ADB Institute KRIVET International Workshop on Workforce Development for the Knowledge Economy 7-13 September 2005, Seoul, Republic of Korea International Standards in Technical and Vocational Education and Training by Hans Krönner, former UNESCO-UNEVOC staff Version of 03 September 2005 Abstract Globalization of national economies as well as globalization of knowledge require the knowledge worker to be aware of international standards. This is not only the case with respect to the design, production, marketing and distribution of goods and services. For the promotion of workforce development, it is equally essential to be aware of internationally agreed standards for technical and vocational education and training. Such standards serve, inter alia, to ensure a proper balance between the economic dimension of education and training on the one hand, and personal, social and human development on the other hand. At the international level, two UN agencies have a particular mandate in this area: the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Normative instruments of these two organizations related to workforce development for the knowledge economy are being presented. To complete the scope, reference is made to standards set by the UN General Assembly, but also to examples of standards that have emerged from public- private partnerships at the international level. Finally, suggestions are made how to benefit from such international standards for the development of national systems of TVET. 1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 1 2 Scope of standards ................................................................................... 1 3 Sources of international standards ......................................................... 2 3.1 The United Nations system ..................................................................................... 2 3.1.1 United Nations General Assembly ............................................................... 2 3.1.2 The UN Specialized Agencies ...................................................................... 2 3.2 Private sector and civil society involvement ........................................................ 6 3.2.1 The Code of Ethics for Tourism .................................................................... 6 3.2.2 The Global Compact..................................................................................... 7 3.3 Retrieving more standards ..................................................................................... 8 4 Legal basis and monitoring ...................................................................... 8 4.1 ILO ............................................................................................................................. 8 4.2 UNESCO .................................................................................................................... 9 4.3 Global Compact ........................................................................................................ 9 5 Utilizing international standards for action planning ........................... 10 Hans Krönner: International Standards in Technical and Vocational Education and Training Page 1 International Standards in Technical and Vocational Education and Training by Hans Krönner, former UNESCO-UNEVOC staff 1 Introduction According to a study on "knowledge, work organisation and economic growth" published by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), "…occupations can then be categorized into two main groups: non-information and information occupations (or workers), the latter being divided into two sub-categories, namely those manipulating information (data workers) and those generating ideas (knowledge workers)" (OECD 2001 para 23). In order to be able to generate ideas, the "knowledge worker" – no matter whether in industry, in a training institution, or in a ministry of education – needs to have information at hand, to know about existing international standards, and make the appropriate judgments about their application in their specific context. What do we refer to as "international standards" in the context of this paper? We will be dealing with international standards that relate to technical and vocational education and training (TVET), also referred to as "normative instruments", that typically occur under titles such as Convention, Recommendation, Declaration, Charter, Code or Principles. We address standards that have been agreed upon by the international community, and that have been developed jointly with the objective in mind that Member States are expected to apply and implement them in their national policies and legislations. We will see later that such standards may be developed by governments in intergovernmental organizations such as United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), by organizations that have both public and private constituencies, such as the International Labour Organization (ILO), but also in international public-private partnerships such as the Global Compact initiated by the Secretary-General of the United Nations. These standards are being developed along a variety of procedures, and their legal quality can vary widely. We will not cover international technical standards such as units, symbols, statistical definitions, and technical standards applied in industry, commerce and other sectors of the economy. Although they have their relevance for content and curricula in TVET, they are not in focus for the purpose of this paper. 2 Scope of standards What do such international standards cover in substance? While our immediate attention goes to education and training, we have to keep in mind that TVET is not only a preparation for work, but that it is frequently delivered at the workplace itself. Thus, we cannot confine our considerations to the education and training process in a narrow sense, but we need to take the workplace and work environment into account as well. Hans Krönner: International Standards in Technical and Vocational Education and Training Page 2 Thus, the standards that we want to deal with may cover a broad range of issues, such as: Access to education and training Education and training objectives Relationship of education, training and work Safety and health at the workplace Labor standards Economical, ecological and social dimensions of work Ethical aspects Human Rights. 