Potential Effects of Food Advertising on Children by baa17504

VIEWS: 177 PAGES: 52

									Food advertising and youth:
 Consumer information or
psychological manipulation?


       Jennifer L. Harris
        January 30, 2009
Outline of discussion
• Why the concern?
• Social cognitive approach
• Research findings
  – Real world primes
• Potential solutions
 Obese youth in the U.S.
• Rates more than quadrupled in the past 30
  years (CDC, 2007)

           20
           18
           16
           14
           12
   % Obese 10                                           Children
            8                                           Teens
            6
            4
            2
            0
                1971-74 1976-80 1988-94   2000   2005
   New food introductions

                               Overall




                For children
                and teens
Source: Austin, 2005
Food advertising to children
• Ubiquitous
    –15 TV ads per day
    –5,500 per year




Source: FTC, 2007
Not only TV commercials
Internet advertising



  http://www.millsberry.com/
 Food advertising to children
• Unhealthy foods predominate




                     Sources: FTC, 2007; Powell et al., 2007
Food advertising to children

• Rewards unhealthy behaviors
     –Snacking
     –Anywhere, any time
     –Fun, happiness, “cool”

Sources: Folta et al., 2006; Harrison & Marske, 2005; Reece, Rifon,
   & Rodriguez, 1999
What are the consequences?
“Food marketing works”
• Brand recall
• Brand preferences
• Requests to parents

Sources: IOM, 2006
Potential broader effects

Food                                        Unhealthy
Ads                                           Diet



• Correlational evidence
• Alternative explanations

Sources: IOM, 2006; Hastings et al., 2003
Research question


 Food               Unhealthy
 Ads
           How?       Diet
  Food advertising effects
  Most existing research is based on an
  information processing model

                      Explicit
   Food             Beliefs and    Unhealthy
   Ads               Attitudes      Choices




Source: IOM, 2006
 Information processing
Serial approach to persuasion (McGuire,
1976)

Attention     Comprehension     Encoding

  Memory         Memory
  retrieval      storage        Agreement


  Decision       Behavior
Potential solutions

        Nutrition            Media
        Education           Literacy

 Food                                  Unhealthy
 Ads                                    Choices

                   Reduced
                   exposure
                  -Television
                -Under 12 years
Social cognitive approach
Advertising effects occur “Under-the-
 radar”
  – Classical conditioning (positive affect)
  – Mere exposure (Zajonc et al.)
  – Brand representations (Keller, 2003)
    • Core motivations
    • Popular events, characters, celebrities
    • Purchase and consumption occasions
Brand representations
Attitudes: “object-evaluation associations
  in memory” (Fazio, 1986)

                 unhealthy   dieting
 tasty
                                       milk
             fun        Oreos
                                              Jessica
                                               Biel
         snack                  fattening
                    family
Social cognitive approach
Priming effects: Subtle cues in the
environment (primes)

      Automatically affect behavior,
      outside of conscious awareness

Food advertising =
         Real-world primes
 Priming obesity
                                     Taste
                                  Perceptions
                             s
                     lua tion
              E va
 Food                             Impulsive     Unhealthy
             Direct effects
  Ads                            Consumption      Diet
             Mo
               t iva
                    t io
                        ns
                                 Consumption/
                                   Nutrition
                                    Goals
Source: Bargh & Morsella, 2008
Priming obesity



Food                     Impulsive    Unhealthy
       Direct effects
 Ads                    Consumption     Diet
Priming consumption
External cues trigger consumption
behaviors
  • Sensory activation (e.g., Cornell, Rodin &
   Weingarten, 1989; Federoff, Polivy & Herman,
   1997; 2003)
  • Container size, food variety, portion size
   (Wansink, 2006)
  • Behavioral mimicry (Johnston, 2002; Tanner et
   al., in press)
  • Subliminal priming (Strahan, Spencer & Zanna,
   2002; Winkielman, Berridge & Wilbarger, 2005)
  3 experiments
• Experiments 1 & 2: Child population
   – 2nd to 4th graders
   – Understand advertising intent, but may
     not be able to activate defenses
• Experiment 3: Young adults

Harris, Bargh & Brownell, in press
Experiments 1 & 2
• 118 children
  – 7 to 11 years
  – Diverse ethnicity and SES
Experiments 1 & 2
  Food Ads          Control




                              Snack
Amount eaten
Overall, food ads increased consumption
by 45%

                               35
       Amount consumed (gr.)




                               30
                               25
                               20                                 Food Ads
                               15                                 Other Ads

                               10
                               5
                               0
                                    Experiment 1   Experiment 2
Amount eaten (cont’d)
Most individual characteristics did not
predict or moderate amount eaten
  • Age or Weight Status
  • Ethnicity or community
  • Appetite or time since last food
  • Habitual TV snacking
  • Habitual TV viewing
Amount eaten (cont’d)
Significant covariates
  – Goldfish liking (β = .20*)
Experiment 3: Hypotheses

• Food advertising also primes
  automatic consumption in adults
• Effects persist following exposure
• Advertising message matters
Experiment 3 design
• Television and “mood” study
   Snack Ads               Nutrition Ads




                       Control
                    11 non-food ads
Food ads
• http://pantheon.yale.edu/~jlh75/snackW
  rap30_CROP.wmv
• http://pantheon.yale.edu/~jlh75/kashiHe
  althy_CROP.wmv
Design (cont’d)
• Study on television and mood
  – Followed by “2nd” consumer testing study

• Food tasting

  – Very unhealthy

  – Moderately healthy

  – Healthy
Experiment 3: Design
• 98 college students
  – Restrained eaters (i.e., dieters) vs.
    Unrestrained eaters
  – Men vs. women

