. Your eventual         from penetrating it once it is filled. It is well   necessary and ease off the perimeter
water depth in this area will be about 450           worth covering the sand with an underlay            bricks to allow the liner to bed against the
to 600mm (18 to 24"). As you work, try               to further protect the liner in the event of        contours of the excavation. As the water
not to break down the edges of the                   the sand being washed away. An ideal                level nears the top edge of the liner,
marginal shelf, and do not make the sides            material is our 620-801 Acoustic Underlay           check to see how level the pond
of the deep end too steep - an angle of              normally used under our Laminated                   perimeter is and scrape away soil to get
about 45° is about right here too. Again,            Flooring and available in 15 x 1 metre              rid of any high spots or make up low
remove roots and sharp stones as you                 rolls.                                              spots with well compacted sand. Fill the
find them, packing soil firmly into the                                                                  liner to within 25mm (1") of the top.
resulting holes.                                     6. REMOVE THE EDGING TURF
                                                     With the excavation complete, the next              10. TRIM THE LINER
5. LINE THE HOLE WITH SAND                           step is to remove turf round the pond to            Trim off excess liner all the way round the
Double-check that there are no stones left           allow for the edging stones. Use an angle           pond with a sharp knife, leaving an
which could puncture the liner, especially           grinder to cut slabs to fit if necessary but        overlap of about 230mm (9") which
on the edges of the marginal shelf or the            make sure that you are wearing a nose               will be concealed by the edging stones.
slopes down into the deep end. Then line             and mouth mask and goggles for

Every job needs careful planning, use the graph paper to plan your job.

Whilst every care has been taken to ensure that the product design, descriptions, specifications and techniques of constructing the products are accurate at the date of
  printing. Wickes products will inevitably change from time to time and the customer is advised to check that the design, descriptions, specifications and techniques of
                             constructing any of the products described in this leaflet are still valid at the time of purchase or placing an order.
                                                                  © Wickes Building Supplies Limited 2009.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be produced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise
                          or stored in any retrieval system of any nature without the written permission of the copyright holder and the publisher.

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