Docstoc

Module 1 Normative Ethics

Document Sample
Module 1 Normative Ethics Powered By Docstoc
					1.3 Normative Ethics --- The Nature of Morality --- Pluralism



                         The Nature of Morality
                                     “Pluralism”


Teaching objectives:
    The moral development of China and the West
    The impact of post-colonialism on moral development in
     the East and West
    The cornerstone of a pluralistic society: tolerance,
     understanding and dialogue




Suggested teaching period: 5 lessons




                                                  1
  1.3 Normative Ethics --- The Nature of Morality --- Pluralism



  Suggested Teaching Method
                                             Lesson One
Teaching objective:
1. Briefly understand the moral and social development of China and the West


Preparation Work:
Teacher shall first prepare
1. Knowledge Content of the Subject: Similarities and differences between the
   Chinese and Western cultures in the eyes of Liang Shuming
2. Knowledge Content of the Subject: The impact of post-colonialism on moral
   development


Teaching Process:
1. Teacher distributes the Worksheet: Similarities and differences between the
   Chinese and Western cultures in the eyes of Liang Shuming. Divide students
   into groups of 5-6 and give them 10 minutes to discuss the questions set out in
   the worksheet.


2. After discussion, choose 3 groups and each group shall send 1 student as
   representative to present the decision of his/her group in around 2 minutes.
   He/She shall also give reasons to support their answers. The discussion aims to
   help students highlight the contradictions, similarities and differences between
   culture and morality.

3. After summing up the opinions of the students, teacher distributes the
   Knowledge Content of the Subject: The moral and social development of China
   and the West and explains it in approximately 15 minutes.




                                                    2
  1.3 Normative Ethics --- The Nature of Morality --- Pluralism




                                             Lesson Two
Teaching objective:
1. Briefly understand the impact of post-colonialism on moral development in the
   East and West


Preparation Work:
Teacher shall first prepare
1. DVD: Episodes 2 and 4 of "On the Road〃The 6th series --- Gigi Leung〃The
   Worship of Love in Yunnan, the Nation of Women [雲南女兒國戀愛崇拜]
2. Reflection: Worksheet: Monogamy - The mainstream marital system
3. Knowledge Content of the Subject: The impact of post-colonialism on moral
   development


Teaching Process:
1. Play the DVD: Episodes 2 and 4 of " On the Road〃The 6th series --- Gigi
   Leung〃The Worship of Love in Yunnan, the Nation of Women [雲南女兒國戀愛
   崇拜]" for approximately 35 minutes. In the episodes, we heard about the
   praises of a Mosuo woman on the traditional walking marriage system and the
   criticism on the walking marriage system by a Guangzhou woman married to a
   Mosuo man.

2. Distribute the Worksheet: Monogamy - The mainstream marital system and
   ask the students to complete the worksheet at home and share their answers in
   the next lesson.




                                                    3
  1.3 Normative Ethics --- The Nature of Morality --- Pluralism




                                            Lesson Three
Teaching objectives:
1. Continue to analyse the impact of post-colonialism on moral development in the
   East and West
2. Understand the cornerstone of a pluralistic society: tolerance, understanding
   and dialogue
3. Understand the opinions on global ethics


Preparation Work:
Teacher shall first prepare
1. Worksheet: Monogamy - The mainstream marital system
2. Knowledge Content of the Subject: The impact of post-colonialism on moral
   development
3. Knowledge Content of the Subject: Pluralism and Global Ethics


Teaching Process:
1. Ask 3 students to give answers to the questions set out in the Worksheet:
   Monogamy - The mainstream marital system and ask at least 1 student to
   raise questions.


2. Teacher explains the Knowledge Content of the Subject: The impact of
   post-colonialism on moral development.

3. Teacher explains the Knowledge Content of the Subject: Pluralism and Global
   Ethics, and stresses that we should tolerate, understand and communicate
   when dealing with different cultural values.




                                                    4
  1.3 Normative Ethics --- The Nature of Morality --- Pluralism




                                            Lesson Four
Teaching objectives:
1. Help students understand the successful example of a harmonious pluralistic
   society --- Finland
2. Strengthen students' understanding of "pluralism" through real examples


Preparation Work:
Teacher shall first prepare
1. Worksheet: Example of pluralistic society --- Finland


Teaching Process:
1. Teacher distributes the worksheet. Divide students into groups of 4-5 and give
   them 10 minutes to discuss the content of the worksheet. This discussion
   intends to let the students recognise the relationship between religion and
   morality.