• Most participants did not suspect our real
  purpose
  - Guessed correctly: 4
  - Affected by advertising: 4
Advertising effects
Snack ads increased total consumption
  Total Consumption (z-score)




                                 0.6
                                 0.5
                                 0.4
                                 0.3
                                 0.2
                                 0.1
                                   0
                                -0.1
                                -0.2   Snack   Nutrition   Control
                                        Ads      Ads
Advertising effects (cont’d)
• And time spent eating
           14
           12
           10
 Minutes




           8
           6
           4
           2
           0
                Snack Ads   Nutrition Ads   Control
         Individual foods
        All food types displayed similar patterns

        50
                                  35
        40                        30
                                                                                       Snack Ads
                                  25
                                                                                       Nutrition Ads
Grams




        30
                          Grams




                                  20
                                                                                       Control
        20                        15
                                  10
        10                         5
                                   0
         0
                                       Multi-grain   Cookies   Trail mix   Snack mix
             Veggies
                                         chips


        After controlling for taste ratings
Mediators and moderators
• Consumption was not related to
  – Mood
  – Advertising recall
  – Screen use
  – Hunger (except nutrition condition)
• Gender and dieting moderated the effect
• Healthy diet was correlated with lower
  consumption overall
Priming consumption
Unhealthy food advertising increased snack
 food consumption
  – Children and adults
  – Automatic
  – During and immediately after exposure
  – Generalized to other foods that taste good
  – Situational factors most salient
Future directions
• What causes the priming effects?
  – Relative influence of message vs.
    type of food
  – Other features of the ads
• Why weren’t female non-dieters
  affected?
Priming obesity
                               Taste
                            Perceptions
                       s
               lua tion
        E va
Food                        Impulsive     Unhealthy
       Direct effects
 Ads                       Consumption      Diet
  TV viewing and diet




                                   .23**
       High School                         Unhealthy
       TV Viewing                            Diet


Source: Harris & Bargh, in press
TV viewing and diet
                   Taste of
                  Unhealthy
 .33**         Advertised Foods      .36**


                      .12
 High School                       Unhealthy
 TV Viewing                          Diet
                  (.23** direct)
    Taste expectancies
                                     Nutrition Info:
                                        Calories: 100         Dietary Fiber: 6 g
                                        Total Fat: 1.5 g      Sugar: 9 g
                                        Sodium: 140 mg        Protein: 3 g

Healthy Description                            Hedonic Description
These chocolaty muffins not only               From the very first mouthful, you will
taste good, but they’re good for you           love these chocolaty muffins. You are
too! Full of wholesome benefits,               sure to enjoy the burst of intense
each wonderful muffin is made with             chocolate flavor and wonderful
all-natural ingredients and no                 chewy texture. These muffins are full
artificial preservatives, flavors or           of delectable chocolate chips that
colors. And every bit is filled with dark      melt in your mouth in each bite. So
chocolate chips. Dark chocolate is a           sweet, delicious and satisfying. After
natural anti-oxidant, making them an           only a taste you will find that they are
even healthier choice. To top it all…          scrumptious! The chewy texture…
Hedonic muffin tasted better
  10
   9
   8
   7                              Healthy
   6            6.9               Muffin
   5                              Hedonic
          5.4
   4                  4.5         Muffin
                            4.1
   3
   2
   1
       Taste Rating   Healthy
                      Rating
 Priming obesity
                                     Taste
                                  Perceptions
                             s
                     lua tion
              E va
 Food                             Impulsive     Unhealthy
             Direct effects
  Ads                            Consumption      Diet
             Mo
               t iva
                    t io
                        ns
                                 Consumption/
                                   Nutrition
                                    Goals
Source: Bargh & Morsella, 2008
Evidence of goal priming?
Snack ads increased total consumption
  Total Consumption (z-score)




                                 0.6
                                 0.5
                                 0.4
                                 0.3
                                 0.2
                                 0.1
                                   0
                                -0.1
                                -0.2   Snack   Nutrition   Control
                                        Ads      Ads
Potential solutions
How to defend against advertising
 effects?
  – Unconscious effects very difficult to
    defend against
  – Automatic acceptance (Gilbert, 1993)
  – Mindless processing (Chanowitz &
   Langer, 1981)
Teaching advertising defenses
Nonconscious mental contamination
 (Wilson & Brekke, 1994)
  • Awareness
  • Understanding
Incorrect theories
How often does food advertising affect?
                                                     e   s
                                                 tim                s
                                      r        e                 ay
                                  e ve       om              Alw
                              N             S
         How hungry you feel                     3.07

 Desire to eat advertised food               2.93

  Interest in trying advertised
                                             2.86
               food

         Preference for brand              2.62

      How much you eat while
                                          2.44
            watching

      How much you eat later              2.40
Teaching advertising defenses
Nonconscious mental contamination
(Wilson & Brekke, 1994)
  • Awareness
  • Understanding
  • Motivation
  • Ability
Potential solutions

        Nutrition            Media
        Education           Literacy

 Food                                  Unhealthy
 Ads                                    Choices

                   Reduced
                   exposure
                  -Television
                -Under 12 years
What about?
• Adolescents and adults
• Other forms of advertising
  – Product placements
  – Sponsorships, co-branding, licensing
  – Internet
Thank you!
John Bargh           Kelly Brownell
ACME lab             Rudd Center
Marlene Schwartz     Becca Levy
Peter Salovey        Geoff Cohen
Nina Solah           Andy Baron
Lots of RAs!


          www.yaleruddcenter.org

								
To top