Carbon Sequestration Advisory Committee

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					Carbon Sequestration - A Report
    to the Idaho Legislature

        As directed by SB 1379
         New chapter 22-5106
    To be prepared by the Idaho Soil
       Conservation Commission
           Global Warming Issue
Greenhouse Gas (GHG) concentrations are increasing in our
    atmosphere, which, seems to be causing increased global
    temperatures, climatic variability, changes in precipitation
    patterns and magnitudes.

Three important GHGs are carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide
    (N2O), and methane (CH4).

Internationally, numerous industrial sources are contributing
     high quantities of GHGs.

Some amount is also coming from landuse activities.
            Global Warming Issue
Greenhouse Gas Impacts:
•   Sea levels raising by 15 centimeters by year 2050, 34 centimeters by 2100,
•   Loss of coastal dry land due to rising ocean levels
•   Loss of wetland, wildlife habitat,
•   Increased coastal erosion, flooding,
•   Increased salinity of rivers, bays and aquifers,
•   Impact sewage disposal capabilities along coastal areas,
•   Affect drinking water aquifers along coastal areas
•   Increased precipitation and evaporation, altering existing local climates,
•   Decline of freshwater quantities,
•   Wetter winter, drier summers, increase frequency of intense rainstorms,
•   Insufficient water for navigation; lower production of hydroelectric power;
    impaired recreational opportunities along rivers and lakes,
•   Poorer water quality; and decreased availability of water for agriculture,
    residential, and industrial uses.,
•   And so on…
   SCC Report to the Legislature
Agriculture (cropland, forest, etc.) is not a large
   source of these GHGs, but has a great
   potential to offset CO2, N2O, and CH4.

By February 1, 2003, the SCC is to prepare a report for
    the Legislature, which:
     SCC Report to the Legislature
1)   Describes the potential for carbon (GHG) market(s) in
     Idaho, where agricultural and forest lands are involved.
2)   Characterizes the agricultural & forest BMPs which
     sequester carbon (other GHGs);
3.   Describes existing methods for measuring & modeling
     carbon (GHG) sequestration (baseline quantification,
     cycling, etc.);
4.   Discusses any necessary legislation as related to private
     property rights and sequestration activities;
5.   Identifies scientific uncertainty in quantifying sequestration
     (GHG emissions, etc.);
6.   Discusses other committee recommendations.
     Carbon Sequestration Advisory
The committee created by SB 1379, to consist of 16 members:

 •   Chairman or designee of ISCC             •   Representative of Soil Conservation
 •   Director or designee of ISDA                 Districts
 •   Director or designee of DEQ              •   Representative of biofuels industry
 •   Director or designee of IDL              •   Representative of transportation
 •   Representative of U of I                     industry
 •   Representative of electrical producer    •   Representative of environmental
 •   2 Representatives of crop producers
                                              •   Representative of nonindustrial private
 •   2 Representatives of livestock               forest landowner
 •   Representative of carbon sequestration
  Carbon Sequestration Advisory
1) Advise and assist the SCC in preparing the
2) Recommend policies/programs to enhance
   agriculture and nonindustrial private forest
   landowners participation in carbon markets;
3) Recommend and encourage the production of
   educational and advisory material regarding
   carbon sequestration (& other GHG’s) on
   agricultural and forest lands;
  Carbon Sequestration Advisory
4) Recommend carbon (GHG) related research
5) Review carbon sequestration programs & policies
   of other states.
• First Advisory Committee meeting in Moscow on
   July 9 & 10, at the Federal Building
• Advisory Committee meeting to coincide with
   IASCD annual meeting in Idaho Falls, November
• Other meetings likely to occur in January/February
    Potential Carbon Sequestration Practices
Forest/Timber Practices
•     New Forest Plantings – Convert back to Timber
•     Improved Forest management
•     Plantations – Hybrid poplars, etc.

Cropland Practices
•     Residue Management – No-till, etc.
•     Land Conversion – Crop to pasture, Hay Land, etc.
•     Agroforesty – Buffers strips, hybrid poplars
    Potential Carbon Sequestration Practices
Riparian/Rangeland Practices
•     Resource Management – Crossing thresholds (bluegrass to
      willows, cheatgrass to sage/grass/forbs community, etc.

Other Farm, Ranch, Forest Related Greenhouse Gas
   Reductions (GHG):
•     Livestock methane reductions
•     Fuel use reduction through alternative cropping system –
      reduced-till, etc.
•     Newly constructed wetlands, existing wetland restoration
•     Biofuel production – Ethanol from corn, biodiesel,
•     Electric generation – Animal wastes, grasses, trees, etc.
         Carbon Sequestration in General
There must be a net GHG reduction (expressed in Carbon Equivalents).
     There is some concern that, for example, increasing nitrogen & water
     to increase carbon fixing (sequestration) may cause a net increase of
     GHG losses, such as N2O.

Whether or not global warming is actually occurring because of increased
    GHG emissions, there are benefits of applying practices that have
    multiple benefits to Idaho’s natural resources.

