Upper Limb Assessment – Table B DRAFT 6 1 ManTRA OCRA OWAS QEC by housework

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									Upper Limb Assessment – Table B                                                                DRAFT 6                                                                                         1

                         ManTRA                             OCRA                                OWAS                                  QEC                               REBA

                       Manual Tasks Risk                                            Ovako Working Posture Analysis
                                                 Concise Exposure Index                                                  Quick Exposure Checklist           Rapid Entire Body Assessment
                      Assessment Tool V2.0                                          System

                  Manual task assessment tool.   Upper limb assessment tool.        Entire body assessment tool.         Upper limb assessment checklist    Entire body assessment checklist
   Overview       Intervention information       Intervention information included.                                      tool. Useful for comparison before tool. Intervention information
                  included.                                                                                              and after an intervention.         included.

     Type         Risk Assessment                Risk Assessment                    Risk Assessment                      Checklist                          Risk Assessment

                   • To assess exposure to      • The purpose of this index is to    • A practical method for         • User-friendly tool designed to   • REBA was specifically designed
                     musculoskeletal risk         classify diverse occupational        identifying and evaluating poor  assess worker exposure to risks    to assess various unpredictable
                     factors associated with      scenarios according to their         working posture.                 for work-related                   working postures found in
                     manual tasks in workplace.   exposure to WMSDs.                                                    musculoskeletal disorders of the   health care and other service
                   • To prioritize tasks that                                                                           upper limbs.                       industries. The Rapid Entire
                     must be changed due to a                                                                         • Useful for comparison before       Body Assessment (REBA) is
                     high risk.                                                                                         and after an intervention.         similar to RULA, but it has been
                   • Incorporates assessment of                                                                                                            modified to be more useful for
                     manual task risk levels,                                                                                                              working postures found in the
                     related safety activity,                                                                                                              health care and other service
                     organizational                                                                                                                        industries.
                     environment.                                                                                                                        • A postural analysis system that
                                                                                                                                                           is sensitive to musculoskeletal
 Stated Purpose
                     Straker et al. Ergonomics
                     2004.                                                                                                                                 risks in a variety of tasks.
                   • To assist inspectors in    • The purpose of this index is to    • To determine the loads caused                                     • “Front line” assessment as part
                     auditing workplaces across   quantify worker exposure to          by the most common postures of                                      of a broader ergonomic
                     all industries for           tasks involving repetitive           the back, arms and legs in                                          assessment.
                     compliance with the          movements of the upper limbs.        different jobs.
                     Queensland Manual Tasks      Grieco, Ergonomics, 1998.          • Useful for directing
                     Advisory Standard.                                                improvements in the working
                     ManTRA, V2.0 Cornell                                              methods.
                     University Ergonomics                                             Karwowski, W., and Marras,
                     Web.                                                              W. 1999. OWAS Methods in
                                                                                       The Occupational Ergonomics
                                                                                       Handbook. pp 447-459.
Upper Limb Assessment – Table B                                                                                        DRAFT 6                                                                                       2

                                                 ManTRA                              OCRA                               OWAS                                  QEC                               REBA

   Body Parts                              Arm/wrist/hand, lower limbs,                                                                                                             Wrists, forearms, elbows, shoulders,
                                                                        Elbows, wrists, hands               Back, arms, legs                     Back, shoulder/arm, wrist/hand
   Assessed                                back, neck/shoulder                                                                                                                      neck, trunk, back, legs and knees

                                            • Determine the maximum       • Force required is considered by • The load or use of force is         • The measurement of force         • Force measurement is divided
                                              force exerted within each     determining the perceived effort  characterized by the mass             considers the maximum weight       into different categories. The
                                              region during the task        of maintaining a posture using    involved.                             handled in the task. This ranges   different categories range from
                                              relative to the maximal       the Borg scale.                                                         from a light load of 5kg to a      loads less than 5kg to loads
                                              force which can be                                                                                    very heavy load of 20kg or         greater than 10kg. The risk

                                              exerted.                                                                                              more.                              associated with shock or a rapid
                                                                                                                                                  • The measurement of hand force      build up of force are also
                                                                                                                                                    exertion ranges from low values    considered.
                                                                                                                                                    of less than 1kg to high values
                                                                                                                                                    of more than 4kg.
   Measurement of Risk Factors

