ADVANCED VCE Unit 15 Sports Science 21.1 About this Unit Playing sports well depends on the body being correctly prepared to achieve optimum performance and avoid injury and also on any equipment used being designed for its purpose and being used correctly. The design of sports equipment is therefore important both to carry out its intended function and to minimise the risk of injury to the user. This unit will enable you to find out about how science is involved in sport both in terms of the action of the body and the design of the equipment used. The specific areas of the body which carry out exercise and sporting activities are considered in the context of their structure and function. The supporting areas, breathing, blood supply and energy, are also studied, as well as the physics of relevant areas such as movement, forces, friction and dynamics. Those physical factors are considered in relationship to the design of items of sports equipment and the need for optimum performance of both equipment and user. Some properties of materials will also be studied, since the choice of materials is important when constructing sports equipment. You will learn about: the effects on the body of playing sport; the best ways of preparing the body for sporting success; what the common injuries are, which are linked to particular sports; how to carry out basic first aid for such injuries should they occur; occupations involving Sports Science. This unit will be of use to anyone who is interested in sport, design or health and fitness. This unit links with the Advanced Science VCE unit 13 (Choosing and Using Materials), unit 4 (Controlling the Transfer of Energy) and unit 2 (Monitoring the Activity of the Human Body). It also links with the Intermediate GNVQ module ‘The Science of Sports Equipment’. There are also links to NVQ units in Outdoor Education and Recreation The work that you do for this unit develops knowledge and skills covered in Intermediate Science GNVQ and/or GCSE Science. It will also help to prepare you for higher education courses in science or for science-related NVQs. This unit is assessed through your portfolio work. The grade on that assessment will be your grade for the unit. 21.2 What you need to Learn You will learn about the structure and function of those parts of the body involved in sporting/exercise activities. The muscular-skeletal system forms the basis of the movement function, whilst the cardiorespiratory system supports this. Diet is important in producing optimum performance for both health and fitness and the foods which we eat provide both energy and growth. Some substances have a negative effect on health and/or energy and/or growth. Methods of measuring these factors are important in their determination. Items of sports equipment have a variety of functions relating to exercise and may be specific to certain outcomes. Exercise and sport near to thebody’s limits may cause injury and it is important to recognise what these limits are, what injuries can occur and how they are treated. Sport and the body You will need to know: the function of bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints, related to their use in two or more sports; the different types of joints with examples of each, and the type of movement of particular joints; the major muscles involved in movement in various sporting activities; the forces involved in movement and support, using and applying the principles of movements and Newton’s Laws of motion to actions; the major parts of the heart, explaining their functions, and describing the working of the heart; the major blood vessels, explaining their role; the major parts of the respiratory system, describing the mechanism of breathing. You need to be able to: describe both aerobic and anaerobic respiration and relate to exercise, including the role of ATP in muscles and interconversion of energy sources; explain the role of macronutrients and micronutrients in promoting good health, and preparing the body for sporting activity; describe and explain in detail the effects of alcohol, tobacco and other harmful drugs (including steroids) on health and fitness. You need to design and implement a personal health and fitness programme, lasting at least four weeks, to prepare yourself (or another person) for participation in a sport of your choice. Measurements will be taken to assess starting condition and might include: weight, external body measurements, flexibility, stamina, breathing rate, strength, resting pulse rate, recovery time, vital capacity, blood pressure, actual performance (times, speeds, distances, coordination etc). You will need to be able to: assess your health, fitness and performance at the start and end of the programme; state which factors you are aiming to improve; evaluate the effectiveness of the programme at the end. Design of sports equipment There are several groups of materials that can be used to manufacture sports equipment including metals, polymers, ceramics and composite materials. The properties of these materials that you need to know about include: elasticity; yield strength; hardness; application of Young’s Modulus; thermal conductivity; response to changes of temperature; density; resistance to the environment; ease of manufacture; cost. You also need to know about: the factors which affect the choice of material from which to make an item of sports equipment; the factors affecting the design of the shape and structure of an item of sports equipment. In order to decide on the final shape and structure of items of sports equipment, manufacturers need to consider the forces that will act on it, the forces it could exert on the user or on other pieces of equipment and the way it needs to behave in order to do its job effectively. To do this it is necessary to understand and apply the following physics ideas and principles: the principle of moments; centre of mass; Newton’s three Laws of Motion (including inertia and conservation of momentum); equations of motion; friction (including coefficient of friction); aerodynamics; terminal velocity; pressure; kinetic energy; potential energy (both gravitational