2. After the discussion, each group shall send 1 student as representative to
   present the decision of his/her group in around 2 minutes. He/She shall also
   give reasons to support their answers. After each presentation, teacher shall
   ask at least one other group to raise questions.


3. If the arguments of some groups contradict or differ from each other, teacher
   may give some instructions or ask students in other groups to respond.




                                                    5
  1.3 Normative Ethics --- The Nature of Morality --- Pluralism




                                             Lesson Five
Teaching objectives:
1. Help students understand the failure example of building up a harmonious
   pluralistic society --- Palestine and Israel
2. Strengthen students' understanding of "pluralism" through real example


Preparation Work:
Teacher shall first prepare
1. Worksheet: Example of a pluralistic society --- Israel and Palestine
2. DVD "Expedition --- A journey to Israel and Turkey, Episode 4"


Teaching Process:
1. Play the DVD: "Expedition --- A journey to Israel and Turkey". Episodes 2 and 3
   tell us about the living conditions of the Jews in Israel (the Jews in Jerusalem)
   and the Palestinians (the Palestinians in Bethlehem).


2. Distribute worksheet: Examples of pluralistic society --- Israel and Palestine.
   Divide students into groups of 4-5 and give them 10 minutes to discuss the
   content of the worksheet. This discussion intends to highlight the relationship
   between religion and morality.


3. After the discussion, each group shall send 1 student as representative to
   present the decision of his/her group in around 1 minutes. He/She shall also
   give reasons to support their answers. After each presentation, teacher shall
   ask at least one other group to raise question.


4. If the arguments of some groups contradict or differ from each other, teacher
   may give some instructions or ask students in other groups to respond.




                                                    6
     1.3 Normative Ethics --- The Nature of Morality --- Pluralism


      Worksheet: Similarities and differences between the Chinese
          and Western cultures in the eyes of Liang Shuming
      Where do Chinese people put their mind, thoughts and spirit to? They spend
them on interpersonal and ethical relationship. The so-called “kind father and filial
son”, “friendliness and respect between brothers”, “spouse harmony” are all issues
related to human and interpersonal relationship. No man is an island and children
need to be taken care of or they die of hunger. Chinese people emphasising their
culture on ethical relationship and how to get along with people. How should we get
along with other people? The key point is: respect each other. Parents‟ respect for
their sons is kindness while children‟s respect for parents is piety. All relationships
are developed based on “respect one another”, a good father respects his children.
A well-behaved child, likewise, respects his parents. People know their own duties,
this is Chinese traditional ethics. For example, when there‟s a guest at home. The
host shall respect the guest and the guest shall do the same. After all, the Chinese
ethics in interpersonal and ethical relationship lies on respecting one another,
which is way different from the Westerners. I always describe Westerners‟
characters in recent years with the following 2 adjectives: “Self-oriented and
egocentric”, and hence their demand for freedom and equality. This is exactly
against the Chinese theory which stress on respecting one other. As the traditional
Chinese saying goes, “Courtesy education is the foundation of ruling a country”, it
implies respecting one another and making inferior oneself, which is completely
opposite to being “self-oriented and egocentric”. The Chinese spirit of respecting
one another, in my point of view, is a principle that must be followed in a capitalist
society. I respect you and you respect me. The host is considerate of the guest and
the guest is considerate of the host. Courtesy is the key to get along with the
others, and also the spirit of Chinese traditional culture. For the sake of our future,
Westerners‟ “egocentric” attitude, in my opinion, should gives way to the spirit of
courtesy.
                                                                    Liang Shuming


1.     According to the passage, what is the major difference between the essence of
       the Chinese and Western cultures?
2.     Why does being “Self-oriented and Egocentric” lead to the demand for
       freedom and equality?
3.     Chinese people stress interpersonal and ethical relationship. What kind of
       value(s) do you think they would develop?
4.     Which one, self-orientalism or the stress on interpersonal and ethical
       relationship, would you identify with and why?


                                                       7
     1.3 Normative Ethics --- The Nature of Morality --- Pluralism


                   Knowledge Content of the Subject:
         The moral and social development of China and the West

Characteristics of morality in Western society:
1.     In Western society, religion is closely related to morality.
2.     As seen from history and traditions, the Church directly interfered society and
       politics. Therefore religious values are deeply reflected in legal matters.
3.     There are many theologians with high academic achievements and a
       well-structured Church organisation in western religions. Thus religious
       opinions on different social and moral issues can be generated.
4.     Western religions are more well-organised and structured. As a result, they
       may hold consistent attitudes towards different moral issues. Sometimes they
       even come to the same conclusion, reasoning and standpoint.
5.     Individualism is highly advocated.