                                            • Posture is measured by      • The posture of each part of the • Back posture is identified by a     • Back posture is considered by    • The posture is evaluated by
                                              considering deviations        body is assessed by considering     number indicating whether the       determining if it is neutral,      measuring joint angle are wrist,
                                              from the mid range.           the angle of flexion/extension of   back is straight, bent or bent      moderately or excessively          lower arm, upper arm, leg, neck
                                            • Postures combinations         each segment.                       and twisted.                        flexed or twisted.                 and trunk posture.
                                              such as twisting and                                            • Arm posture is identified by a    • Shoulder/arm posture is
                                              bending are also                                                  number indicating whether one       considered by determining
                                              considered.                                                       or both arms are at or below        movement frequency. This
                                                                                                                shoulder level.                     assessment should be done
                                                                                                              • Leg posture is identified by a      when the shoulder/arm is most

                                                                                                                number indicating that the          heavily loaded, not necessarily
                                                                                                                worker is sitting, standing on      at the same time the back is
                                                                                                                one or two legs, squatting on       assessed.
                                                                                                                one or two bent legs, kneeling    • Wrist/hand posture is considered
                                                                                                                or walking.                         at the most awkward point of a
                                                                                                                                                    task. Movement is regarded as
                                                                                                                                                    almost straight if it is limited
                                                                                                                                                    within a small angular range
                                                                                                                                                    (eg. <15ºC). Otherwise, it is
                                                                                                                                                    deviated or bent.
                                                                                                                                                  • Neck posture is considered by
                                                                                                                                                    determining the angle of
                                                                                                                                                    bending and twisting.
                                            • Total time for which a      • The duration of the task is       • Observations are made at time     • The number of times a task is    • Repetition – e.g., repeating same
                                              person performs the task in   considered as well as the           intervals of 30 or 60 seconds       performed is considered.           motions every few seconds for 2
                                              a typical day (exposure).     number of recommended               during field work. Using video    • The duration of a task is          hours at a time, or using a

                                            • Total cycle time for each     actions and the total number of     tape, smaller intervals of 40       measured. It is rated depending    device (such as a keyboard
                                              region of the body is         actions for repetitive tasks. The   seconds are possible.               on repetition time.                and/or mouse) steadily for more
                                              measured.                     recovery time is also considered                                                                           than 4 hours daily.
                                            • The typical time which the    as well as the number of tasks
                                              task is performed without     per minute.
                                              break is measured
Upper Limb Assessment – Table B                                                                             DRAFT 6                                                                                         3

                                      ManTRA                              OCRA                              OWAS                                  QEC                                 REBA
                                                               • The length of time that a risky
                                                                 posture is maintained is
                                                                 Grieco, Ergonomics, 1998.

                                 • Vibration is measured.      • Vibration, recovery time,                                            • Other task components are         • Hand hold on a tool or handle is
                                                                 exposure to low temperatures,                                          characterized. They include,        rated.
                                                                 use of gloves, effect of high                                          vibration, visual demand of the • Activity level is rated including
                                                                 precision work, intensity of                                           work, the difficulty a worker has   the size of the action and
                                                                 exertion are considered.                                               keeping up with the work, and       whether it affects a small part of
                                                                 Grieco, Ergonomics, 1998.                                              the workers opinion of how          the body or causes a large
                                                                                                                                        stressful they find their job.      posture change.
                                                                                                                                      • The assessment is completed by

                                                                                                                                        an observer regarding posture
                                                                                                                                        and repetition of movements.
                                                                                                                                        The worker completes the
                                                                                                                                        assessment regarding the weight
                                                                                                                                        lifted, the time spend doing this
                                                                                                                                        task, the vibration experienced,
                                                                                                                                        the visual demand, the difficulty
                                                                                                                                        keeping up with a task and the
                                                                                                                                        stress of the work.
                                                                                                                                        Li et al. Proceedings of the
                                                                                                                                        Human Factors and
                                                                                                                                        Ergonomics Society, 1998.
                                 • Maximum force score         • Reference lifting score = 1. This • A value of 1 is given to tasks   • Force/load handled by the body • Assessment done by observer
                                   corresponds to the            is largely acceptable conditions    involving less than 10kg, a        and hands is rated.                 and by worker.
  Evaluation of Single

