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Reading RECLAIM Literacy Council Training 2007, Adapted from Laubach Literacy of Canada What is Reading? Making sense out of print Decoding Symbols The active process of getting meaning from written language (print) Asking Questions What kinds of questions do the best job of building comprehension skills? One of the most common mistakes is to ask too many detailed questions (i.e. Why did that happen?) Detailed questions They are appropriate for certain reading materials like recipes, directions, news stories. (i.e. How much sugar is needed?) They are important when a certain fact is important to the story (i.e. Why did the house burn down?) Detailed questions help when you think your student did not understand a particular sentence NOT EVERY DETAIL IS IMPORTANT when you ask about every detail, it suggests that good readers memorize every detail as they read. You can avoid this by asking questions that are more general General Questions General questions help your student to see the “big picture”. General questions do not always have a right or wrong answer. General questions invite your student to think and discuss. They activate thinking strategies such as inferring, drawing conclusions, summarizing, comparing, analysing. Suggestions For Making General Questions For Any Reading: What does that mean? What caused this to happen? What were the effects of….? Why…? How…? What is the difference between…and…? What if…? What do you think about the…? Suggestions For Making General Questions For Fiction: What happened so far in the story? What do you think will happen next? Which character do you like? Dislike? What was the best (worst, most interesting, funniest)…? Have you ever known anyone like this person? Have you ever done (felt, seen, heard) anything like that? Suggestions For Making General Questions For Non fiction: What new information did you learn? How did the author organize this information? Do you agree or disagree? With what point? Why? Do you think the author was fair? honest? Thorough? Response to Detailed or General Questions If your student does not know the answer to a question: ask a related question help your student look for the answer in the passage discuss or explain the answer 12 Reading Strategies Adapted from Yamaska Literacy Council 1981-2006 12 Reading Strategies 1. Survey 7. Experience Story 2. Let‟s find out 8. Questioning 3. Echo reading 9. Cloze 4. Duet reading 10. Story outline 5. Read aloud 11. Same and different 6. Model reading 12. Mapping (Pre-Reading) Reading Strategy #1: Survey Uses: To improve comprehension (this strategy can be used with most students, most of the time.) Text: Not too hard, but not too easy How to: 1. With your student, look at and talk about the title, contents, subtitles, pictures, captions, or any other material that previews the text. 2. If it is non-fiction, talk about the topic, ask questions and fill in the missing background. Use diagrams, maps or examples. Talk about what you might learn 3. Look for some difficult words. Look them up in the dictionary 4. If you are in the middle of the book, review the story so far 5. If there are study questions at the end of the text, preview them before starting to read. (Pre-Reading) Reading Strategy #2: Let’s Find Out Uses: To improve comprehension To provide a comprehension strategy that students can use on their own Text: Non-fiction passage of medium difficulty How to: 1. With the student, identify the topic of the material to be read 2. Brainstorm: What do we already know about this topic? Make a list. 3. Brainstorm: What do we already know about this topic? Make a list. 4. Ask your student to read the passage. 5. Compare the reading with your earlier brainstorming. Was what you already knew confirmed? (step 2) Were your questions from step 3 answered? What more did you learn? (During Reading)Reading Strategy #3: Echo Reading Uses: To help improve FLUENCY, PHRASING and INTONATION Text: Look for material that is a bit too difficult for your student How to: 1. Read a phrase, sentence or paragraph from a passage. 2. Ask the student to re-read the same material, imitating your phrasing and expression. 3. Take turns reading until the passage is done. Options: Your student could use this strategy at home with taped books or a reading program for the computer such as free natural reader (make sure they know how to use it). Example: Tutor: Jack and Jill went up the hill, Student: Jack and Jill went up the hill, Tutor: to fetch a pail of water. Student: to fetch a pail of water. (During Reading) Reading Strategy #4: Duet Reading Uses: To improve a student‟s reading fluency To build a student‟s vocabulary To build a student‟s confidence To help a student read faster Note: This strategy is good for students who have some reading ability but who are reading hesitantly, word for word, or with no expression. Text: look for material that is a bit too difficult for your student to read alone How to: 1. „explain to your student that you will read together 2. You begin reading. Set the pace a bit faster than your student would normally read. When your student hesitates, keep going. Your student will catch up at the next pause. 