Reading Strategies Reading RECLAIM Literacy by lifemate

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RECLAIM Literacy Council Training 2007, Adapted from Laubach
                    Literacy of Canada
       What is Reading?
Making sense out of print
Decoding Symbols
The active process of getting meaning
from written language (print)
        Asking Questions
What kinds of questions do the best job of
building comprehension skills?
One of the most common mistakes is to
ask too many detailed questions (i.e. Why
did that happen?)
        Detailed questions
They are appropriate for certain reading
materials like recipes, directions, news stories.
(i.e. How much sugar is needed?)
They are important when a certain fact is
important to the story (i.e. Why did the house
burn down?)
Detailed questions help when you think your
student did not understand a particular sentence
ask about every detail, it suggests that good
readers memorize every detail as they read.
You can avoid this by asking questions that are
more general
       General Questions
General questions help your student to
see the “big picture”.
General questions do not always have a
right or wrong answer.
General questions invite your student to
think and discuss. They activate thinking
strategies such as inferring, drawing
conclusions, summarizing, comparing,
Suggestions For Making General
  Questions For Any Reading:
What does that mean?
What caused this to happen?
What were the effects of….?
What is the difference between…and…?
What if…?
What do you think about the…?
Suggestions For Making General
    Questions For Fiction:
What happened so far in the story?
What do you think will happen next?
Which character do you like? Dislike?
What was the best (worst, most
interesting, funniest)…?
Have you ever known anyone like this
Have you ever done (felt, seen, heard)
anything like that?
Suggestions For Making General
   Questions For Non fiction:
What new information did you learn?
How did the author organize this
Do you agree or disagree? With what
point? Why?
Do you think the author was fair? honest?
 Response to Detailed or General
If your student does not know the answer to
   a question:
   ask a related question
   help your student look for the answer in
   the passage
   discuss or explain the answer
Reading Strategies

        12 Reading Strategies
1. Survey           7. Experience Story
2. Let‟s find out   8. Questioning
3. Echo reading     9. Cloze
4. Duet reading     10. Story outline
5. Read aloud       11. Same and different
6. Model reading    12. Mapping
       (Pre-Reading)    Reading Strategy #1:
Uses: To improve comprehension (this strategy can be used
    with most students, most of the time.)
Text: Not too hard, but not too easy
How to:
1.  With your student, look at and talk about the title, contents,
    subtitles, pictures, captions, or any other material that previews
    the text.
2.  If it is non-fiction, talk about the topic, ask questions and fill in the
    missing background. Use diagrams, maps or examples. Talk
    about what you might learn
3.  Look for some difficult words. Look them up in the dictionary
4.  If you are in the middle of the book, review the story so far
5.  If there are study questions at the end of the text, preview them
    before starting to read.
      (Pre-Reading)  Reading Strategy #2:
                    Let’s Find Out
Uses: To improve comprehension
              To provide a comprehension strategy that
    students can use on their own
Text: Non-fiction passage of medium difficulty
How to:
1.  With the student, identify the topic of the material to be read
2.  Brainstorm: What do we already know about this topic? Make a
3.  Brainstorm: What do we already know about this topic? Make a
4.  Ask your student to read the passage.
5.  Compare the reading with your earlier brainstorming.
           Was what you already knew confirmed? (step 2)
           Were your questions from step 3 answered?
           What more did you learn?
     (During Reading)Reading Strategy #3:
                    Echo Reading
Uses: To help improve FLUENCY, PHRASING and
Text: Look for material that is a bit too difficult for your
How to:
1.   Read a phrase, sentence or paragraph from a passage.
2.   Ask the student to re-read the same material, imitating your
     phrasing and expression.
3.   Take turns reading until the passage is done.
Options: Your student could use this strategy at home with taped books
     or a reading program for the computer such as free natural reader
     (make sure they know how to use it).
Example:        Tutor: Jack and Jill went up the hill,
                Student: Jack and Jill went up the hill,
                Tutor: to fetch a pail of water.
                Student: to fetch a pail of water.
     (During Reading)   Reading Strategy #4:
                       Duet Reading
Uses: To improve a student‟s reading fluency
          To build a student‟s vocabulary
To build a student‟s confidence
To help a student read faster
Note: This strategy is good for students who have some reading ability
      but who are reading hesitantly, word for word, or with no
Text: look for material that is a bit too difficult for your student to read
How to:
1.    „explain to your student that you will read together
2.    You begin reading. Set the pace a bit faster than your student
      would normally read. When your student hesitates, keep going.
      Your student will catch up at the next pause.
3.    If your student stops completely or is frustrated, STOP! Select
      another passage that is not quite as difficult.
                    Reading Strategy #4:
      (During Reading)

                 Duet Reading Cont.
A California study showed an average of 2.2 grade levels
among students with severe reading handicaps who had
received 7 ½ hours of instruction in this method over a 6 week
period. The method has also been used with students who
have a stuttering problem.
Tutor:    Jack and Jill / went up the hill / to fetch a pail of water.
Student: Jack and Jill / went up the hill / to....................... of water
Tutor:   Jack fell down /and broke his crown /and Jill came tumbling
Student: Jack fell down / and ... his ... /    and Jill came
          tumbling after.
     (During Reading)    Reading Strategy #5
                        Read Aloud
  To show your student how to tackle unknown words when reading
  To give support to your student when he/she is reading
Text: Not too hard, but not too easy
How to:
1. Ask your student to read aloud to you.