                                   maximum force possible.       for the majority of healthy adult   value of 2 is given to tasks                                         • Also rated is the force due to a
                                   Scoring scale ranges from     working population. As this         involving from 10 to 20 kg and                                         load, the coupling of a hand and
                                   minimal to maximal force.     values changes, exposure is         a value of 3 is given to tasks                                         object and the activity level.
     Risk Factors

                                                                 more dangerous, different           involving more than 20kg.
                                                                 interventions can be identified.

                                                                 Strong propensity towards
                                                                 preventative actions.

                                                               • Required force is evaluated by
                                                                 rating the perceived effort using
                                                                 the Borg scale and the percent
                                                                 effort required with respect to
                                                                 the MVC. These values are
                                                                 combined in a multiplying
                                                                 Grieco, Ergonomics, 1998.
Upper Limb Assessment – Table B                                                                    DRAFT 6                                                                                        4

                            ManTRA                              OCRA                                OWAS                                  QEC                                REBA
                     • Awkwardness rating is low • The amount of time that each          • Postures are classified based on • Shoulder/arm posture and            • The posture of the trunk, neck,
                       for postures close to       segment spends in a risky                a risk assessment of                movement are rated.                 legs, upper arm, lower arm and
                       neutral, and greater for    posture is determined. The               musculoskeletal disorders and • Wrist/hand posture and                  wrist are given a score.
                       tasks near the end of the   riskiest posture maintained for          physical load.                      movement are rated.
                       range of motion in more     the longest time is used to           • Each classified posture is         • The neck posture is rated
                       than one direction.         determine a postural                     recognized by a 4-digit code        according to the degree of
                     • Higher risk occurs when     involvement index score that             that indicates the back, arm and    bending and twisting.
                        the deviation of the upper corresponds to a multiplying             leg posture and the load or use
                        limb occur in              factor.                                  of force.
                        combinations. For          Grieco, Ergonomics, 1998.             • A fifth digit is used to indicate
                        example, wrist extension                                            the work phase or task that the
                        combined with ulnar                                                 worker is working on.
                        deviation.                                                       • Back posture and movement
                                                                                           score determined.
                     •   Cycle time (exposure),       • The frequency of task repetition • Multiply the reference
                         time that a person typically   is evaluated as well as the        frequency (30 actions/min) by
                         performs the task during an    duration of repetitive tasks and   number of repetitions actually
                         entire day.                    recovery time.                     done (after altering this value to
                     •   Cycle duration, typical        Grieco, Ergonomics, 1998.          take into account the force,
                         time that task is performed                                       posture, recovery time etc.)
                         without a break.

                     •   Task speed was assessed.
                         Slow to moderate
                         movements have the least
                         risk. Static application of
                         force to a particular region
                         has greater risk. Tasks with
                         fast movement, quick
                         accelerations and
                         decelerations have the
                         greatest risk.
                     •    Vibration rating ranges     • Vibration, recovery time,                                             • Vibration, visual demand, task
                          from a low value for no       exposure to low temperatures,                                           duration, vibration, difficulty
                          vibration to a higher value   use of gloves, and the effect of                                        keeping up, stress level.
                          for severe amplitudes.        high precision work was also                                          • Back movement is rated by
                                                        considered. Depending on the                                            determining how often person
                                                        amount of time spend working                                            bends or twists within one task

                                                        in such conditions, a                                                   cycle.
                                                        corresponding multiplier is                                           • Shoulder/arm movement
                                                        assigned.                                                               determined by how often the
                                                      • The preexisting disorders that                                          motion of a task is repeated.
                                                        workers were affected by                                              • Wrist/hand movement does not
                                                        (Carpal Tunnel Syndrome,                                                include movement of the
                                                        epicondylitis etc,) are also                                            fingers. One motion is counted
                                                        considered in a concise damage                                          each time the same or similar
                                                        index.                                                                  motion or pattern is repeated
                                                        Grieco, Ergonomics, 1998.                                               over a set period of time.
Upper Limb Assessment – Table B                                                                               DRAFT 6                                                                                    5