and elastic). You will need to design two different items of sports equipment. Suitable items of sports equipment that you could consider include: hurdles, football boots, cricket bat, golf ball, rugby ball, golf clubs, swimming goggles, badminton racquet, javelin - though any item of sports equipment could be considered. You will need to consider which materials are most suitable for use. In your designs you will need to show evidence that all the above properties and types of material have been considered and that some properties have been directly measured, by you, for some of the materials you have considered. You will also need to consider other design factors, most importantly, the shape and structure of the items you have chosen. First Aid You need to know: how to prevent injury; what the most common injuries caused by sporting activities are, including - fractures; - concussion; - bleeding; - joint injuries; - skin damage; - muscle injuries; - tendon and ligament injuries; - dehydration; - hypothermia and hyperthermia. and how each of these should be treated at the time of injury, by a First Aider. You will need to be able to explain the importance of: obeying the rules of the sport; wearing suitable clothing; using the correct equipment; warming up and cooling down; participating at the correct level to minimise the risk of injury. You need to know about the danger of heart attack in unfit and unprepared participants in strenuous exercise and of the cessation of periods in females who over-exercise over a long period of time. You also need to know the basic principles of First Aid and emergency procedures, including: D danger R response A airways B breathing C circulation; Resuscitation; the Recovery Position; R rest I ice C compression E elevation; Artificial respiration; Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR). and be able to explain when each of these should be applied by a First Aider. You need to produce a case study concerning injury to a sports person (real or imaginary), explaining: what the injury is; how the injury was caused; how the injury should be treated both immediately and in the long term (if relevant); how the injury could have been prevented. You should use the knowledge covered in the Sport and the Body section to explain how the injury was caused and what you expect the treatment to do. You must also be able to demonstrate that you can check airways, breathing and circulation and that you can put a casualty into the recovery position. Occupations involving the application of science to sport You will learn about a wide range of occupations that are either directly or indirectly involved with applying science to sport, including: those personnel who prepare sports persons to achieve their full potential (dieticians, coaches, personal trainers); those who produce sportswear and sporting equipment (designers, materials technologists, aerodynamics engineers, mechanical engineers); those who prevent and treat injury (physiotherapists, osteopaths, chiropractors). You will need to produce a report on the work of one occupation related to applying science to sport. This report will contain: what the job actually involves; how the job is linked to sport; the qualifications and training routes available to become qualified to do this job; possible career progression. 21.3 Assessment evidence for Unit 15 – Sports Science You need to produce a report containing descriptions of four investigations: a personal health and fitness programme, lasting at least four weeks, to prepare yourself (or another person) for participation in a sport of your choice; designs for two different types of sports equipment; a case study concerning injury to a sports person (real or imaginary); a report on an occupation involving the application of science to sport. Your report must contain evidence that you have understood the biological and physical principles that underpin the investigations. You will also need to: demonstrate that you can check airways, breathing and circulation; demonstrate that you can put a casualty into the recovery position; demonstrate awareness of how to perform artificial respiration and CPR. To achieve a grade E you must To achieve a grade C you must show To achieve a grade A you must also show you can: you can: show you can: E1 use planning skills to carry out all C1 explain your choice of dietary and A1 account for the major properties of four investigations; exercise plan and why it would be materials used in sports equipment in appropriate for the sport of your choice, terms of atomic or molecular structure; E2 produce a fitness plan based on and choose sufficient criteria to be able scientific ideas; to competently judge the effectiveness A2 demonstrate an in-depth knowledge of the plan; of the biological and physical principles E3 produce a workable design for involved in their diet and exercise sports equipment based on physical C2 explain your choice of material and programme, sports items design and principles; design for items of sports equipment; injury case study; E4 produce a description of a sports C3 perform relevant calculations with A3 critically evaluate the success of your injury and suggest appropriate correct units and symbols used; diet and exercise plan; treatment based on biological principles; C4 explain, in physiological terms, how A4 produce alternative designs (with at least one sports injury could be caused evidence) and comment on the reliability E5 produce a report on an and how the suggested treatment aids and validity of the sources used; occupation related to the science of repair; sport; A5 suggest improvements to C5 correctly apply some relevant investigations; E6 apply D.R.A.B.C. and R.I.C.E. physical principles to your and know how to perform artificial designs for sports equipment; A6 use scientific terminology fluently respiration and CPR; and show a high level of scientific C6 produce a logical and well-structured knowledge relevant to the assignments. E7 place a casualty in the Recovery report using scientific terminology Position; correctly. E8 produce a clear report using basic terminology.