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The positive moral emotions - pe

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									The positive moral emotions: Elevation,
   awe, admiration (and gratitude)

             Sage Lecture #3
              Nov. 23, 2008

             Jonathan Haidt
           University of Virginia
            6 Lectures on Morality
11/10: What is morality and how does it work?
11/17: The righteous mind: Why good people are divided
  by politics and religion
11/24: The positive moral emotions: Elevation, awe,
  admiration, and gratitude
12/1: Hive psychology, group selection, and leadership
12/8: The dark side: Why moral psychology is the greatest
  source of evil
12/15: The light side: How to pursue happiness using
  ancient wisdom and modern psychology

ppt files available at www.JonathanHaidt.com, at bottom
   Nativism
Nature provides a first draft,
which experience then revises…
‘Built-in' does not mean
unmalleable; it means
organized in advance of
experience.“
(Marcus, 2004)
  The Social Intuitionist Model (Haidt, 2001)
                                            6

                         1                  2
         A’s Intuition       A’s Judgment           A’s Reasoning
                                            5

                                                4
                                                           3




       B’s Reasoning         B’s Judgment            B’s Intuition


Four main processes:
 1) the intuitive judgment link  Two rare processes:
 2) the post-hoc reasoning link   5) the reasoned judgment link
 3) the reasoned persuasion link  6) the private reflection link
 4) the social persuasion link
Intuition tilts the table
  The New Synthesis in Moral Psych

1) Intuitive primacy (but not dictatorship)
2) Moral thinking is for social doing
3) Morality binds and builds
4) Morality is about more than harm and fairness
Traditional Morality: Uses every tool in the
         toolbox to increase MCC
Liberals 2 channels, Conservatives 5



                 Harm

               Fairness
Endorsement




              Authority
              Ingroup
                Purity
The positive moral emotions: Elevation,
   awe, admiration (and gratitude)

             Sage Lecture #3
              Nov. 23, 2008

             Jonathan Haidt
           University of Virginia
An Investment Opportunity….
               I) Unbalanced Emotions
                        Appraisal of Agent’s Action
                  Praiseworthy               Blameworthy
Self       Pride                        Guilt
           Self-satisfaction            Shame
Other      Gratitude                    Anger
           Awe                          Disgust
           Admiration                   Contempt
        From Ortony, Clore & Collins, 1988
                 I) Unbalanced Emotions
                           Appraisal of Agent’s Action
                    Praiseworthy                 Blameworthy
Self         Pride                         Guilt             1,639
             Self-satisfaction             Shame             1,601
Other        Gratitude                     Anger             3,230
             Awe                           Disgust            306
             Admiration                    Contempt             54
       (From PsycInfo search of words in title or key concepts,
       journal articles only, counted on 9/08)
                 I) Unbalanced Emotions
                           Appraisal of Agent’s Action
                    Praiseworthy                 Blameworthy
Self         Pride                  247    Guilt             1,639
             Self-satisfaction       27    Shame             1,601
Other        Gratitude             124     Anger             3,230
             Awe                    36     Disgust            306
             Admiration             19     Contempt             54
       (From PsycInfo search of words in title or key concepts,
       journal articles only, counted on 9/08)

--Ratio of neg to pos is 15 to 1
--There is almost NO empirical work on the “other-
praising” emotions (beyond recent work on gratitude).
 Why So Little on the O. P. Emotions?
1) No animal models
2) No distinct facial expression
3) Not as discrete as the negative emotions

4) General neglect of positive phenomena (Seligman)
5) Lack of good theoretical approaches to positive
   emotions, until now: Broaden and Build (Fredrickson)
6) Lack of good theoretical approaches to moral
   emotions, until now: Divinity & Purity (Shweder,
   Rozin);
II) The Third Dimension of Social Space?
                           Z=Divinity
                           (elevation-disgust)


                                      X=Solidarity
                                      (like-dislike)