Characteristics of morality in Eastern society:
1.     Eastern society has a more consistent view towards “good” and “evil” on the
       conceptual level. For example, what is “humanity” and what is “righteousness”,
       etc. However, Eastern moral views talk little about practical moral issues on
       the realistic level, such as euthanasia and environmental protection, etc.
2.     Many new moral values, such as human rights and discrimination, are all
       raised and developed in the Western society before being promoted to the
       East.
3.     Emphasise on interpersonal relationship.
4.     When compared with the Western society, Eastern religions have less
       influence over moral issues.
5.     Personal moral accomplishment and virtue are especially emphasised. If a
       person is well-accomplished in self morality and spread this spirit around,
       he/she can do well to the family, the nation and eventually influence the world.




                                                       8
  1.3 Normative Ethics --- The Nature of Morality --- Pluralism


                 Knowledge Content of the Subject:
         The impact of post-colonialism on moral development

What is “post-colonialism”?
     Religion, morality, culture and tradition have mutual impact on each other.
Post-colonialism mainly focus on analysing how Western cultural values affect
traditional values in the third world.
     In the 19th and 20th century, Western countries massively expanded their
colonisation in third world countries. At the same time, they introduced their views
on economy, culture, values, ethics, morality and politics in the third world, which
became the mainstream ideas in those regions. Many traditional values in the third
world are seen as relatively inferior or uncivilised. For example, French and English
are considered as superior languages while local regional languages are inferior.
Similarly, moral values reflected in Western cultures are regarded as advanced. For
example, in the 19th century, monogamy in Western countries was seen as
civilised while polygyny in China and Islamic countries as well as the values behind
were regarded as uncivilised and immoral.
     After World War II, many colonies declared independence and every country
started to gain independence and autonomy on politics and economy. However, in
terms of cultural values, the spirit and ideology in the third world were controlled by
Western cultural values. Eastern traditional values and cultural practices are still
seen as comparatively inferior. The freedom, stressed by Western values, became
the mainstream and was seen as modern; while the responsibility emphasised in
the Eastern traditions has gradually been eliminated and was regarded as
“old-fashioned”.
     As Western culture and moral values dominated the society, or even became
the only value to be relied on, hegemony would easily appear, suppressing the
development of pluralistic values in a society.




                                                    9
  1.3 Normative Ethics --- The Nature of Morality --- Pluralism


                                           Reflection
  Worksheet: Monogamy - The mainstream marriage system

   The Chinese polygyny                                  “Walking marriage” of the
          system                                                  Mosuo

    Confucianism is the official and                      “Walking Marriage” is a marital
mainstream value and ideology in                      practice of the Mosuo, a society that
Chinese tradition. Each school under                  runs on a matriarchal system. Men and
Confucius is very concerned with                      women seldom stay in pair during
ethical concepts in a clan.                           daytime. They will only express their
Confucianism hopes to guide people                    feelings to the one they adore through
to live a harmonious life and to                      dancing and singing in gatherings. If a
maintain a stable atmosphere in the                   man falls in love with a woman, he will
society through establishing the social               agree with her in daytime and go to her
relationship. Therefore as long as the                bedroom in mid-night (the room of a
stability of family, clan and society was             Mosuo grown woman is separated from
not breached, many sex partners are                   her grandparent‟s house or the so-called
allowed for men under the Chinese                     “family house”). Traditionally, the man
polygyny system. In Qing Dynasty, the                 will go to the woman‟s room by riding a
emperor could marry 1 empress, 1                      horse. He should not enter from the front
imperial noble consort, 2 noble                       door. Instead, he should climb over the
consorts, 4 consorts, 6 imperial                      window and hang a hat or other
concubines and unlimited honored                      belongings at the door. This is to tell
ladies.                                               other people not to disturb when they
     It is very common for the rich men               are having a date. The man must leave
in the upper class to engage in                       before dawn through the front door. It is
polygynous marriages.                                 disrespectful if the man left after
                                                      daybreak or after the elders woke up.