If your student has trouble with a word, wait a few seconds to
    give him/her a chance to figure it out. Then, depending on
    how hard the word is, and your student‟s skills,
    confidence, fatigue level, try one of the following, but do
    not drag out the process so the flow of the story is
               Reading Strategy #5
  (During Reading)

           Read Aloud (cont.)
  – Tell your student the word.
  – Say the first sound or first syllable.
  – Help your student guess the word, by
    reading the words around it and then coming
    back to the unknown word.
  – Remind the student of a rhyming word and
    change the beginning sound, “Sounds like...”
  – Help your student sound out the word.
3. If the meaning has been lost, ask your
   student to re-read the sentence.
               Reading Strategy #6
      (During Reading)

      Model Reading (see also Reading Strategy #5)
Uses: To help your student become a fluent reader
Text: Anything of interest to your student, any level
How to: Read to your student!
   Readers of all ages love having a story read to them. As a reading
   strategy, your student will learn many things when you read to
   him/her, including:

   These are things that all good readers have in common.
Remember: Practice makes perfect!
                          Be a reading role model
   (During Reading)Reading Strategy #7
                Experience Story
  To make reading material from a student‟s own story
  For student‟s who lack confidence (to show them that
  they can write a story)
  For a change of pace
How to:
   1. Discuss a topic of interest to your student.
   2. Have your student retell an experience or opinion. Write down
      the student‟s EXACT words – the student is the author.
   3. Read the story back to the student, pointing to all the words.
      Ask the student if he/she wants any changes made.
                 Reading Strategy #7
     (During Reading)

           Experience Story (cont.)
4.   Read the entire story together with your
     student, pointing to the words.
5.   Read the first sentence together. Your student
     then reads this sentence alone.
6.   Repeat this process with each of the remaining
     sentences, until the story is completed.
7.   Ask comprehension questions based on the
     story (see “Asking Question”). Your student
     reads that part of the story that answers each
8.   Your student reads the entire story alone, with
     help as needed.
              Reading Strategy #7
(During Reading)

        Experience Story (cont.)
Keep a copy and give one to your student
Keep stories in a notebook
Make a book of stories
Principles of Experience Story:
Your student creates his/her own reading material.
The stories reflect each person’s vocabulary and interests.
It focuses on your student’s strength: the spoken language.
It makes reading a personal experience: it connects
reading, thinking, listening.
                 Reading Strategy #7
   (During Reading)

           Experience Story (cont.)
1. Use directed questions. Here are a few examples:
   –   If you could have three wishes, what would they be? Why?
   –   What is your favourite hobby? Describe it.
   –   What is one of your funniest moments?
   –   What is the best thing/time that’s happened in your life?
   –   What is your favourite sport or sports team?
   –   What is your favorite animal?

2. Take a picture from a magazine, newspaper, a poster,
   etc., and ask your student to tell a story about it.
                  Reading Strategy #7
     (During Reading)

            Experience Story (cont.)
3.   For some students, you may want to use incomplete sentences as
     paragraph starters. Most directed questions from Section 1 can
     be made into an incomplete sentence is your student is more
     comfortable that way.
        For example: “What’s your favourite hobby?” can be reworded
     as “My       favourite hobby is...”
        I like...                 I dislike...
        I admire...               I believe...
        I love...                 I want...
        I trust...                I think...

4.   Read a story that interests your student and, as you go along, ask
     him to summarize the story. This technique is good in helping to
     strengthen comprehension. Use newspaper articles, magazines,
     or a book chosen by your student.
5.   If your student enjoys music, ask him to dictate the words from
     one of his favourite songs. Copy the words and use it as an
     experience story.
              Reading Strategy #7
  (During Reading)

        Experience Story (cont.)
Sample Experience Story
My cat‟s name is Mouser. She is grey and
 small. She kind of looks like a mouse.
 She likes to eat mice, lots of mice. That‟s
 good in the chicken house. We got her as
 a kitten. I was three years old. She is my
 favourite pet. I love Mouser!
                                     by Emily
                         Reading Strategy #8
     During and Post-Reading