                                        ManTRA                              OCRA                              OWAS                                 QEC                               REBA
                                   • Assess cycle time and task • Combined the value determined • Postural data is combined with • The assessment performed by            • Upper, lower arm, wrist and
     Evaluation of Combined Risk
                                     duration independently         by the exposure index (OCRA)       the proportion of time that a      the observer and the worker are   wrist twist posture are combined
                                     then give a combined score     and the damage index to            worker spends in a particular      combined with the exposure        into one score and muscle use
                                     for the repetition risk        determine degree of association.   position. This is used to          scores to come up with an         and force are added to this.
                                     factor.                        Grieco, Ergonomics, 1998.          determine the class of the job.    exposure score for the back,      Neck, Trunk and Leg posture
                                   • The force and speed scores                                        Based on this class, action may    shoulder/arm, wrist/hand and      scores are combined into one
                                     are independently assessed • Each task is classified based on     or may not be required.            neck.                             posture based added to muscle
                                     and combined to generate       exposure to WMSDs related.       • A similar analysis is done for                                       use and force scores.
                                     an exertion risk factor.       This is translated into a rating   the amount of time that each                                       • Individual scores are combined

                                   • Cumulative risk score          by comparing the number daily      body part spends in a particular                                     to determine the overall REBA
                                     combines the scores of         number of actions performed by     position. The results of this                                        score.
                                     each individual part. Yields   the upper limbs during             determination are also used to
                                     values between 5 and 25.       repetitive tasks and the number    determine the class of the job.
                                   • Further action is required     of recommended actions.            This class may or may not
                                      no matter what the                                               require action depending on the
                                      combined risk score is the                                       value.
                                      exertion factor is greater                                       Karwowski, W., and Marras,
                                      than 5, the sum of exertion                                      W. 1999. OWAS Methods in
                                      and awkwardness is                                               The Occupational Ergonomics
                                      greater than 8 and the                                           Handbook. pp 447-459.
                                      cumulative risk score is 15
                                      or greater.
                                                                  • Simple linear regression model • Based on the study by Burdorf, • Assessment validity was
                                                                    provided a ‘satisfactory           the OWAS system predicts back      moderate due to a low level of
                                                                    predictive performance’ of the     pain based on the amount of        agreement on back posture
                                                                    risk of WMSDs based on index.      time spent working in a harmful    classifications.
                                                                                                       posture.                         • The relationship between
                                                                                                       Burdorf et al Ergonomics,          exposure and work-related
                                                                                                       1991.                              musculoskeletal disorders was
    Validity                                                                                                                              not made.
                                                                  • Preliminary validation of the                                       • Improvements to aid with
                                                                    degree of association of the                                          assessing frequent body
                                                                    index (OCRA) and the WMSDs                                            movements is required.
                                                                    detected.                                                             Li et al. Proceedings of the
                                                                    Grieco, Ergonomics, 1998.                                             Human Factors and
                                                                                                                                          Ergonomics Society, 1998.

                                   • Suggested thresholds help • The score is calculated and       • Posture combinations and the       • Risk factor values are combined • The final REBA score provides
                                     to make judgments about      classified as red, green or        proportion of time spent in that     to give overall exposure scores.   an action level with an
    Limit or                         the safety of the task.      amber. Green indicates and         posture are classified into 4        These scores are used to           indication of urgency of
                                   • Action is recommended if :   acceptable frequency of motion.    action categories indicating the     compare tasks before and after     intervention.
 Guideline Level                          o The exertion score    Amber indicates an area of         urgency and priority for             an intervention to determine the • Scores range from 1-15 and are
                                             was 5 or greater for uncertainty, close monitoring is   corrective measures.                 change in risk.                    grouped into 5 action
   Proposed?                                 any body region      required. Red indicates a high   • An action class of 1 indicates                                          categories. These categories
                                          o The sum of exertion   risk of injury, the task must be   that no action in required, 4                                           range from ‘no action
Upper Limb Assessment – Table B                                                                DRAFT 6                                                                                        6