                Y=Hierarchy
                (respect upwards;
                Paternalist caring downwards)
  Purity and Pollution: keep our animal/corporeal
         nature separated from god/divinity
In Biblical Judaism: When a woman gives birth to a boy,
   “she shall continue in the blood of purification three and
   thirty days; she shall touch no hallowed thing, nor come
   into the sanctuary, until the days of her purification be
   fulfilled.”
 --Leviticus, 12:4
  Purity and Pollution: keep our animal/corporeal
         nature separated from god/divinity
In Islam: “O believers, when you stand up to pray wash
your faces, and your hands up to the elbows, and wipe
your heads, and your feet up to the ankles. If you are
defiled, purify yourselves…”
  --Koran, V:9.
           Purity/God/Goodness is Up
Transmigration of souls: Up or down,
   based on Karma (right-action in this
   life)

Hindu categorical imperative: “Any
  action that makes us go Godward is
  a good action and is our duty; any
  action that makes us go downward
  is evil and is not our duty."
  --Vivekananda, 1890s
         Purity/God/Goodness is Up
The Scala Natura: Greek
and then Christian ordering
of beings based on
perfection, later virtue.
God at top, devil/demons at
bottom
             In Victorian America Too
"God has made no mistake in giving man a strong sexual
nature, but any young man makes a fatal mistake if he allows
the sexual to dominate, to degrade, and to destroy that which
is highest and noblest in his nature.“
--Sylvanus Stall, 1904, What a young man
  ought to know.
II) The Third Dimension of Social Space?
                           Z=Divinity
                           (elevation-disgust)


                                      X=Solidarity
                                      (like-dislike)




                Y=Hierarchy
                (respect upwards;
                Paternalist caring downwards)
 The Third Dimension: Divinity       God

                                     Angels
What do we feel when we see
people move up, blurring the         Saints
human/divine boundary?
                                     Human Beings

                                     Monsters
Social Disgust is felt when we see
                                     Animals
people move down, especially
when they blur the human/animal      Demons
boundary.
                                     The Devil
Example, From a Spiritual Autobiography:
   There’s another kind of tear. This one’s less about giving love and
more about the joy of receiving love, or maybe just detecting love. It’s
the kind of tear that flows in response to expressions of courage, or
compassion, or kindness by others.
   A few weeks after Mother’s Day, we met here in the sanctuary and
considered whether to become a Welcoming Congregation. When John
stood in support of the resolution, and spoke of how, as far as he knew,
he was the first gay man to come out at First Parish, in the early
1970s, I cried for his courage.
   Later, when all hands went up and the resolution passed
unanimously, I cried for the love expressed by our congregation in that
act. That was a tear of celebration, a tear of receptiveness to what is
good in the world, a tear that says it’s okay, relax, let down your
guard, there are good people in the world, there is good in people,
love is real, it’s in our nature. That kind of tear is also like being
pricked, only now the love pours in.
                    Tears of Elevation
  Free hugs
  New York Subway Hero
  Team Hoyt

The stone wall inside of him has fallen, the hardness in his
heart has broken down. The rest of us can, I think, imagine this
by recalling our state of feeling in those temporary 'melting
moods' into which either the trials of real life, or the theatre, or
a novel sometimes throw us. Especially if we weep! For it is
then as if our tears broke through an inveterate inner dam, and
let all sorts of ancient peccancies and moral stagnancies drain
away, leaving us now washed and soft of heart and open to
every nobler leading. (James, p. 216-217)
     III) Elevation: Three main features

1) Elicitors: acts of courage, kindness, loyalty.... or any
   other act of moral beauty

2) Phenomenology/physiology: calm/relaxed, a
   warm/open/pleasant feeling in the chest;
   sometimes getting “choked up”.