3 Sources of international standards As explained, international standards can have various origins, ranging from intergovernmental organizations to international public-private partnerships. Let us start with international agencies. 3.1 The United Nations system 3.1.1 United Nations General Assembly In 1948, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a "common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations" (UN 1948, Preamble). Its Article 26 refers to education: Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and funda- mental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit. (UN 1948, Article 26,1) The Declaration thus makes a difference between "elementary education" that shall be "compulsory", "technical and professional education" that shall be made "generally available", and "higher education" shall be accessible "on the basis of merit" only. In other words, the UN Declaration stipulates that everybody who wants to receive technical and professional education should be given the opportunity. Other standard-setting instruments have been adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations, among the later ones for example the "Convention on the Rights of the Child" (1989) which touches on education, training and preparation for employment for disabled children (UN 1989 Article 23,2). Given the wide scope of international standards set by the General Assembly of the United Nations, we will not elaborate further. Instead, we will turn to the relevant Specialized Agencies in the United Nations system. 3.1.2 The UN Specialized Agencies Two United Nations Specialized Agencies have major mandates in technical and vocational education and training: The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), and the International Labour Organization (ILO). Other organizations such as the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) do have mandates in education and training that are restricted to their particular fields of work. UNESCO and ILO have adopted a range of international standards – mainly conventions and recommendations – that relate to TVET and to the workplace. Hans Krönner: International Standards in Technical and Vocational Education and Training Page 3 It is important to understand the different perspectives from which UNESCO and ILO engage in TVET. Their division of labor is not easy to grasp. Back in 1954, the two agencies described it as follows: "The ILO is primarily concerned with technical and vocational education and training in relation to occupational activities and welfare of workers. UNESCO is primarily concerned with technical and vocational education as part of the education of human beings equipped to live in a society dependent upon technological development. In general the word "training" is likely to invoke the concern of the ILO whereas the word "education" is likely to invoke the concern of UNESCO. The Major Interest of the ILO The practical imparting of specific skills relating to a given occupation or given occupations by means of apprenticeship or other forms of training in factories, workshops or special centres or institutions is primarily a matter for the ILO, subject to consultation with UNESCO on any general education questions which may arise. The Major Interest of UNESCO Technical and vocational education which takes place within a general educational system is primarily a matter for UNESCO, subject to consultation with the ILO concerning the prospective demand for particular skills and the requirements to be fulfilled in respect of such skills. (UNESCO-ILO 1954). It was here in Seoul on 26 April 1999, when a keynote speaker at UNESCO’s Second International Congress on Technical and Vocational Education requested " …that we stop talking different things about what should be the same thing, and stop insisting that UNESCO’s role is vocational education, while ILO’s role is vocational training. This is not role splitting, but rather hair splitting!" (Al-Masri 1999, p.9) Convention Recommendation 195 on concerning Technical and Vocational Education Human Resources Development: Article 2 (1) Education, Training and Lifelong Learning Article 1 (3) The Contracting States agree to frame policies, to Members should identify human resources define strategies and to implement … programmes development, education, training and lifelong and curricula for technical and vocational education learning policies which … facilitate lifelong designed for young people and adults, within the learning and employability as part of a framework of their respective education systems, range of policy measures designed to create in order to enable them to acquire the knowledge and decent jobs, as well as to achieve know-how that are essential to economic and social sustainable economic and social development as well as to the personal and development cultural fulfilment of the individual in society. When examining the normative instruments of the two organizations with respect to TVET, it is important to note that both UNESCO and ILO have mandates in TVET, but that their backgrounds and approaches are different. While UNESCO focuses on TVET in the contracting states “within the framework of their respective education systems", the ILO refers to “employability", "decent jobs" and "economic and social development”. Thus, letting aside the agreement of 1954, which I believe is no longer reflecting contemporary approaches to education, training learning, one might state that both organizations deal with the same matter - technical and vocational education and training -, but from two distinctly different perspectives. Hans Krönner: International Standards in Technical and Vocational Education and