                                                          “Walking Marriage” is a custom
                                                      practice of the Mosuo, a small ethnic
                                                      group in Yunnan. Some Mosuo people
                                                      adopt the marriage system to increase
                                                      family labour force. Apart from that, the




                                                    10
     1.3 Normative Ethics --- The Nature of Morality --- Pluralism


         The monogamy in                                 Mosuo have basically no marriage
            Christianity                                 system. Walking marriage is a practice
                                                         for couples in love, where the man walks
      And he said in answer, Have you                    to the woman‟s house to maintain their
 not seen in the Writings, that he who                   relationship and reproduce the next
 made them at the first made them                        generation. The key factor in keeping
 male and female, and said, For this                     their relationship is love since there is no
 cause will a man go away from his                       financial connection involved. Once they
 father and mother, and be joined to                     are no longer in love with each other, or
 his wife; and the two will become one                   that they do not really match in
 flesh? So that they are no longer two,                  character, they can separate any time.
 but one flesh. Then let not that which                  Thus they enjoy more freedom than the
 has been joined by God be parted by                     conventional marriage system. Men and
 man.                                                    women in the relationship also share an
          Chapter 19, Gospel of Matthew                  equal status, unlike marriages in other
                                                         ethnic groups which involves
                                                         complicated economic and social
                                                         networks.



1.    Among polygyny, monogamy and walking marriage, which one do you think is the
      mainstream practice in modern society? Why?
2.    What do you think is/are the merit(s) of polygyny and walking marriage? Why?
3.    Is/Are there any demerit(s) of monogamy? Why?
4.    If you think that monogamy has its demerits, while polygyny and walking marriage
      have their merits, why is monogamy the mainstream practice in modern society?




Reference materials:
1. Chou, Wah-shan [周華山]. Men and Women Equal in Matriarchal Mosuo --- A nation
   with no father nor husband [重女不輕男的母系摩梭 --- 無父無夫的國度]. Hong
   Kong: Hong Kong: Xianggang Tongzhi Yanjiu Shi [香港同志研究社], 2001。
2. On the Road〃The 6th series --- Gigi Leung〃The Worship of Love in Yunnan, The
   Nation of Women [雲南女兒國戀愛崇拜]. Hong Kong, TVB, 2007. (DVD)




                                                       11
  1.3 Normative Ethics --- The Nature of Morality --- Pluralism


  Knowledge Content of the Subject: Pluralism and Global
  ethics

What is “pluralism”?                                     What is “Global ethics”?
     In the social science context,                           At a glance, it seems that we have
pluralism refers to the continuous                       enough economic, political, scientific,
and autonomous participation and                         cultural and religious resources to
development of traditional culture or                    establish a better world order.
benefits by different races, nations,                    However, there are also various
religions or social communities under                    conflicting forces in the world,
a civilisation or community                              including racial, social, political,
framework.                                               economic and religious conflicts, etc.
      In a pluralistic society, different                The creation of a better world is indeed
ethnic groups demonstrate mutual                         threatened by growing crisis.
respect and acceptance to each                                In the face of the world situation
others. As a result, they can live in                    nowadays, what people need is
harmony, without conflicts or                            anticipation for peace and harmony.
assimilation. Many people think that                     Each race, ethical relationship, nation
pluralism is one of the important                        and religious groups must join hands
features of a modern society. It is                      to protect and treasure our earth. This
also a crucial driving force for                         responsibility is based on the hopes,
scientific, social and economic                          ideals, goals and codes of conduct we
development.                                             share.
     In ancient times, imperial power                         Since 1993 when global ethics
dominated the society. This power                          was introduced, the so-called global
was controlled by very few people.                         ethics has become an ethical and
Decisions were made merely by few                         moral principle that is suitable to be
people and therefore the interests of                     followed by the whole world. The key
the others were neglected. In a                           points are listed below:
pluralistic society, power,
decision-making and benefit-sharing                      1.   The respect of lives and the
are relatively diversified. People                            anti-violence spirit
believed that this help encourage                        2.   The construction of a fair
more social participation, while                              economic order
bringing better control and results.                     3.   The emphasis on acceptance,
    Pluralism reflects the spirits of                         forgiveness and the true, the good
acceptance, respect, equality, justice                        and the beautiful of human nature.
and benevolence.                                         4.   The emphasis on gender equality


                                                    12
  1.3 Normative Ethics --- The Nature of Morality --- Pluralism


                                                              and the establishment of
Reference material:                                           partnership.
http://www.pluralism.ca/
                                                         Reference materials:
                                                         http://gigabyte.fxsh.tyc.edu.tw/lesson/3/32/32c
                                                         down.htm
                                                         http://www.cpwr.org/resource/global_ethic.htm
                                                         https://www.weltethos.org/pdf_decl/Decl_chin
                                                         ese.pdf




