ISSUE 01/09 91 HOW TO BUILD A WICKES GARDEN POND Water brings a new dimension If you add a fountain or a small garden, especially if you create to any garden, allowing you to waterfall, you’ll be able to enjoy a three-dimensional effect by grow a wider range of plants the relaxing sounds of water incorporating a rockery behind and to rear some attractive fish splashing its way back into the it. This would also be the - not to mention all the wildlife pond as you sit in the garden. perfect site for your waterfall, that will be drawn to your new which can run down between pond. A well planned pond can be the the stones just like a natural visual centre piece of your spring. It’s surprisingly easy to create a pond in even the smallest garden, thanks to the development of long-life flexible liners. All you have to do is dig a hole in the ground, lay the liner in place over an underlay and fill it with water, ready to receive plants and fish. Add a small submersible pump, a length of hose and a second section of liner and you can easily create a fountain and waterfall too. The Wickes pond liners are made from black PVC, which gives a greater impression of depth than other colours and is more resistant to degradation by ultra-violet light. 1. Decide on the location Try to choose a position where you can admire the pond from your favourite sitting-out position. The ideal pond site is in a sunny spot, sheltered from cold northerly winds and well away from trees that shed their leaves. Too much shade will encourage algal growth, while falling leaves will soon clog up the pond in autumn. In fact, it’s best to avoid sites near any large trees, since their roots could spread and damage the liner in the future. KEEP INFORMED There’s no reason why you should not build your pond on a sloping site, so long as you • Look for other Good Idea are prepared either to cut into the slope or to build a retaining wall or bank on the Leaflets that could help you downhill side of the pond. Such a site can also be a natural one for a waterfall. with your current project. The only thing that might cause trouble is if you live in a very marshy area, or one with • Check that your Good Idea a high water table (the level of natural underground water). In either of these cases, the Leaflets are kept up to date. pond liner may tend to float upwards due to pressure of water from below. You can Leaflets are regularly changed check this by digging a small hole to the required depth of your pond and to reflect product changes so noting whether water accumulates or not. If it does to any noticeable extent the site is keep an eye on issue dates. not suitable for a pond. • If you would like to be put on our mailing list for the Wickes 2. Decide on the shape Catalogue, call our Freephone The Wickes pond liners can be used to create a formal or informal shape. The formal number which is: will be a square, rectangle or circle, while the latter can be any shape you like within reason: it’s best to avoid curves and inlets that are too ‘sharp’. The simplest way of 0500 300 328 establishing the shape and size you want is to lay garden hose or rope out on the pond site, and to view it from various positions. It’s often helpful to look at it from an upstairs • Visit our website at window as well as from ground level. Keep a check on the size since it is easy to plan www.wickes.co.uk PROJECT SHOPPING LIST CUSTOMER CARE Product QTY Size Product Code There are two points to remember as far Pond Pump 650 Ltr. 194-762 as safety is concerned: electrics and Pond Pump 3000 Ltr. 194-763 children. Pond Pump 6000 Ltr. 194-764 Electricity used out of doors can be Pressurised Filter 194-770 dangerous, so if you need a power Pond Hose 5 x 13mm 194-768 supply for a pump or outdoor lights, Pond Liner 4 x 3m 194-766 ensure that it is provided by a permanent Pond Liner 4 x 5m 194-767 circuit run from a spare fuseway in your consumer unit (or from an additional 2.5 x 2m 194-765 consumer unit mounted alongside if Single Light 194-772 you have no spare fuseway). Pond Triple Light Set 194-773 You are not permitted to run a spur from 1.0mm2 twin and earth cable x 7.5m 156-227 an existing house power circuit. The x 16.5m 156-228 new circuit should be run in special 3 Core Steel Wired Armoured Cable x 10m 156-239 toughened outdoor cable, buried in a x 25m 156-240 trench at least 500mm deep running from Exterior junction box 204-972 the house to the pond. At the pond end the cable is linked to the pump flex inside Building sand for bedding liner 220-129 a special weatherproof junction box. At Mastercrete cement 25kg bags 154-100 the house end it should be wired to a Sharp sand 220-112 piece of safety equipment called a residual current device, which will cut off Paving slabs - wide variety to suit your needs the supply to the circuit in the event of an electrical fault. If you are in any doubt about your ability to carry out electrical out a pond which is too big for the liner, If you have Hedgehogs in your garden, work, call in a qualified electrician to do and liners are not intended to be joined. think about providing a sloping beach for the job for you. You will also need them to climb up if they fall in, or