3) Motivation: emulation, moral self-improvement,
   (altruism?)
   A) Video and Diary Studies (Algoe & Haidt, in press, JPP)
 3 groups (N=136), watch one of 3 videos, then fill out “event record”
   Elevation                Admiration               Amusement
   (Trevor)                 (Jordan)                 (comedians)




Then given packet of event records and further instructions: For
   3 weeks, fill out a record each time you see/hear someone:
--Do something good or kind for someone else [elevation]
--Exceed normal standards of skill or performance [admiration]
--Tell a joke [amusement, positive affect control]
             Results: Physical Feelings
                         Video Induction          Diary Study
% reporting:             Elev Admir Amus       Elev Admir Amus
 Warm Chest              51*    43*      20
 Chills                    10       37*    2
 High energy               10       52*   20
 Increased Heart rt        13       20*    4

*=differs from amusement at p<.05
             Results: Physical Feelings
                         Video Induction          Diary Study
% reporting:             Elev Admir Amus       Elev Admir Amus
 Warm Chest              51*    43*      20      35     31    30
 Chills                    10       37*    2     6    28*     2
 High energy               10       52*   20    16    56*    36
 Increased Heart rt        13       20*    4    14     37    19

*=differs from amusement at p<.05

--Elevation causes feelings in the chest (but all pos em’s do)
--Admiration linked to chills and energy
         Results: Changes in Motivations
-4=much less,               Video Induction         Diary Study
+4=much more              Elev Admir Amus        Elev Admir Amus
  Do good deeds          2.62* 1.39*       .44
  Become better prsn 2.28* 1.57*          .16
  Emulate the other  2.03* 1.85*          .33
  Be successful          1.82* 2.70*      .62

  *=differs from amusement at p<.05
         Results: Changes in Motivations
-4=much less,               Video Induction        Diary Study
+4=much more              Elev Admir Amus       Elev Admir Amus
  Do good deeds          2.62* 1.39*       .44 2.02*     .81   .35
  Become better prsn 2.28* 1.57*         .16 1.51* 1.13*       .49
  Emulate the other  2.03* 1.85*         .33 1.61* 2.15*       .49
  Be successful          1.82* 2.70*     .62    .34 1.97*      .49

  *=differs from amusement at p<.05


 --Elevation is linked to moral motivations
 -Admiration is linked to motivations to copy and work hard
          B) Cross-Cultural Interviews
Method: Structured interviews with small samples in
 --India
 --Japan (Yuki Amano)
 --among Born-again Christians (Carter Chandler)
 --among Palestinian Americans (Mona Hasan)

Results: In all groups, we find linkage among
  --virtuous acts
  --feelings in body (chills or chest)
  --motivation to help others or work for a higher cause
 Elevation and Suicide Bombing (Mona Hasan)
Question: Does suicide
  bombing cause elevation?

Participants: 36 Palestinians
  and Palestinian Americans
  recruited from a mosque
  in Northern Virginia,
  interviewed 11/01-2/02,
  during period of heavy
  suicide bombing in Israel
                                Reem Riyashi, 22 & daughter
 Elevation and Suicide Bombing (Mona Hasan)
Method: Structured interviews about 4 situations:
  1) Good deed (“when you saw or heard about
someone doing something good, kind, or compassionate
for someone else”)
  2) Self-sacrifice (“when you saw or heard about
someone who risked or lost his life to further his cause”)
  3) Rescue (“when you saw or heard about someone
who risked or lost his life to help others, or save
someone else’s life”)
---------------------------------------------------------------
  4) Achievement (“when you accomplished a goal”)
Results: % who mentioned              Good     Self-   Rescue Achieve
                                      Deed Sacrifice           -ment
Affect words:
 self-praising (pride, bold)            0*       3*       0*      80
 other-praising (adm., awe, grat)      32*      31*      62*       3
Physical symptoms:
 goosebumps, chills, chest, tears      35*      26*       17       7
Motivations:
 Self-focused (celebrate, continue)     3*       0*       0*      47
 Other-focused (help, emulate)         74*      83*      72*       7

 * = differs from achievement p<.05
         Discussion of Suicide Bombings
--Half were supportive, half ambivalent. None opposed.
--Some mentions of revenge, hate, “negative” moral motives
--No mentions of rewards in heaven
--What feelings do you have when you hear about a successful
   suicide attack in Israel? Satisfaction (67%) happiness (61%),
   admiration (61%), gratitude (56%).
Conclusions:
--Self-sacrifice in suicide bombers often causes other-
praising emotions in other members of the group.
--These emotions include motivations to do the same thing
--Terrorism is better understood as motivated by moral
emotions than by free-floating “evil”
C) Physiology of Other-Praising Emotions
                    (Gary Sherman)
1) Warm chest plus calm:
--Parasympathetic activity +
--Oxytocin? Endorphins?