                                                    13
  1.3 Normative Ethics --- The Nature of Morality --- Pluralism


          Worksheet: Example of pluralistic society --- Finland
                  Majority rules Vs Minority rights
    Over the last few centuries, Finland was once occupied by Sweden. Vassa,
420km from the Finnish capital Helsinki, is a town with population less than 60,000.
Around 72% of the population uses Finnish as their mother tongue, while around
25% speaks Swedish, with the remaining 3% speaks other languages. In Finland,
Finnish is always written above Swedish on signposts. However, in Vassa,
signposts are written with Swedish on top of Finnish.
    A Chinese visitor asked a person from Vassa who speaks Swedish, “Are you
Finnish or Swedish? Are there more Swedes in Vassa?”
     That person immediately replied in standard English and a kind manner, “We
are all Finnish. There are 30% of the population in Vassa who speaks Swedish and
70% who speaks Finnish. I am a Finn who speaks Swedish.”
This reply made the Chinese visitor realise that he had just asked an inappropriate
question.

                      Knowledge can change one’s fate
                    Education determines a country’s future
    In Finland, 93% of the total population speaks Finnish and 6% of them speak
Swedish. However, all students must study Finnish and Swedish starting from
kindergarten. Besides, English is taught since primary 2 with French and German
being the most popular electives.
    Textbooks of various subjects in Finland are highly “internationalised”. For
example, mathematics textbooks in Finland about subtraction show pictures of the
553-meter CN Tower in Toronto, Canada, the 139-meter pyramid in Egypt, the
431-meter Taipei 101 Tower in Taiwan and the 450-meter KL Tower in Malaysia.
The pictures take up a whole page of the textbook. Annotations for the building‟s
location and a brief introduction of the establishment are also added next to the
pictures.
     Many textbooks of different subjects in Finland are highly internationalised. An
equation alone helps broaden students‟ horizon, while one scientific question helps
nurture students‟ attitude as a global citizen.

                              Everyone is equally special
    To thoroughly understand facts and matters relies on independent thinking. To
develop this ability, education system is the key. Education in Northern Europe puts
strong emphasis on group activities and discussion since primary level; Everything
must be discussed by all members before making a decision. Once the decision is
made, it cannot be changed. Thus some people think Northern Europeans are

                                                    14
  1.3 Normative Ethics --- The Nature of Morality --- Pluralism


stubborn.
      Education system in Northern Europe lacks America‟s individualism. Becoming
the first in class or being different from the others is not encouraged. However, they
think everyone is independent and special. They are “similarly unique” and so
everyone is “equally special”.
      If everyone engages themselves in the same business, the total productivity
will be very low. It may even turn into a vicious cycle due to intense competition.
Northern Europe is renowned for their design industry. From another perspective,
the industry can lead us to a new horizon and experience different elements in our
lives. In the end, you may find out that creativity origin from life itself.




1. Do you think more exposure to global information can help develop the spirit of
   pluralism? Why?
2. Do you think the Finnish education system, which emphasise on learning
   multiple foreign languages, can help students develop the spirit of pluralism?
   Why?
3. How does the spirit of pluralism show in Vassa? Why?
4. In conclusion, do you think Finland is a pluralistic country? Why?



References:
1. 吳祥輝。<芬蘭驚艷>。臺北:遠流出版社,2006。
2. 黃世嘉。<北歐魅力 --- 冰國淬煉的生活競爭力>。臺北:天下雜誌出版社,2007。




                                                    15
  1.3 Normative Ethics --- The Nature of Morality --- Pluralism


                               Worksheet:
          Example of pluralistic society --- Israel and Palestine

  The Israel-Palestinian conflict started from the late 80‟s in 19th century and not
  yet settled now. The conflict has been intensified since 1948 when Israel
  declared itself a country. By the end of 19th century, Zionism prevailed, which
  also brought the Jews to establish their own country. At the same time, the
  Jews started to move into Palestine. At first the Jews, as an ethnic minority,
  lived in harmony with the Arabs in Palestine and no large-scale confrontation
  occurred. After the First World War, other countries in the world took no notice
  of the Arabs‟ oppositions and divided part of Palestine‟s territory to the Jews by
  force. Eventually, Israel declared itself a country on 14th May 1948, prompting
  the Arab League to proclaim war against Israel and reclaim the Palestinian
  territory. Since then, many conflicts occurred between Israel and other Islamic
  countries such as Palestine.