                         ManTRA                             OCRA                                OWAS                                 QEC                                REBA
                             and awkwardness       • An exposure index (OCRA) of        indicates that corrective                                               necessary’ to ‘action necessary
                             was eight or greater    4 or more predicts a high          measures are needed                                                     now’.
                             for any region of       occurrence of disorders. An        immediately.
                             the body                exposure index of 0.8 to 4 is an • A second classification is based
                         o The cumulative risk       intermediate value that does not   on the amount of time each
                             score (total of time,   necessarily mean a disorder will   body part spends in each
                             exertion,               occur but does not completely      posture. The relative proportion
                             awkwardness,            rule out the possibility.          of time spent in a position
                             vibration and           Grieco, Ergonomics, 1998.          determines the action class
                             repetition) was 15                                         (same as above).
                             or greater.                                                Karwowski, W., and Marras,
                                                                                        W. 1999. OWAS Methods in
                                                                                        The Occupational Ergonomics
                                                                                        Handbook. pp 447-459.
                   • 48 workplaces with 30-100 • 462 workers exposed to               • Developed for Finnish steel      • Participatory approach            • Reliability tested using 600
                     employees in the food,          WMSDs and 749 workers not          industry.                          involving 150 practitioners.        examples of postures from
                     construction and health         exposed to any specific          • 680 jobs in the steel mill were • Manual laborers, laboratory          electricity, health care,
                     industries                      occupational risk were             studied to define the various      workers, office workers,            manufacturing industries and 14
                     Straker et al. Ergonomics       examined. Total of 8 different     postures. These jobs were          warehouse workers,                  experts to perform the
                     2004                            tasks in eight manufacturing       representative of all steel mill   supermarket workers.                assessment/.
  Study Base/                                        industries. Finishing ceramic
                                                     ornaments, auto body sanding,
                                                                                        jobs at the time.
                                                                                        Karwowski, W., and Marras,
                                                                                                                                                             • Inter-rater reliability of 62-85%.

Generalizability                                     door and window sanding,           W. 1999. OWAS Methods in
                                                     supermarket check out,             The Occupational Ergonomics
    Used in:                                         vegetable packing, meat            Handbook. pp 447-459.
                                                     processing, etc.
 Developed in:
                                                  • Reference group of workers       • 120 workers from a factory that
                                                    who were not exposed to the        makes prefabricated concrete
                                                    repetitive tasks.                  elements.
                                                    Grieco, Ergonomics, 1998.          Burdorf et al, Ergonomics,

                   • No equipment required        • Stopwatch                        • Video tape is useful to replay      • Stopwatch                        • Camera, weight scale,

                     beyond the assessment                                             the task and increases the                                               stopwatch useful but not
                     sheet.                                                            frequency of postural                                                    necessary
                                                                                       observations that can be made.
                                                                                       Computer aided applications
                                                                                       increase the ease of assessment.
                                                                                     • Inter-observer reliability has      • Inter-observer reliability: Most
                                                                                       been tested in many different         agreement between observers
                                                                                       job industries. The reported          for wrist/hand posture,
                                                                                       inter-observer reliability is high,   wrist/hand movement, back
                                                                                       averaging over 90%. Back              posture, shoulder/arm posture,
                                                                                       posture is most difficult to          shoulder/arm movement. Least
 Characteristics                                                                       distinguish.
                                                                                       Karwowski, W., and Marras,
                                                                                                                             agreement between back
                                                                                       W. 1999. OWAS Methods in • Increased reliability when
                                                                                       The Occupational Ergonomics           assessment done by practitioners
                                                                                       Handbook. pp 447-459.                 with work experience.
Upper Limb Assessment – Table B                                                               DRAFT 6                                                                                      7

