To sleep_ perchance to dream by lifemate


									To sleep, perchance to dream:

  The Relationship Between Dreams
            and Creativity

                  Kristi Helmkamp
                       Angie Miller
    Current dream research
 Cognitive model: dreams as
  recombination of memories (Stickgold
  et al., 2001)
 Links to other realms of research:
  relationship between dream recall
  frequency and Openness (Blagrove &
  Akehurst, 2000)
    Influences of dreams
 Qualitative study of American artists
  found dreams can be influential in the
  creative process, both directly and
  indirectly (Gaines & Price-Williams
 Suggested that dreams model the free
  association that is part of creative
  process (DeAngelis, 2003)
   Divergent thinking model: outside bounds of
    normal functional thinking (Baer, 1993)
   Relationships found between creativity and
    –   Openness (Taggar & Simon, 2002)
    –   Dream recall frequency (Wolcott & Strapp, 2002)
    –   Dream detail (Wolcott & Strapp, 2002)
    –   Positive attitudes about dreams (Domino, 1982)
     Underlying Theoretical
   Creativity is something in which individuals
    actively engage
   Creativity is defined as divergent thought
    – There are multiple expressions of creativity, such
      as visual and verbal
   Some of these expressions are considered
   Other expressions of creativity may be
    considered nonconscious, for example,
Individuals high in creativity,
  understood as divergent
  thinking in the visual and
  verbal domains, will have
  dreams high in creativity.
   16 participants completed all measures
    – 14 Intro. Psych classes (given extra credit)
    – 2 Volunteers
    – 4 male, 12 female
    – Ranging in age from 18 to 22
 Dream journal
 Unusual uses test
 Collage-making task (Baer, 1993)
        Dream Journal
 Methodologically better for examination
  of content (Blagrove & Akehurst, 2000)
 10 days, at least 3 dreams
 Randomly selecting one dream from
  each participant
           Coding Manual
   # of “bizarre”          # of settings
    elements                # of people
   # of references to      # of vivid details
    speaking                # of colors
                            # of animals
                            # of inanimate
Sample Dream Coding Worksheet
 Subject   Settings   People   Color   Objects   Animal   Vivid    Bizarre
 #                                                        Detail   Element

 2541 5               12       1       10        2        45       3

 3321 1               3        0       1         0        16       0

 1234 4               6        0       5         1        33       1
    Coding Manual Reliability
   Used dreams not included in the final analysis to
    establish reliability of coding manual
   Used objective coder from Research Methods class to
    test coding manual
   Slight modifications were made, such as clarifications
    about ambiguous plurals
   Then tested a second round of practice dreams with
    revised coding manual
   Each element had reliability of alpha at .95 or above
     Unusual Uses Test
 4 minutes
 Participants asked to generate as many
  responses as possible to question:
“What can you do with an object?”
 Table knife, alarm clock, newspaper,
  and cup
 Measures divergent thinking
Coding of Unusual Uses Test
 Counted number of responses for all
  four objects
 Table knife was the object randomly
  selected for coding
 Established categories of use for
    Sample Unusual Uses Coding
   Ideational Fluency Score        Ideational Flexibility Score
    ___6__ (# of responses           __2__ (# of categories
    generated)                       generated)

   Ideational Flexibility
    Categories (add/fill in as
   Category #1 Eating              Category #2 Handling
     – Spread butter
                                      – Pass it
     – Cut bread
                                      – Borrow it
     – Spread jelly
                                      – Wash it
Reliability of Unusual Uses Test
3 independent raters to establish flexibility
 Correlations:
rater 1 & 2: r=.79, p<.01
rater 2 & 3: r=.73, p<.01
rater 1 & 3: r=.76, p<.01
Fluency and flexibility:
r=.79, p<.01
      Collage-making Task
   Adapted from Baer (1993)
   Participants given colored construction paper,
    scissors, glue sticks
   30 minutes to make an “interesting design”
      Rating of Collages
 Basic Design class (art course focused
  on using various materials to construct
  an effective design of piece) agreed to
  rate collages- 15 student raters
 Given instructions to rate on “creativity”
 Reliability measures:
Raters: alpha= .88
Collages: alpha= .83
 Original hypothesis was weakly
 Some findings approaching significance:
    – Ideational fluency & Vivid detail
                    r=.47, p=.07
          Further Findings
   Significant correlations:
     – # of Settings & Ideational Fluency Score
         r=.52, p<.05
    – # of Settings & Ideational Flexibility Score
         r=.58, p<.05
    – # of People & Ideational Fluency Score
         r=.50, p<.05
 Findings between creativity

 Ideas linking different domains of
 creativity were also weakly
  – Collage & Ideational flexibility
               r=.44, p=.09
   The trend of our results suggests a
    positive relationship between divergent
    thinking in the verbal domain and the
    content of dreams as represented
    through vivid detail
         Discussion cont.
   Although we chose vivid detail as a
    main representation of creative dreams,
    the relationships between the elemental
    aspects of setting and people with
    ideational fluency and flexibility suggest
    that dreams containing a wide variety
    of elements reflect creativity in the
    sense of divergent thinking.
          Discussion cont.
   Collage and ideational flexibility approaching
    significance, which shows link between visual
    and verbal divergent thinking
    – Liberal arts campus
   This is a movement towards supporting our
    theoretical assumptions of creativity as
    having multiple expressions in which
    individuals actively engage.
 Small N: only 16 participants
 Only including one dream may not be
 Need to explore appropriate measures
  for dream output: visual vs. written
        Future Research
 Use established coding manual to
  investigate inherent differences, such as
  age and gender, in a larger, more
  diverse sample
 Develop method to align collection of
  data from the visual to the verbally
    – A more comprehensive measure of
      creativity in dreams
Baer, J. (1993). Creativity and divergent thinking: A task-specific approach.
    Hillsdale, New Jersey: L. Earlbaum Associates.
Blagrove, M. & Akehurst, L. (2000). Personality and dream recall frequency: Further
    negative findings. Dreaming, 10(3), 139-148.
DeAngelis, T. (2003). The dream canvas. Monitor on Psychology, 34(10), 44-46.
Domino, G. (1982). Attitudes towards dreams, sex differences, and creativity.
    Journal of Creative Behavior, 16(2), 112-122.
Gaines, R., & Price-Williams, D. (1990). Dreams and imaginative processes in
    American and Balinese artists. Psychiatry Journal of the University of Ottawa,
    15(2), 107-110.
Stickgold, R., Hobson, J.A., Fosse, R., & Fosse, M. (2001). Sleep, learning, and
    dreams: Off-line memory processing. Science, 294(5544).
Taggar, S. (2002). Individual creativity and group ability to utilize individual
    creative resources: A multi-level model. Academy of Management Journal,
Wolcott, S., & Strapp, C. (2002). Dream recall frequency and dream detail as
    mediated by personality, behavior, and attitude. Dreaming, 12(1), 27-44).

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