In summary:
How can farm, ranch, forest landowners/managers and the Idaho public
     benefit from a carbon (GHG) market that pays for the installation and
     maintenance of practices on private lands?
What are the risks involved with entering into long-term contracts with an
     industry seeking to offset GHG emissions?
    Greenhouse Gas Emission & Carbon
         Sequestration Activities
•   Villach and Bellagio Workshops - assessed the role of carbon dioxide…
•   The Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer - 47
    nations reached agreement on a set of CFC control measures in September
•   Toronto Conference - focused on the implications of climate change for world
•   The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - was formed in 1988 to
    conduct studies on global warming.
•   The International Geosphere/Biosphere Program - facilitate understanding the
    present state of the earth and the potential impacts of global climate change.
•   Nordwijk Conference on Atmospheric Pollution and Climate Change -
    encouraged the IPCC to include in its First Assessment Report an analysis of
    quantitative targets to limit or reduce CO2 emissions, and urged all
    industrialized countries to investigate the feasibility of achieving such
•   Hague Declaration - This conference and Declaration (signed by 23 nations)
    established support for new principles of international law.
    Greenhouse Gas Emission & Carbon
         Sequestration Activities
•   Cairo Compact - calls on affluent nations to provide developing countries with
    the technical and financial assistance to address global climate change.
•   United Nations World Climate Conference: The IPCC reported the findings of
    the IPCC Working Groups to the United Nations (Scientific Assessment,
    Impacts Assessment, and Response).
•   Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (INC) - the U.N. General Assembly
    established the INC to prepare an effective framework convention on climate
•   United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) - On
    June 12, 1992… signed the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change...
    commits the world's governments to voluntary reductions of greenhouse
•   Bilateral Sustainable Development Accord Between Costa Rica and the U.S. -
    the U.S. and Costa Rica signed a bilateral accord intended to facilitate
    developing joint implementation projects.
•   1995 First Conference of the Parties (COP) - delegates agreed on a mandate to
    establish appropriate action for the period beyond the year 2000…More COPs
    have followed.
         Greenhouse Gas Emission & Carbon
              Sequestration Activities
Types of State Programs:

Home Energy Rating System

Energy Efficiency Audits

Energy-efficient Mortgage

Model Energy Codes (MEC)

Tax Incentives for Fuel                                          Source: EPA
      Switching, Cogeneration
                                Recycling Programs
Renewable Portfolio Standards   State Alternative Fuel Fleets
                                Truck to Train Mode Shift
Emissions Trading
                                Revenue Neutral Tax Incentives
Methane Reclamation Programs    Afforestation
      Greenhouse Gas Emission & Carbon
           Sequestration Activities
•   Portland, Oregon proposes to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from the Portland
    metropolitan area to 20 percent below the 1988 level by the year 2010.
•   The Iowa State Energy Bureau's Building Energy Management Program promotes
    cost-effective energy management improvements in state buildings, schools,
    hospitals non-profit organizations, and local government facilities.
•   In Minnesota, more stringent energy standards have been adopted for the new
    construction of residential dwellings and government offices.
•   Oregon has increased the weatherization standards in the construction of low
    income homes.
•   New York has recently established a public-private partnership to encourage and
    support schools in making their facilities more energy efficient (Energy Smart
•   Colorado has established the Colorado Green Program, which assists builders and
    honors residents who construct homes that conserve natural resources and increase
    energy efficiency.
•   Mecklenberg County, North Carolina all school buses have been converted to CNG
•   Maryland, the Department of Transportation has replaced its fleet of diesel fuel
    shuttle buses at BWI with 20 new CNG vehicles.
      Greenhouse Gas Emission & Carbon
           Sequestration Activities
•   The Georgia Governor's Office of Energy Resources is increasing energy and
    agricultural efficiency by facilitating six programs targeted to crop, poultry, and
    livestock producers. These programs conserve energy and save money in addition to
    reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
•   The Missouri Department of Natural Resources has created a reforestation program
    designed to reduce heating and cooling needs with strategic landscaping, to arrest soil
    erosion, enhance natural water filtration, and remove carbon dioxide from the
    atmosphere. The program coordinator of this multifaceted project, called Operation
    TREE, must work to involve every division of the Department of Resources and
    encourage cooperation among other state agencies.
•   The Alabama Broiler Litter Program, co-sponsored by the Science, Technology and
    Energy Division of the Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs
    and the USDA's Tennessee Valley Resource Conservation and Development Council,
    addresses energy conservation, reduces the landfill waste stream, promotes recycling,
    and improves agricultural productivity. In this program newspaper is shredded and
    blown over the poultry house floor, where it becomes matted and slick from
    droppings and moisture content. When the litter and paper is gathered from the floor,
    it is spread on crops as fertilizer, or is mixed with feed and is fed to livestock. The
    paper also acts as an insulator for the poultry house, thereby reducing energy needs.
          Greenhouse Gas Emission & Carbon
               Sequestration Activities

Pacific Northwest Direct Seed Association Agreement (PNDSA) with ENTERGY

Tramway Carbon Sequestration and CRP Project

Carbon Research Activities at U of I, ARS, etc.

INEEL GHG Inventory & Climate Coupled Energy System

Existing and Proposed Ethanol Plants in Idaho

J. R. Simplot – Biofuels (Ethanol Production)