                        ManTRA                              OCRA                              OWAS                                 QEC                                REBA
                                                                                    • Procedures are randomly          • Intra-observer reliability:
                                                                                      observed and recorded for a few    Assessment repeated by same
                                                                                      seconds. This results in a         practitioner after 3 weeks. High
                                                                                      summary description of the job.    reliability in assessing back
                                                                                      Li and Buckle, Ergonomics,         posture, back movement,
                                                                                      1999.                              shoulder/arm movement,
                                                                                                                         wrist/hand posture. Lower
                                                                                                                         reliability for wrist/hand
                                                                                                                         movement, neck posture,
                                                                                                                         shoulder/arm postures.
                                                                                                                         Reliability did not change when
                                                                                                                         assessments done by
                                                                                                                         practitioners with more
                   • Action is recommended if : • If the number of actions in a     • Two classes of action are                                             • The calculated REBA score
                         o The exertion score       day performed by the upper        determined based on postural                                            corresponds to an action level.
                            was 5 or greater for    limbs exceeds the calculated      data. The class of action                                               The recommended action may
                            any body region         recommended limit,                determined will indicate                                                include ‘action necessary now’.
                         o The sum of exertion      intervention is required.         whether an intervention is
                            and awkwardness                                           required or not. An action class

 Information for
                            was eight or greater                                      of 1 indicates that no
                            for any region of                                         intervention is required. An
  Intervention?             the body
                         o The cumulative risk
                                                                                      action class of 4 indicates
                                                                                      corrective action is needed
                            score (total of time,                                     immediately.
                            exertion,                                                 Karwowski, W., and Marras,
                            awkwardness,                                              W. 1999. OWAS Methods in
                            vibration and                                             The Occupational Ergonomics
                            repetition) was 15                                        Handbook. pp 447-459.
                            or greater.
                                                  • Does not propose threshold         • This method does not consider • The hand force exertion value is   • Heavy focus on posture.
                                                    value as a standard.                 the proportion of time spent    somewhat difficult to              • No emphasis on the effect of
                                                  • Meant to identify jobs that          using force or handling a load. determine.                           frequency and cumulative
                                                    require different levels of action   Karwowski, W., and Marras, • No limit or guideline is                loading.
                                                                                         W. 1999. OWAS Methods in        proposed and there are no          • Forces evaluator to use
                                                                                         The Occupational Ergonomics     intervention instructions. This      professional judgment to choose
                                                                                         Handbook. pp 447-459.           method is generally used to          a representative ‘snapshot’ of
                                                                                                                         compare before and after.            the job

  Limitations                                                                       • It also does not consider
                                                                                      movement frequency or
                                                                                                                       • The ‘score system’ has not been • This method does not consider
                                                                                                                         validated through                 the duration of activity, the
                                                                                      duration, recovery time or         epidemiological studies.          recovery period or vibration.
                                                                                      vibration.                         Li and Buckle, Ergonomics,        David et al. Occupational
                                                                                      David, Occupational                1999.                             Medicine, 2005.
                                                                                      Medicine, 2005.
                                                                                    • Posture categories are too broad
                                                                                      to accurately describe all
                                                                                      Li and Buckle, Ergonomics,
Upper Limb Assessment – Table B                                                              DRAFT 6                                                                                     8

                       ManTRA                             OCRA                               OWAS                                 QEC                                REBA
                 Burgess-Limerich, L.,         Occipinti, E. 1998. OCRA: a        Karhu, O., Kansi, P., Kuorinka, I. Guangyan, L., Buckle, P., 1999.       Hignett S, and McAtamney L.
                 Straker, L., Pollock, C.,     concise index for the assessment   1977. Correcting working           Evaluating change in exposure to      2000. Rapid Entire Body
                 Egeskov, R. 2004. Manual      of exposure to repetitive          postures in industry: A practical risk for musculoskeletal disorders     Assessment (REBA). Applied
                 Risk Assessment Tool          movements of the upper limbs.      method for analysis. Applied       ~ a practical tool. Prepared by the   Ergonomics. 31(1): 201-205.
                 (ManTRA) V2.0. School of Ergonomics. 41(9): pp 1290-1311         Ergonomics. 8(4): pp 199 to 201. Robens Centre for Health
                 Human Movement Studies,                                                                             Ergonomics, University of Surrey,
                 The University of Queensland,                                                                       for the Health and Safety
                 Australia. Accessed May                                                                             Executive.
Core Reference   2006.
                 http://ergonomics.uq.edu.au/                                                                        QEC – Quick Exposure Check on
                 download/mantra2.pdf                                                                                risks for work-related
                                                                                                                     musculoskeletal disorders.
                                                                                                                     Maintained by G. Li in association
                                                                                                                     with Human Engineering Inc.,
                                                                                                                     Bristol, UK Accessed May 3, 2006.
Upper Limb Assessment – Table B                                                          DRAFT 6                                                                                   9

