Fitness

					        Fitness

     Implications for
Adapted Physical Education
       Definitions and Issues

 ACSM      Four Component Definition
  –   Cardiovascular endurance
  –   Body composition
  –   Muscular strength and endurance
  –   Flexibility
 Fifth Component    ?
 Beliefs, Attitudes, and Intentions that
  lead to fitness
       Ecological Approach

 Stresses lifestyle andinvolving parents,
  siblings, and other supports
 Fitness Goal for Adapted PE:
  – persuade persons with low fitness that
    regular exercise can ameliorate problems
    and increase quality of life
   Concerns for the Adapted
          Educator
 poor  body alignment/inefficient
  movement patterns = fatigue and
  reduction in job efficiency
 mechanical inefficiencies negatively
  affect energy level
  –   reduced sensory input
  –   spasticity
  –   use of crutches or prostheses
  –   loss of functional mass
   Concerns for the Adapted
          Educator
 Architectural and   Attitudinal Barriers
 Low  self-worth
 Poor body image and self concept due
  to poor balance-coordination-timing
 Can find success in walking, jogging,
  cycling, swimming, and weight lifting
                     Fitness

 1950’s Kraus-Weber
 American children
  less fit than
  Europeans
 6 items
    – straight/bent-knee
      sit-ups
    – double-leg lift -
      supine/prone
    – trunk lift prone
    – toe touch from stand
             AAHPERD Tests

 Many revisions since 1950’s
 1988 Revision: Four Components
  – one mile walk/run (10-14min)
  – body comp (sum or tri +calf) 25mm-36mm
  – muscular strength/endurance
     bent knee sit-ups (60sec)
     pull-ups (1-5)

  – lower-back/hamstring flexibility
     sit   and reach 25cm
              Other Tests
                    on Physical Fitness
 President’s Council
 and Sports (Five Components)
  –   1mi walk/run
  –   curl ups
  –   V-sit reach
  –   shuttle run
  –   pull-ups
 Rewards for   85th percentile
  – Use of NORMS?
 YMCA
     Testing for Adapted PE

 AAHPERD tests    for individuals with
  mental retardation and other
  impairments
  – What do you think about norms?
 Yes, separate testsare no longer valid
 AAHPERD philosophy - Minimal
  standards for health-related fitness tests
  are applicable to everyone
         Rarick’s Findings
 Individuals with MR     performed 2 to 4
  years behind peers
 Suggested same items but different set
  of norms
 1990’s Holistic Approach - Wellness
 1990’s Issues:
  – self-esteem, self-motivation
  – beliefs, attitudes
 Best Practice -
  A lifespan, ecological approach
       Exercise Prescription

 F.I.T. principle
 F.I.T.-M.R. Guideline for   individuals
  with disabilities
 Frequency - Daily
 Time - at least 30 minutes
 Intensity and Modality- Four
  components
            I - Intensity

 Muscle strength/endurance -    number
  of pounds (weight / resistance) lifted,
  pushed, pulled or propelled
 Flexibility - distance a muscle is
  stretched beyond normal length
 Body composition - caloric expenditure
  in relation to caloric intake
 Cardiorespiratory fitness - distance
  and speed
            M - Modality
 Muscle strength/endurance -    isotonic,
  isometric, or isokenetic
 Flexibility - static stretch, independent
  (active) or assisted (passive), PNF
 Body composition - diet, aerobic
  exercise, and counseling
 Cardiorespiratory fitness - type of
  rhythmic, large muscle activity,
  continuous or discontinuous
  (intermittent)
     R - Rate of Progression

 Three stages  of progression
1) initial conditioning (4 to 6 weeks)
2) improvement conditioning (5 to 6
     months)
3) maintenance
        Cardiovascular/
       Aerobic Endurance
 Considerations:
 Modality (highimpact or low?)
 VO2max or MET’s?
 Metabolic Equivalents are easier to
  understand and comprehend
 1 MET equals 3.5 ml*kg*min, the
  amount of energy expended at rest
 MET’s can be used for assessment and
  prescription
MET’s, RHR’s, MHR’s, THR’s