3. If your student stops completely or is frustrated, STOP! Select another passage that is not quite as difficult. Reading Strategy #4: (During Reading) Duet Reading Cont. IT WORKS! A California study showed an average of 2.2 grade levels among students with severe reading handicaps who had received 7 ½ hours of instruction in this method over a 6 week period. The method has also been used with students who have a stuttering problem. Example: Tutor: Jack and Jill / went up the hill / to fetch a pail of water. Student: Jack and Jill / went up the hill / to....................... of water Tutor: Jack fell down /and broke his crown /and Jill came tumbling after. Student: Jack fell down / and ... his ... / and Jill came tumbling after. (During Reading) Reading Strategy #5 Read Aloud Uses: To show your student how to tackle unknown words when reading To give support to your student when he/she is reading Text: Not too hard, but not too easy How to: 1. Ask your student to read aloud to you. If your student has trouble with a word, wait a few seconds to give him/her a chance to figure it out. Then, depending on how hard the word is, and your student‟s skills, confidence, fatigue level, try one of the following, but do not drag out the process so the flow of the story is lost: Reading Strategy #5 (During Reading) Read Aloud (cont.) – Tell your student the word. – Say the first sound or first syllable. – Help your student guess the word, by reading the words around it and then coming back to the unknown word. – Remind the student of a rhyming word and change the beginning sound, “Sounds like...” – Help your student sound out the word. 3. If the meaning has been lost, ask your student to re-read the sentence. Reading Strategy #6 (During Reading) Model Reading (see also Reading Strategy #5) Uses: To help your student become a fluent reader Text: Anything of interest to your student, any level How to: Read to your student! Readers of all ages love having a story read to them. As a reading strategy, your student will learn many things when you read to him/her, including: intonation phrasing expression fluency These are things that all good readers have in common. Remember: Practice makes perfect! Be a reading role model (During Reading)Reading Strategy #7 Experience Story Uses: To make reading material from a student‟s own story For student‟s who lack confidence (to show them that they can write a story) For a change of pace How to: 1. Discuss a topic of interest to your student. 2. Have your student retell an experience or opinion. Write down the student‟s EXACT words – the student is the author. 3. Read the story back to the student, pointing to all the words. Ask the student if he/she wants any changes made. Reading Strategy #7 (During Reading) Experience Story (cont.) 4. Read the entire story together with your student, pointing to the words. 5. Read the first sentence together. Your student then reads this sentence alone. 6. Repeat this process with each of the remaining sentences, until the story is completed. 7. Ask comprehension questions based on the story (see “Asking Question”). Your student reads that part of the story that answers each question. 8. Your student reads the entire story alone, with help as needed. Reading Strategy #7 (During Reading) Experience Story (cont.) Options: Keep a copy and give one to your student Keep stories in a notebook Make a book of stories Principles of Experience Story: Your student creates his/her own reading material. The stories reflect each person’s vocabulary and interests. It focuses on your student’s strength: the spoken language. It makes reading a personal experience: it connects reading, thinking, listening. Reading Strategy #7 (During Reading) Experience Story (cont.) IDEAS TO GET EXPERIENCE STORIES 1. Use directed questions. Here are a few examples: – If you could have three wishes, what would they be? Why? – What is your favourite hobby? Describe it. – What is one of your funniest moments? – What is the best thing/time that’s happened in your life? – What is your favourite sport or sports team? – What is your favorite animal? 2. Take a picture from a magazine, newspaper, a poster, etc., and ask your student to tell a story about it. Reading Strategy #7 (During Reading) Experience Story (cont.) 3. For some students, you may want to use incomplete sentences as paragraph starters. Most directed questions from Section 1 can be made into an incomplete sentence is your student is more comfortable that way. For example: “What’s your favourite hobby?” can be reworded as “My favourite hobby is...” I like... I dislike... I admire... I believe... I love... I want... I trust... I think... 4. Read a story that interests your student and, as you go along, ask him to summarize the story. This technique is good in helping to strengthen comprehension. Use newspaper articles, magazines, or a book chosen by your student. 