                      ManTRA                            OCRA                             OWAS                                QEC                               REBA
                Manual Task Risk            Grieco, A. 1998. Application of Burdorf, A., Govaert, G., Elders, Li, G. and Buckle, P., 1998, A        David, G. 2005. Ergonomic
                Assessment Tool (ManTRA)    the concise exposure index        L. 1991. Postural load and back practical method for the              methods for assessing exposure to
                V2.0. Cornell University    (OCRA) to tasks involving         pain of workers in the            assessment of work-related          risk factors for work-related
                Ergonomics Web. Accessed    repetitive movements of the upper manufacturing of prefabricated musculoskeletal risks - Quick          musculoskeletal disorders.
                May 3, 2006.                limbs in a variety of             concrete elements. Ergonomics. Exposure Check (QEC). In the           Occupational Medicine. 55: pp
                http://ergo.human.cornell.edmanufacturing industries:         34(7): 909 to 918.                Proceedings of the Human            190-199.
                u/cumantra2.htm             preliminary validations,                                            Factors and Ergonomics Society
                                            Ergonomics, 41(9): pp 1347-1356. David, G. 2005. Ergonomic          42nd Annual Meeting, October 5-
                Straker, L., Burgess-                                         methods for assessing exposure to 9, Chicago, Human Factors and
                Limerick, R., et al 2004. A                                   risk factors for work-related     Ergonomics Society: 1351-1355.
                randomized and controlled                                     musculoskeletal disorders.
                trial of a participative                                      Occupational Medicine. 55: pp 190 Li, G., Buckle, P. 1999. Current
                ergonomics intervention to                                    to 199.                           techniques for assessing physical
                reduce injuries associated                                                                      exposure to work-related
                with manual tasks: physical                                   Karhu, O. et al. 1981. Observing musculoskeletal risks, with
                risk and legislative                                          working postures in industry:     emphasis on posture-based
                compliance. Ergonomics.                                       Examples of OWAS application. methods. Ergonomics, 42(5): pp
                47(2). pp 166-188.                                            Applied Ergonomics. 12(1): pp 13 674 to 695.
                                                                              to 17.

                                                                              Hassanzadeh, M., et al. 2003.
                                                                              Evaluation of Musculoskeletal

                                                                              Disorders risk factors among the
                                                                              crew of the ports and shipping
   References                                                                 organization’s vessels. IEA
                                                                              Ergonomics in the Digital Age,
                                                                              Seoul Korea.

                                                                              Karwowski, W., and Marras, W.
                                                                              1999. OWAS Methods in The
                                                                              Occupational Ergonomics
                                                                              Handbook. pp 447 to 459.

                                                                              Kivi, P., Mattilal, M. 1991.
                                                                              Analysis and improvement of
                                                                              work postures in the building
                                                                              industry: application of the
                                                                              computerized OWAS method.
                                                                              Applied Ergonomics. 22(1): pp 43
                                                                              to 48.

                                                                              Li, G., Buckle, P. 1999. Current
                                                                              techniques for assessing physical
                                                                              exposure to work-related
                                                                              musculoskeletal risks, with
                                                                              emphasis on posture-based
                                                                              methods. Ergonomics, 42(5): pp
                                                                              674 to 695.
Upper Limb Assessment – Table B                                                     DRAFT 6                                                                       10

                      ManTRA                          OCRA                          OWAS                               QEC                            REBA

                         Worksheet                                                                                    Worksheet                       Worksheet
                                                       Worksheet          Worksheet and Computer Program

   Worksheet    ManTRA, V2.0 Cornell
                University Ergonomics Web.
                                           Occipinti, Ergonomics, 1998.   David, Occupational Medicine,
                                                                                                           QEC – Quick Exposure Check on Hignett et al. Applied
                                                                                                           risks for work-related          Ergonomics, 2000.
                                                                                                           musculoskeletal disorders. 2006


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