 Good   fitness = performing at an 11 MET
  level or appx 40 ml*kg*min VO2max
 RHR - resting heart rates
  –   newborn          110-200
  –   1 to 24 months   100-200
  –   2 to 12 years    80-150
  –   13 years/older   60-100
 RHR can be used for assessment or
 evaluation
MET’s, RHR’s, MHR’s, THR’s
 MHR’s -   maximum heart rate
 Calculated by 220-age in years
 Use MHR to determine target heart rate
  or THR
 THR 60-90% of max
 For persons with low fitness, 55-70%
  THR is recommended
 Approximately a THR of 110 (55% of
  200) is appropriate for initial
  conditioning stage
Factors that can cause higher HR
 Heat
 Humidity
 Stress
 Medications
 Overweight
 Heart Conditions
 Infections with fever
Factors that can cause lower HR

 Paralysis
 amputations
 Heart conditions
 ANS damage
 Medications
        Aerobic Exercise Plan
       THR’s and use of RPE’s
 Key Points:
 Low-impact
 Continuous
For Addressing HR factors
Use of RPE scale can be very beneficial
6-20 corresponds to HR (11-16 training range)
 Increase intensity gradually so that
  discomfort is minimal
         Body Composition

 Genetics?
 Exercise and nutrition
  play critical roles
 Better indication of
  wellness than overall
  weight
 Key factor for
  individuals with
  disabilities
          Body Composition

 Determined by:
  –   skin fold calipers
  –   hydrostatic weighing
  –   bioimpedence
  –   MRI
 Average percentages
  – 18-30% for women
  – 10-25% for men
         Body Composition

     Mass Index (BMI) - alternative
 Body
 measure
  – ratio of body weight to the square of body
    height
     BMI   = Body weight
                Height(2)
 Reduction of    Fat loss - 2 factors
  – aerobic conditioning (FITMR)
  – nutrition (P,F,C)
Muscular Strength/Endurance

 Assessment
  – principle of specificity
             be made about most
 Choices must
 important muscle groups to test
  – abdominal (bent-knee sit-ups)
  – upper arm/shoulder (pull-ups/push-ups)
  – hip/thigh (jump or sprint)
            Muscular
       Strength/Endurance
 Exercises
 At least 2 days a week
 Games and activities can facilitate
 Principle of overload
 Strength/endurance can be developed by
  – isotonic (eccentric / concentric)
  – isometric (no movement, but contraction)
  – isokinetic (constant resistance machines)
 Most common     - use of weights
           Muscular
      Strength/Endurance
 Use of  machines, various objects, and
  activities---- CREATIVITY!
 Contraindications
 Valsalva Effect
  – increase in pressure (intraabdominal and
    intrathoracic)
  – slower HR, decrease blood to heart,
    increase blood pressure
  – Breath holding can lead to ruptured
    tissues, (abdominal region) hernias, eyes
              Flexibility

 ROM is   measured with a goniometer
 CP, MD, arthritis, paralysis- ROM
  needed almost everyday
 Proprioceptive Neuromuscular
  Facilitation (PNF)
 Sit-and-reach test used for assessment
               Flexibility

 Considerations
 Purpose
  – maintain elasticity
  – warm-up and cool-down
  – correct pathological tightness
              Ballistic
 Static versus
 Seconds to hold stretch?
 Key areas:
  – lower back, hamstrings, and ?
        Specific Considerations

 Severe Developmental Disabilities
 Instructional Strategies/Considerations
 Typically, rely on caregivers
 Full physical assistance
 Goals:
  – ROM to prevent contractures and stimulate CNS
    integration
  – functional ability to perform movement patterns
  – exercise capacity tolerance
     Specific Considerations
 Spinal Paralysis
 Instructional Strategies/Considerations
 Postural fitness: imbalances is strength
  and flexibility cause postural
  deviations, mechanical inefficiencies,
  coordination, control, and balance
  problems
 Weight control and aerobic endurance
 Strength*
            Spinal Paralysis

 * Associated   with ROM:
  – 5 normal, full ROM full resistance
  – 4 good, full ROM moderate resistance
  – 3 fair, full ROM only
  – 2 poor, full ROM with positional mod.
  – 1 trace, contraction can be seen, no
    movement gravity eliminated
  – 0, zero, complete paralysis
 Used in   sport classification for SCI
     Specific Considerations

 Other Health Impairments
 Instructional Strategies/Considerations
 Low  MET classification by ACSM
 *Usually are not aware of low level of
  fitness until brought to attention
 Weight control and aerobic endurance
    Specific Considerations

 Limited Mental   Function
 Instructional Strategies/Considerations
  – weight control and cardiorespiratory
    endurance
  – partner or role model to set pace
  – play and game behaviors related to fitness
    for ecological validity

				
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