use professional help if a new consumer unit 3. Decide on the type plants to help them escape. is required. You can create a pond either by sinking a preformed rigid plastic or glass fibre shell 5. Plan a power supply If you have small children in the family, in the ground, or by lining the excavation If you’re using a pump to circulate water the main risk is of them falling into the with a flexible liner. The latter is the more to a fountain or waterfall, and perhaps pond. You can guard against this in popular choice for several reasons: it’s using outdoor lights, you’ll need a power several ways. One is to erect a low easier to transport since it comes folded supply to the vicinity of the pond. This fence around the pond, or to build a in a box; it’s easier to install, it also allows must be a permanent supply run raised pond rather than a ground-level you complete freedom of choice as far as underground from the house using one. The alternative is to create a water the pond shape and depth is concerned, toughened cable, not a trailing flex feature that has no deep water - and this is the type that Wickes sell. The plugged into a socket outlet. For perhaps as a waterfall linking a small thickness of the liner ensures long life so complete safety, the circuit to the pond header pond at the top to a fountain long as it is properly installed, it can be should be protected by a 30mA residual that discharges into a shallow basin repaired easily with patches if it is current device (RCD). - see CUSTOMER filled with pebbles at the bottom. With punctured accidentally. Also, the fact that CARE and also step 12. this arrangement however, you won’t it follows the contours of the ground be able to keep fish. results in a much more natural-looking All electrical work must conform to pond. BS 7671 the current IEE Wiring Regulations, and Part P of Building USEFUL TOOLS FOR HIRE NOTE: You can use flexible liners for Regulations. You are advised to check above ground formal ponds with raised with your local authority’s Building Control If you are planning a large pond or you brick or stone walls too. Department, or an Authorised Competent have particularly rocky subsoil, it may be Person, before starting. If in any doubt worthwhile hiring a powered breaker or 4. Think about extra features about electrical work, contact a qualified even a mini excavator to make the Decide at this stage whether you want to electrician. digging easier. A builder's barrow is worth incorporate extra features such as a hiring for moving spoil if you have only a waterfall, a fountain, garden lighting, and 6. Think about spoil disposal flimsy gardener’s barrow. And if you’re the like in your pond construction. Apart Digging big holes creates a surprisingly disposing of a lot of soil, a power barrow - from the relaxing sound moving water large amount of spoil, so unless you can a motorised wheelbarrow - will make light creates, the movement helps to aerate the disperse it elsewhere in the garden or you work of moving it from pond to skip. water too. A fountain brings a are planning to use it as the base for a A large angle grinder will be necessary if three-dimensional effect to your pond, and rockery or other raised feature, you intend to cut paving slabs to fit can look sensational at night coupled with you will have to order a skip and around the perimeter of the pond. outdoor lights around the pond. have it taken away. See Good Idea Leaflet 14. Most ponds will attract a variety of Above is a list of products you’ll possibly animals found in the garden. Therefore need for the project shown in this leaflet. think about providing for them too. You can base your own requirements on this list. FIG. 1 WORK SEQUENCE 1. Decide on the site, and mark out the pond shape with hose or rope. 2. Cut and remove turf from the pond site, saving it for use elsewhere in MAX DEPTH the garden if required. MAX DEPTH 3. Excavate the pond site to the level of the marginal shelf. MAX LENGTH 4. Mark out and excavate the ‘deep MAX WIDTH MAX DEPTH MAX DEPTH end’. 5. Line the hole with a layer of soft building sand and an underlay material. 6. Remove turf to allow for the edging. N.B. IF YOU WANT A POND 1 METRE WIDE, 7. Position the liner over the hole. 2 METRES LONG AND 0.5 METRE MAXIMUM DEPTH, THE SIZE OF POND LINER REQUIRED 8. If you are having a waterfall, WILL THEREFORE BE: position a liner for it. POND LINER WIDTH = 1m WIDTH + (2 x 0.5m 9. Start filling the pond liner. DEPTH) + (2 x 0.23m OVERLAP FOR EDGING) 10. Trim off excess liner when the pond = 2.46m is full. POND LINER LENGTH = 2m LENGTH + (2x 11. Lay paving stones or other edging 0.5m DEPTH) + (2 x 0.23m OVERLAP FOR material. EDGING) = 3.46m 12. Run in and connect the power UPDATE THE ABOVE TO WORK OUT YOUR supply. INDIVIDUAL SIZE REQUIREMENTS. 13. Stock the pond. 1. DECIDE ON THE SITE & MARK OUT THE SHAPE FIG. 2 Take your time in deciding what shape of pond you want, adjusting the hose GROUND LEVEL position and viewing the shape from an upstairs window to get a better idea of how its shape and proportions fit in with the garden as a whole. If you are having an informal shape, avoid sharp curves; gentle sweeps look more natural. FIG. 1 shows a few possible layouts. Don’t forget that you need a minimum surface area of about 3m2 (32sq.ft) if you SIDE AT APPROX FIRST DIG TO A DEPTH OF expect your pond to become self- 45° ANGLE ABOUT 320mm BELOW supporting as far as plant and aquatic life GROUND LEVEL OVERALL is concerned; smaller ponds may not contain enough oxygen and so tend to stagnate. 