2) Chills plus energy:
--Parasympathetic activity +
--Adrenaline? (no cortisol)
       Lactation Study
  (Silvers & Haidt, 2008, Emotion)




Method:
--44 Lactating women come to
   lab with infant
--insert nursing pad, watch neutral baseline video
--watch elevation or amusement video (IV)
--left alone for 5 minutes, behavior videotaped (DV)
--nursing pads weighed (DV)
              % of Mothers Who….

70

60                           p=.06

50                   *

40                                   Amus
                                     Elev
30        *
20

10

 0
     Leaked     Nursed    Hugged
Thomas Jefferson
was here
   Elevation: Discovered in Charlottesville!
   When any …act of charity or of gratitude, for
   instance, is presented either to our sight or
   imagination, we are deeply impressed with its
   beauty and feel a strong desire in ourselves of
   doing charitable and grateful acts also. On the
   contrary when we see or read of any atrocious
   deed, we are disgusted with its deformity and
   conceive an abhorrence of vice.....
   And whether the fidelity of Nelson, and
   generosity of Blandford in Marmontel do not
   dilate his breast, and elevate his sentiments as
   much as any similar incident which real history
   can furnish?.....
--Thomas Jefferson, Letter to Robert Skipwith, 1771
   Elevation: Discovered in Charlottesville!
   When any …act of charity or of gratitude, for      Appraisal
   instance, is presented either to our sight or
   imagination, we are deeply impressed with its      Action
   beauty and feel a strong desire in ourselves of    tendency
   doing charitable and grateful acts also. On the
   contrary when we see or read of any atrocious      Physical
   deed, we are disgusted with its deformity and      changes
   conceive an abhorrence of vice.....
                                                      Affective
   And whether the fidelity of Nelson, and
                                                      phenom-
   generosity of Blandford in Marmontel do not
                                                      enology
   dilate his breast, and elevate his sentiments as
   much as any similar incident which real history
   can furnish?.....
--Thomas Jefferson, Letter to Robert Skipwith, 1771
     Elevation and Disgust are Opposites
                 Disgust               Elevation
Elicitor          People moving        People moving up,
                  down, blurring       blurring
                  human/animal         human/god divide
                  divide
Physical feelings Gut (unpleasant)     Chest (warm glow)

Motiv. Tendency Separate, close off,   Merge, open up,
                reject                 copy virtuous
                                       example
Contamination    Negative              Positive
Rembrandt: The Good Samaritan
Serrano: Piss Christ
Elevation opens people to new moral commitments




“I can’t believe I just shook the Dalai Lama’s hand!” Jocelyn Diaz, a
21-year old senior, shouted… “I feel changed by this. You get so
caught up with your life and then you see these people who are
making so much of a difference.”

“Attending even a single event can have a consciousness-raising
effect,” said Christina Bull, a 19-year-old junior… “It just reminds you
that there are people who care so much about causes,” she added. “It
makes you want to get involved.”
Elevation and Politics




                         Ask not...
Problem: No clear property lines



                          Awe
  Elevation


       Admiration

                    Inspiration
                    IV) Awe

People report feeling awe towards so many
  things….
  The Evolution of “Awe”: Starts with fear
OED 1: From old Norse root “agi,” related to old
  English and German words meaning immediate and
  active fear; terror, dread. [Obs].