                                 Pluralism Vs Secession

     Nowadays, Israel, a multi-culture melting pot, is home to people of different
races from all over the world. The population consists of 60% Jews, 30% Arabs and
Palestinians, 3% Armenians, 5% Westerners from countries like UK, USA, France
and Germany, and the remaining 2% is people of other races. On the other hand,
Jerusalem, the capital of Israel, is a city of contrast. Different cultures, religions,
races and social classes are mixed in the same city. The eastern and western parts
of the city are entirely different with a wide gap in the development standard. West
Jerusalem is the core of modern Israel and the place where most Israelites live;
while the Old City and the eastern, northern and southern part of East Jerusalem,
are mainly concentrated with Palestinian. The most special area is the Jerusalem
Old City, which is enclosed by the city wall with total area of only 1km 2. That area is
further divided into 4 quarters according to religions and race, namely the Jewish
Quarter, Christian Quarter, Armenian Quarter and Muslim Quarter.

             Rich and Poor                                                 Turn Left
       Freedom and Imprisonment                                           Turn Right
    The territory, which was formally known as                        From the Book of
Palestine, is now divided into the State of Israel                Genesis 13:7-9 of the Bible:
and the State of Palestine. The so-called                         “Then Abram said to Lot. „Let
“state” implies that the State of Israel has the                  there be no strife between you
ultimate authority over the area. Within the                      and me, and between your
State of Palestine, the Israeli armies set up                     herdsmen and my herdsmen,

                                                    16
   1.3 Normative Ethics --- The Nature of Morality --- Pluralism


 many checking points and guard the area with                      for we are kinsmen. Is not
 loaded rifles. Palestinians have to show their                    whole land before you?
 passes whenever they want to cross the                            Separate yourself from me. If
 border.                                                           you take the left hand, then I
      The Israel government issues documents                       will go to the right, or if you
 of different colours according to the residential                 take the right hand, then I will
 area of Palestinians. Some Palestinians who                       go to the left.‟”
 were born in remote areas have to work in the                           Israeli and Palestinian
 black market since they have no documents.                        are both descendants of
 These workers are often seriously exploited by                    Abraham and Semitic.
 their employers.                                                  However, strives arises
      In the residential area of the Israeli, pools                between them. When one
 and fountains are filled with sufficient water. On                takes the left, the other never
 the contrary, people are busy with carrying                       goes to the right. Instead, they
 water by trucks in the State of Palestine. Their                  stay in the same place and try
 usage of water is only one fifth of the Israeli.                  every effort to make the other
                                                                   an outcast.


1. From the demographic analysis perspective, do you think Israel can easily
   nurture people‟s spirit of pluralism? Why?
2. With reference to the above analysis, do you think Israel is a pluralistic
   country?
3. What do you think are the essential factors for a country to nurture one‟s spirit
   of pluralism? Why?
4. Do you think the Israeli society possesses these factors? Why?




References:
1. 張翠容,<中東現場 --- 手揭開伊斯蘭世界的衝突迷霧>。臺北:馬可孛羅文化,2006。
2. 沈旭暉,<中東反恐新解讀>。香港:CUP 出版社,2005。
3. DVD「地球深度行 --- 以色列、土耳其之旅」,第二集及第三集。




                                                     17
1.3 Normative Ethics --- The Nature of Morality --- Pluralism



                                Teacher References

1.   Michael Tobias, <心靈的殿堂:全球信仰探索>。臺北:立緒文化事業有


     限公司,1997。


2.   薩依德,<東方主義>。臺北:立緒文化事業有限公司,1999。


3.   陶東風,<後殖民主義>。臺北:揚智文化事業,2000。


4.   張翠容,<中東現場 --- 手揭開伊斯蘭世界的衝突迷霧>。臺北:馬可孛羅


     文化,2006。


5.   沈旭暉,<中東反恐新解讀>。香港:CUP 出版社,2005。


6.   吳祥輝,<芬蘭驚艷>。臺北:遠流出版社,2006。


7.   黃世嘉,<北歐魅力 --- 冰國淬煉的生活競爭力>。臺北:天下雜誌出版社,

     2007。

8.   周華山,<無父無夫的國度 --- 重女不輕男的母系摩梭>。香港:香港同志


     研究社,2001。




                                                  18
1.3 Normative Ethics --- The Nature of Morality --- Pluralism



                                Student References
Book:
1. 薩依德,<東方主義>。臺北:立緒文化事業有限公司,1999。


Visual and Audio:
1. 向世界出發〃第六輯 --- 梁詠琪〃雲南女兒國戀愛崇拜。香港:無線電視,
    2007。(DVD)




                                                  19

				
DOCUMENT INFO