2. CUT & REMOVE TURF When you’re happy with the shape and size, cut round the perimeter with a spade FIG. 3 or lawn edger. Then cut across the pond area in parallel lines about 300mm apart, SOME MARGINAL SHELF POSSIBILITIES SHOWN SHADED and lift the resulting strips of turf. If you want to reuse them elsewhere, roll the strips up carefully, stack them out of the way and keep the stack moist until you are ready to re-lay them. If you don’t want them, offer them to neighbours, turn them into compost or dispose of them in your skip. 3. EXCAVATE TO MARGINAL SHELF LEVEL Start excavating the pond area down to the marginal shelf level, saving good topsoil for use elsewhere in the garden. For the deluxe pond, dig down to a depth of about 320mm (121/2") below ground level which will give you an eventual water depth of about 230mm (9"). Slope the sides at an angle of about 45°, clearing any roots and sharp stones as you work, then check that the base of the excavation is roughly level using your spirit level set on a timber straightedge. See FIG. 2. 4. EXCAVATE THE DEEP END Next, mark out the area that will form the ‘deep end’ of the pond. This is normally the central area, but it is not essential to have a marginal shelf all the way round. Indoors, run 1.0mm2 twin and earth cable FIG. 7 WATER LEVEL 25mm BELOW TOP to the consumer unit position and connect OF LINER to either a spare fuseway or miniature circuit breaker (MCB) in a new consumer CUT OFF EXCESS LINER unit mounted nearby. You must call a qualified electrician or your local electricity company to connect this unit to your mains supply. Fit a 6-amp fuse in the fuseway, or use a 6-amp MCB, and label it ‘POND SUPPLY’. See FIG. 8 (below) for full wiring details. Now connect the waterfall hose to the pump outlet, and set the pump in the pond on bricks or pieces of paving slab so the fountain jet is just above water level. LEAVE 230mm OF LINER TO LIE FLAT UNDER PAVING Switch on the power by turning the residual current device to ON, so you can test the system. Adjust the water flow as See FIG. 7. If you are planning to turf-up 12. RUN IN & CONNECT necessary using the flow adjuster. Do not to the pond edge at any point, cut slits in THE POWER SUPPLY restrict the flow too much as this can the overlap so the grass roots can grow Run in the power supply, using 1.5mm2 damage the pump over a period of time. through them into the soil below. toughened twin and earth cable buried at least 500mm (20") underground 13. STOCK THE POND 11. LAY PAVING STONES between the house and the pond site. At Complete the pond installation by adding Tidy up the site, and lay the edging the pond end, pass the pump flex through marginal, deep-water and oxygenating stones round the pond on a 25mm (1") the pipe or conduit under the perimeter plants. Remember that your pond will only thick mortar bed. It is not safe to bed them paving and connect it to the toughened support plant and aquatic life if the on sand, as you would on a patio, since cable within a weatherproof junction box; surface area is about 3m2 (32sq.ft) or someone standing on the edge might tilt then form an above-ground chamber for larger. Don’t worry if the water goes green the slab and be thrown into the water. the box which you can later conceal with initially; it will clear as the plants establish Check that the slabs are level, and point rocks or shrubs. The simplest solution is themselves. Wait a few weeks before between them. If you are having a pump to set the box on a brick or block and stocking the pond with fish. and waterfall, conceal the hose to the cover it with a ridge tile; alternatively, waterfall by positioning it between two mount it on a low timber post and shield it slabs, and set a short length of copper from the weather by making a small pipe or plastic conduit beneath the slabs canopy for it from exterior quality plywood to allow the pump flex to be passed or fencing offcuts. through safely and unobtrusively. FIG. 8 WIRING IF SPARE FUSEWAY IN CONSUMER UNIT CIRCUIT MUST BE RCD PROTECTED WEATHERPROOF ALL EXTERIOR WIRING SHOULD BE IN 1.5mm 2 3 CORE STEEL WIRED ARMOURED CABLE JUNCTION BOX ALL INTERIOR WIRING SHOULD BE IN 1.0mm 2 TWIN AND EARTH CABLE CONSUMER UNIT PUMP FLEX WITH SPARE 6 WEATHERPROOF PUMP AMP FUSEWAY EXTERNAL SWITCH MAINS IN WIRING IF NO SPARE FUSEWAY IN CONSUMER UNIT CIRCUIT MUST BE RCD PROTECTED ALL EXTERIOR WIRING SHOULD BE IN 3 CORE STEEL WIRED ARMOURED CABLE ALL INTERIOR WIRING SHOULD BE IN 1.0mm 2 TWIN AND EARTH CABLE WEATHERPROOF EXTERNAL WEATHERPROOF SWITCH JUNCTION BOX PUMP FLEX NEW TWO WAY CONSUMER UNIT WITH 6 AMP MCB PUMP NEW PAIRS OF METER TAILS 710-003 MAINS IN 1 protection. Lay the stones in place so they FIG. 4 overlap the pond edge by about 50mm FOR DELUXE MODEL DEPTH FOR SLABS (2"), and mark their outer edges on the AND MORTAR grass with your spade. Then