      To help your student (any level) improve comprehension
   (This strategy can be used with any type of material, and
   with any other reading strategy.)
      To help your student understand what he/she has just
   read (Phrase, sentence, paragraph, page, story or book.)
Text: Any level
How to:
1.    As your student reads, watch for inappropriate inflection,
      puzzled expressions, or other hints that your student does
      not understand. Stop and help your student find the
                     Reading Strategy #8
 During and Post-Reading

2. As your student reads, stop from time to time and ask,
   “What does that mean?” The more difficult the reading,
   the more often you should stop. If your student does
   not know the answer, help him/her find the answer.
3. Keep checking to see if your student comprehends what
   he/she is reading, so that you are sure that the student
   is not only pronouncing the words but also
   understanding the message.
4. When you are done reading, discuss the overall content
   and share reactions with your student.
                        Reading Strategy #9
(During and Post-Reading)

Uses:        To help your student get meaning from
Text:        Not too hard, not too easy
  Remember: Choose material that you know your
     student will find interesting.
How to:
  1. Choose a passage that is at the student‟s reading
  2. If you want to use a paragraph, you must leave the
     first line and the last line as it is.
  3. If you want to use a story, you must leave the first
     paragraph and the last paragraph intact.
  4. Leave every 10th word (or fewer) blank.
                      Reading Strategy #9
(During and Post-Reading)

                    CLOZE (cont.)
How the student should do a CLOZE:
1. Read the CLOZE silently.
2. Re-read the CLOZE passage, writing in the
   words that seem to fit the blanks
3. You ask your student WHY he made the
   choices he did.
4. Your student should compare his text with the
   original passage.
5. Discuss with your student whether the
   meaning was changed by certain responses.
                      Reading Strategy #9
(During and Post-Reading)

                    CLOZE (cont.)
CLOZE is a reading strategy, which was
  developed in 1953 by Wilson Taylor, is based on
  the psychological theory of CLOSURE. This
  theory states that a person wants to complete
  any pattern that is not complete. CLOZE is a
  powerful reading strategy because it forces the
  reader to derive meaning from what is on the
                         Reading Strategy #9
 (During and Post-Reading)

                       CLOZE (cont.)
Sample CLOZE Story:
                           SONG OF THE WOLF
Picture yourself, sitting by a campfire. The moon is just rising over the
   trees. Suddenly the silence is broken by the long howl of a wolf. An
   electrifying tingle runs up your spine. He howls again. Another
   answers from farther away. You are listening to the song of the
We have had many such experiences. ___________ early morning we
   were camped on ____rocky point in Algonquin Park. The fog was
   ________rising from the water. Out of ______mist came the howls
   of three__________. Near shore, in the silence, we
   _____________, imitating the wolves, and remained motionless
   __________ hear a reply. Suddenly three ____________ appeared
   on a rocky cliff above__________. They watched us for a moment
   ________then bounded back and disappeared into
They had come to our camp, probably thinking we were other wolves.
   What a surprise!
    (Post-Reading)     Reading Strategy #10
                      Story Outline
Uses: To improve organizational skills for comprehension
Text: Fiction, at any level of difficulty
How to: During or after a story, help your student identify the setting.
  characters, problem or goal, events and the conclusion.


Setting:                 Place: on a hill
Time:                    any time
Characters:              Jack, Jill
Goal:                    Jack and Jill want to bring a pail of water
                         from the top of the hill.
Events:                  Jack fell down and broke his crown.
                         Jill came tumbling after Jack.
Conclusion:              No water got fetched that day, and Jack and
                         Jill had really bad headaches.
               Reading Strategy #11

            Same and Different
Uses: To improve analytical skills for comprehension
Text: Fiction, at any level of difficulty
How to:
1. Select two things (people, items, stories, books or
    topics) to be compared. (You can decide on these
    before, during of after the reading.)
2. Make two circles that overlap, or three columns. Put
    one label in each circle and in the centre put “both.”
3. Think of ways that the two things are alike and
    different. List the difference on the outside and the
    similarities in the middle.
    (Post-Reading)Reading Strategy #11
             Same and Different (cont.)
CATS            DOGS      BOTH

purr            bark      four legs

meow            loyal     fur

aloof           noisy     tails

quiet           leash     pets

litter box
   (Post-Reading)   Reading Strategy #12
Uses: To improve comprehension by analysing a topic
Text: Non-fiction, any reading level
How to:
1. Write the key idea in a circle in the centre of the paper.
2. Help your student identify the first sub-topic and write it
    on the map with related words as shown in the sample.
    (Writing on a map can be horizontal or at different
3. Keep building the map together. Help your student
    see how the author organizes information.
Option: This can also be done as a pre-reading activity by
    making predictions on a map before reading and
    revising the map later in a different colour.
  (Post-Reading)     Reading Strategy #12
                     Mapping (cont.)
Sample Map:
 grooming stuff
                       Choosing a Pet             vet
     What to do        Where to         Baby or full grown?
    ask questions        look
     visit animals      SPCA
       compare         pet shop

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