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To sleep_ perchance to dream

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					To sleep, perchance to dream:

  The Relationship Between Dreams
            and Creativity

                  Kristi Helmkamp
                       Angie Miller
    Current dream research
 Cognitive model: dreams as
  recombination of memories (Stickgold
  et al., 2001)
 Links to other realms of research:
  relationship between dream recall
  frequency and Openness (Blagrove &
  Akehurst, 2000)
    Influences of dreams
 Qualitative study of American artists
  found dreams can be influential in the
  creative process, both directly and
  indirectly (Gaines & Price-Williams
  (1990)
 Suggested that dreams model the free
  association that is part of creative
  process (DeAngelis, 2003)
                  Creativity
   Divergent thinking model: outside bounds of
    normal functional thinking (Baer, 1993)
   Relationships found between creativity and
    –   Openness (Taggar & Simon, 2002)
    –   Dream recall frequency (Wolcott & Strapp, 2002)
    –   Dream detail (Wolcott & Strapp, 2002)
    –   Positive attitudes about dreams (Domino, 1982)
     Underlying Theoretical
         Assumptions
   Creativity is something in which individuals
    actively engage
   Creativity is defined as divergent thought
    processes
    – There are multiple expressions of creativity, such
      as visual and verbal
   Some of these expressions are considered
    conscious
   Other expressions of creativity may be
    considered nonconscious, for example,
    dreams
        Hypothesis
Individuals high in creativity,
  understood as divergent
  thinking in the visual and
  verbal domains, will have
  dreams high in creativity.
             Participants
   16 participants completed all measures
    – 14 Intro. Psych classes (given extra credit)
    – 2 Volunteers
    – 4 male, 12 female
    – Ranging in age from 18 to 22
            Methods
 Dream journal
 Unusual uses test
 Collage-making task (Baer, 1993)
        Dream Journal
 Methodologically better for examination
  of content (Blagrove & Akehurst, 2000)
 10 days, at least 3 dreams
 Randomly selecting one dream from
  each participant
           Coding Manual
   # of “bizarre”          # of settings
    elements                # of people
   # of references to      # of vivid details
    speaking                # of colors
                             referenced
                            # of animals
                            # of inanimate
                             objects
Sample Dream Coding Worksheet
 Subject   Settings   People   Color   Objects   Animal   Vivid    Bizarre
 #                                                        Detail   Element



 2541 5               12       1       10        2        45       3

 3321 1               3        0       1         0        16       0

 1234 4               6        0       5         1        33       1
    Coding Manual Reliability
   Used dreams not included in the final analysis to
    establish reliability of coding manual
   Used objective coder from Research Methods class to
    test coding manual
   Slight modifications were made, such as clarifications
    about ambiguous plurals
   Then tested a second round of practice dreams with
    revised coding manual
   Each element had reliability of alpha at .95 or above
     Unusual Uses Test
 4 minutes
 Participants asked to generate as many
  responses as possible to question:
“What can you do with an object?”
 Table knife, alarm clock, newspaper,
  and cup
 Measures divergent thinking
Coding of Unusual Uses Test
IDEATIONAL FLUENCY
 Counted number of responses for all
  four objects
IDEATIONAL FLEXIBILITY
 Table knife was the object randomly
  selected for coding
 Established categories of use for
  responses
    Sample Unusual Uses Coding
            Worksheet
   Ideational Fluency Score        Ideational Flexibility Score
    ___6__ (# of responses           __2__ (# of categories
    generated)                       generated)

   Ideational Flexibility
    Categories (add/fill in as
    necessary)
   Category #1 Eating              Category #2 Handling
     – Spread butter
                                      – Pass it
     – Cut bread
                                      – Borrow it
     – Spread jelly
                                      – Wash it
Reliability of Unusual Uses Test
3 independent raters to establish flexibility
 Correlations:
rater 1 & 2: r=.79, p<.01
rater 2 & 3: r=.73, p<.01
rater 1 & 3: r=.76, p<.01
Fluency and flexibility:
r=.79, p<.01
      Collage-making Task
   Adapted from Baer (1993)
   Participants given colored construction paper,
    scissors, glue sticks
   30 minutes to make an “interesting design”
      Rating of Collages
 Basic Design class (art course focused
  on using various materials to construct
  an effective design of piece) agreed to
  rate collages- 15 student raters
 Given instructions to rate on “creativity”
 Reliability measures:
Raters: alpha= .88
Collages: alpha= .83
                 Results
 Original hypothesis was weakly
  supported
 Some findings approaching significance:
    – Ideational fluency & Vivid detail
                    r=.47, p=.07
          Further Findings
   Significant correlations:
     – # of Settings & Ideational Fluency Score
         r=.52, p<.05
    – # of Settings & Ideational Flexibility Score
         r=.58, p<.05
    – # of People & Ideational Fluency Score
         r=.50, p<.05
 Findings between creativity
          measures

 Ideas linking different domains of
 creativity were also weakly
 supported
  – Collage & Ideational flexibility
               r=.44, p=.09
             Discussion
   The trend of our results suggests a
    positive relationship between divergent
    thinking in the verbal domain and the
    content of dreams as represented
    through vivid detail
         Discussion cont.
   Although we chose vivid detail as a
    main representation of creative dreams,
    the relationships between the elemental
    aspects of setting and people with
    ideational fluency and flexibility suggest
    that dreams containing a wide variety
    of elements reflect creativity in the
    sense of divergent thinking.
          Discussion cont.
   Collage and ideational flexibility approaching
    significance, which shows link between visual
    and verbal divergent thinking
    – Liberal arts campus
   This is a movement towards supporting our
    theoretical assumptions of creativity as
    having multiple expressions in which
    individuals actively engage.
          Limitations
 Small N: only 16 participants
 Only including one dream may not be
  representative
 Need to explore appropriate measures
  for dream output: visual vs. written
  verbal
        Future Research
 Use established coding manual to
  investigate inherent differences, such as
  age and gender, in a larger, more
  diverse sample
 Develop method to align collection of
  data from the visual to the verbally
  written
    – A more comprehensive measure of
      creativity in dreams
Questions?
                         References
Baer, J. (1993). Creativity and divergent thinking: A task-specific approach.
    Hillsdale, New Jersey: L. Earlbaum Associates.
Blagrove, M. & Akehurst, L. (2000). Personality and dream recall frequency: Further
    negative findings. Dreaming, 10(3), 139-148.
DeAngelis, T. (2003). The dream canvas. Monitor on Psychology, 34(10), 44-46.
Domino, G. (1982). Attitudes towards dreams, sex differences, and creativity.
    Journal of Creative Behavior, 16(2), 112-122.
Gaines, R., & Price-Williams, D. (1990). Dreams and imaginative processes in
    American and Balinese artists. Psychiatry Journal of the University of Ottawa,
    15(2), 107-110.
Stickgold, R., Hobson, J.A., Fosse, R., & Fosse, M. (2001). Sleep, learning, and
    dreams: Off-line memory processing. Science, 294(5544).
Taggar, S. (2002). Individual creativity and group ability to utilize individual
    creative resources: A multi-level model. Academy of Management Journal,
    45(2).
Wolcott, S., & Strapp, C. (2002). Dream recall frequency and dream detail as
    mediated by personality, behavior, and attitude. Dreaming, 12(1), 27-44).

				
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