OED 2: “From its use in reference to the Divine Being
  this passes gradually into: Dread mingled with
  veneration, reverential or respectful fear; the
  attitude of a mind subdued to profound reverence
  in the presence of supreme authority, moral
  greatness or sublimity, or mysterious sacredness.”
             Saul on the road to Damascus




...suddenly a light from heaven flashed about him. And he fell to the ground and
    heard a voice saying to him, “Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me?” And he
    said, “Who are you, Lord?” And he said, “I am Jesus, whom you are
    persecuting; but rise and enter the city, and you will be told what you are to
    do.” The men who were traveling with him stood speechless, hearing the voice
    but seeing no one (Acts 9.3-7).
Krishna instructs Arjuna…..
Gives him a celestial eye...
Arjuna: Things never seen
before have I seen, and
ecstatic is my joy; yet fear-and-
trembling perturb by mind….
Krishna: Do works for Me,
make Me your highest goal, be
loyal-in-love to Me, cut off all
other attachments....
(Gita, 11.45-55)

 Awe  disorientation,
 loss of old self, commitment
 to new leader/goal. Awe is a
 reset button.
            Awe joins up with Beauty
OED 3. “The feeling of solemn and reverential wonder, tinged
  with latent fear, inspired by what is terribly sublime and
  majestic in nature, e.g. thunder, a storm at sea.”


--Edmund Burke (1757) on the sublime: a feeling of expanded
    thought and greatness of mind that is produced by literature,
    poetry, painting, and viewing landscapes.
--Two key features: power and obscurity
–After 18th Cent. Awe becomes a kinder, gentler emotion. Link
   to fear and submission is weakened. Anything good becomes
   “totally awesome”
          Modern American English:
Anything surprising and impressive. Almost always good.




    Awe.jpg
 A Theory of Awe (Keltner & Haidt, 2003)
Many kinds of awe: at power, nature, skill, divinity, magic….
2 Central appraisals: Vastness (Burke’s power) and
   Need for accommodation (Burke’s obscurity)
5 Peripheral or “flavoring” appraisals: Threat, Beauty, Ability,
   Virtue, Supernatural

Evolutionary origins ? Adaptive submission to new power,
  then selecting best role models (Henrich & Gil-White)
Function? Awe prepares the mind to switch identities,
  allegiances, ideas. (Rumsfeld used the word correctly.
  Obama uses the emotion effectively)
     The Inspire and Rewire Hypothesis
PTSD: Extraordinarily powerful experiences of fear
flood the brain with cortisol/CRF/NE? leading to long-
lasting changes in the amgydala and hippocampus.
These changes are associated with personality
changes that are experienced as greater negativity:
fearfulness, irritability, and guilt.

Extraordinarily powerful experiences of awe/elevation
flood the brain with _____ leading to long-lasting
changes in the ______. These changes are associated
with personality changes that are experienced as
greater positivity: love, moral growth, commitment to
prosocial causes.
 Applications (of awe, elevation, and admiration)
1) Moral development (with Jesse Graham)
--Basic research on the emergence of elevation and admiration
   in elementary schools
--Goal: design a moral development curriculum that uses
other-praising emotions to foster change, malleability
2) Self-improvement (With Patrick Seder)
--Can other-praising emotions catalyze psychotherapy?
--Can admiration enhance exercise and weight loss?

3) Politics, rhetoric, charisma
--What is the role of awe/charisma in voting?
--What is the role of “moving” speech in moral persuasion?
   The New Synthesis in Moral Psych
1) Intuitive primacy (but not dictatorship)
   --so look at the moral emotions
2) Moral thinking is for social doing
   --moral emotions change relationships
3) Morality binds and builds
   --pos moral emotions are about self-
  transcendence; I becomes WE
4) Morality is about more than harm and fairness
   --look to the ancients, and traditional morality,
  to broaden the narrow modern imagination
Thanks to....
Sara Algoe, Patrick Seder,
Gary Sherman, Jennifer
Silvers

Templeton Foundation

Papers & powerpoints
available at:
www.JonathanHaidt.com

								
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