lift the slabs GROUND LEVEL aside, cut and lift the turf and remove the topsoil to a depth of about 65mm (21/2") - enough to allow the slabs to be bedded on mortar once the pond is filled. See FIG. 4. Check that this perimeter strip is 65mm perfectly level all round; if it is not, parts of MARGINAL SHELF DEPTH the liner will be exposed above the water 320mm level, and will begin to deteriorate due to exposure to sunlight. FULL DEPTH 500 TO 7. POSITION THE LINER 700mm Drape the liner over the excavation without disturbing the sand or any underlay, aiming for an even overlap all round. On concave curves, pleat and fold it neatly. Don’t make it fit the pond contours precisely at this stage though. It will look better if it is allowed to stretch slightly as it is filled, since this will help to FIG. 5 pull out many of the creases. When you’re happy with its positioning, anchor its perimeter with bricks or stones. See FIG. 5. 8. POSITION THE WATERFALL LINER If you are having a waterfall, now is the time to install a liner - in an existing rockery, or on a new earth bank. Use an offcut from the main liner. Form the top pool first with a depth of about 120mm LAY LINER EVENLY OVER EXCAVATION AND HOLD DOWN (41/2"), then create a channel for the liner WITH BRICKS OR STONES down to the pool. One of the easiest ways of doing this is to lay roof ridge tiles upside down in the channel to form the FIG. 6 RIDGE TILES OR SLABS CAN BE cascade, and then to position the liner STAGGERED TO CREATE SMALL over them and tuck the excess material WATERFALL underneath. See FIG. 6. LINER Alternatively, lay the liner directly in the INVERTED RIDGE TILES channel, anchor its edges with stones, and use pieces of paving slab underneath it to help form steps over which the flow can cascade. Position another slab at the point where the waterfall will discharge into the pond, to ensure that the water does not ‘miss’ the pond edge. Then bury a length of 25mm (1") hose running from the pump position in the deep end of the SOIL pond, over the pond edge and up the slope to the top of the waterfall, covering it with pieces of slate, tile or similar so it is See FIG. 3 shows some layout possibilities. the excavation with a maximum 25mm not squashed when buried or pierced by (1") thick layer of damp building sand, gardening tools. Excavate the main section to a depth of patting it into place on the slopes and between 550 and 700mm (21 to 27") firming it down on the bottom and the 9. START FILLING THE POND below ground (lawn) level; the latter is marginal shelves. This will help to cushion Start filling the liner with water from a better, since it guarantees that the pond the liner and prevent any rogue stones garden hose. As it fills, neaten folds as cannot freeze solid in winter. Your eventual from penetrating it once it is filled. It is well necessary and ease off the perimeter water depth in this area will be about 450 worth covering the sand with an underlay bricks to allow the liner to bed against the to 600mm (18 to 24"). As you work, try to further protect the liner in the event of contours of the excavation. As the water not to break down the edges of the the sand being washed away. An ideal level nears the top edge of the liner, marginal shelf, and do not make the sides material is our 620-801 Acoustic Underlay check to see how level the pond of the deep end too steep - an angle of normally used under our Laminated perimeter is and scrape away soil to get about 45° is about right here too. Again, Flooring and available in 15 x 1 metre rid of any high spots or make up low remove roots and sharp stones as you rolls. spots with well compacted sand. Fill the find them, packing soil firmly into the liner to within 25mm (1") of the top. resulting holes. 6. REMOVE THE EDGING TURF With the excavation complete, the next 10. TRIM THE LINER 5. LINE THE HOLE WITH SAND step is to remove turf round the pond to Trim off excess liner all the way round the Double-check that there are no stones left allow for the edging stones. Use an angle pond with a sharp knife, leaving an which could puncture the liner, especially grinder to cut slabs to fit if necessary but overlap of about 230mm (9") which on the edges of the marginal shelf or the make sure that you are wearing a nose will be concealed by the edging stones. slopes down into the deep end. Then line and mouth mask and goggles for PLANNING Every job needs careful planning, use the graph paper to plan your job. Whilst every care has been taken to ensure that the product design, descriptions, specifications and techniques of constructing the products are accurate at the date of printing. Wickes products will inevitably change from time to time and the customer is advised to check that the design, descriptions, specifications and techniques of constructing any of the products described in this leaflet are still valid at the time of purchase or placing an order. © Wickes Building Supplies Limited 2009. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be produced or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise or stored in any retrieval system of any nature without the written permission of the copyright holder and the publisher.