5. If your student enjoys music, ask him to dictate the words from one of his favourite songs. Copy the words and use it as an experience story. Reading Strategy #7 (During Reading) Experience Story (cont.) Sample Experience Story Mouser My cat‟s name is Mouser. She is grey and small. She kind of looks like a mouse. She likes to eat mice, lots of mice. That‟s good in the chicken house. We got her as a kitten. I was three years old. She is my favourite pet. I love Mouser! by Emily Reading Strategy #8 During and Post-Reading Questioning Uses: To help your student (any level) improve comprehension (This strategy can be used with any type of material, and with any other reading strategy.) To help your student understand what he/she has just read (Phrase, sentence, paragraph, page, story or book.) Text: Any level How to: 1. As your student reads, watch for inappropriate inflection, puzzled expressions, or other hints that your student does not understand. Stop and help your student find the meaning. Reading Strategy #8 During and Post-Reading Questioning 2. As your student reads, stop from time to time and ask, “What does that mean?” The more difficult the reading, the more often you should stop. If your student does not know the answer, help him/her find the answer. 3. Keep checking to see if your student comprehends what he/she is reading, so that you are sure that the student is not only pronouncing the words but also understanding the message. 4. When you are done reading, discuss the overall content and share reactions with your student. Reading Strategy #9 (During and Post-Reading) CLOZE Uses: To help your student get meaning from text Text: Not too hard, not too easy Remember: Choose material that you know your student will find interesting. How to: 1. Choose a passage that is at the student‟s reading level. 2. If you want to use a paragraph, you must leave the first line and the last line as it is. 3. If you want to use a story, you must leave the first paragraph and the last paragraph intact. 4. Leave every 10th word (or fewer) blank. Reading Strategy #9 (During and Post-Reading) CLOZE (cont.) How the student should do a CLOZE: 1. Read the CLOZE silently. 2. Re-read the CLOZE passage, writing in the words that seem to fit the blanks 3. You ask your student WHY he made the choices he did. 4. Your student should compare his text with the original passage. 5. Discuss with your student whether the meaning was changed by certain responses. Reading Strategy #9 (During and Post-Reading) CLOZE (cont.) Theory: CLOZE is a reading strategy, which was developed in 1953 by Wilson Taylor, is based on the psychological theory of CLOSURE. This theory states that a person wants to complete any pattern that is not complete. CLOZE is a powerful reading strategy because it forces the reader to derive meaning from what is on the page. Reading Strategy #9 (During and Post-Reading) CLOZE (cont.) Sample CLOZE Story: SONG OF THE WOLF Picture yourself, sitting by a campfire. The moon is just rising over the trees. Suddenly the silence is broken by the long howl of a wolf. An electrifying tingle runs up your spine. He howls again. Another answers from farther away. You are listening to the song of the wolf. We have had many such experiences. ___________ early morning we were camped on ____rocky point in Algonquin Park. The fog was ________rising from the water. Out of ______mist came the howls of three__________. Near shore, in the silence, we _____________, imitating the wolves, and remained motionless __________ hear a reply. Suddenly three ____________ appeared on a rocky cliff above__________. They watched us for a moment ________then bounded back and disappeared into ___________mist. They had come to our camp, probably thinking we were other wolves. What a surprise! (Post-Reading) Reading Strategy #10 Story Outline Uses: To improve organizational skills for comprehension Text: Fiction, at any level of difficulty How to: During or after a story, help your student identify the setting. characters, problem or goal, events and the conclusion. Example: Setting: Place: on a hill Time: any time Characters: Jack, Jill Goal: Jack and Jill want to bring a pail of water from the top of the hill. Events: Jack fell down and broke his crown. Jill came tumbling after Jack. Conclusion: No water got fetched that day, and Jack and Jill had really bad headaches. Reading Strategy #11 (Post-Reading) Same and Different Uses: To improve analytical skills for comprehension Text: Fiction, at any level of difficulty How to: 1. Select two things (people, items, stories, books or topics) to be compared. (You can decide on these before, during of after the reading.) 2. Make two circles that overlap, or three columns. Put one label in each circle and in the centre put “both.” 3. Think of ways that the two things are alike and different. List the difference on the outside and the similarities in the middle. (Post-Reading)Reading Strategy #11 Same and Different (cont.) Example: CATS DOGS BOTH purr bark four legs meow loyal fur aloof noisy tails quiet leash pets litter box (Post-Reading) Reading Strategy #12 Mapping Uses: To improve comprehension by analysing a topic Text: Non-fiction, any reading level How to: 1. Write the key idea in a circle in the centre of the paper. 2. Help your student identify the first sub-topic and write it on the map with related words as shown in the sample. (Writing on a map can be horizontal or at different angles.) 3. Keep building the map together. Help your student see how the author organizes information. Option: This can also be done as a pre-reading activity by making predictions on a map before reading and revising the map later in a different colour. (Post-Reading) Reading Strategy #12 Mapping (cont.) Sample Map: Costs Research food internet vet friends grooming stuff Choosing a Pet vet leashes library SHOPPING What to do Where to Baby or full grown? ask questions look visit animals SPCA compare pet shop breeder
"Reading Strategies Reading RECLAIM Literacy"