Training Page 4 UNESCO The main instruments adopted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in the area of TVET are: The Convention on Technical and Vocational Education (adopted in 1989); and The Revised Recommendation Concerning Technical and Vocational Education (adopted in 2001), in which technical and vocational education is explicitly understood as “… an instrument for promoting environmentally sound sustainable…” (UNESCO, 2001). Both documents can be considered as cross-cutting rather than addressing specific areas of technical and vocational education and training and work. This paper does not provide room for an exhaustive presentation of the content of the UNESCO Convention and Recommendation. The full text in all six official UNESCO languages is available in the documentation that has been provided for each participant. However, a summary presentation of their outlines might illustrate their coverage in substance: UNESCO’s Convention on Technical and Vocational Education (1989) 1. Scope a) Definition of TVE b) Application to forms. levels and providers of TVE c) Relation to national legislation 2. Objectives of TVE 1. Objectives 2. General framework 3. Access 4. Handicapped and disadvantaged groups 3. Content and Structures of TVE 1. Content 2. Framework and structures 3. General education, sustainable development 4. Support for providers outside educational institutions 5. Definition of competences and updating of curricula 6. Assessment and recognition of learning at the workplace 4. Periodic review of structures, programmes and methods of delivery 5. Personnel 1. Qualification 2. Updating Employment opportunities 6. International co-operation (a) Exchange of experiences (b) Use of international technical standards (c) Recognition of equivalencies of qualifications (d) International exchange of personnel (e) Students from other countries (f) Co-operation between countries (g) Mobilization of resources The remaining articles of the Convention are of legal, technical or procedural nature: 7. Periodic country reporting to the General Conference of UNESCO 8. Application of the Convention in countries with federal constitutions 9. to 15. Procedures for accession and ratification; legal matters1 1 The outline is not part of the Convention but has been developed by the author of this paper. Hans Krönner: International Standards in Technical and Vocational Education and Training Page 5 UNESCO’s Revised Recommendation concerning Technical and Vocational Education (2001) I. Scope II. TVE in relation to the educational process: objectives III. Policy, planning and administration IV. Technical and vocational aspects of general education V. TVE as preparation for an occupational field o Organization o Programme content VI. TVE as continuing education VII. Guidance VIII. The learning process IX. Staff o Teaching staff o Administrative and guidance staff X. International cooperation Several other standards adopted by UNESCO cover education as well, e.g. the "Convention against Discrimination in Education" (1960); however, the above Convention and Recommendation are the only ones targeting TVET (not taking in to account earlier versions of the Recommendation of 1962 and 1974 that have been revised later on). ILO As explained, UNESCO and the International Labour Organization (ILO) are the two UN Agencies with broad mandates in TVET. Consequently, not only UNESCO but also the ILO has developed normative instruments, conventions and recommendations that are relevant for knowledge workers in the area of TVET. When comparing ILO and UNESCO standards, two essential differences should be recalled: (1) While the focus of UNESCO is on education systems the ILO looks at matters from an employment and labor market perspective. (2) While both UNESCO and ILO are intergovernmental organizations the membership of which is states, the ILO has a particular tripartite structure, with workers and employers participating as equal partners with governments in the work of its governing bodies. The ILO formulates international standards in the form of Conventions and Recommendations not only for TVET, but likewise for of basic labor rights: freedom of association, the right to organize, collective bargaining, abolition of forced labor, equality of opportunity and treatment, and other standards regulating conditions across the entire spectrum of work related issues. Over the years, the ILO has adopted several hundred conventions and recommendations. We will look into the most recent one that covers TVET. The Recommendation concerning Human Resources Development The full title is "Recommendation concerning Human Resources Development: Education, Training and Lifelong Learning" (Recommendation R195). It covers the following areas: Hans Krönner: International Standards in Technical and Vocational Education and Training Page 6 Recommendation concerning Human Resources Development: Education, Training and Lifelong Learning I. Objective, scope and definition II. Development and Implementation of training policies III. Education and pre-employment training IV. Development of competencies V. Training for decent work and social inclusion VI. Framework for recognition and certification of skills VII. Training providers VIII. Career guidance and training support services IX. Research in human resources development, education, training and lifelong learning X. International and technical cooperation XI. Final provision Other related standards adopted by the ILO are the following: Convention 122: Employment Policy Convention, 1964 Recommendation 122: Employment Policy Recommendation, 1964 Convention 140: Paid Educational Leave Convention, 1974 Recommendation 148: Paid Educational Leave Recommendation, 1974 Convention 142: Human Resources Development Convention, 1975 Recommendation 169: Employment Policy (Supplementary Provisions), 1984 For the concerns of disabled persons, the following standards adopted by the ILO are of particular interest: Recommendation 99: Vocational Rehabilitation of the Disabled, 1955 Convention 159: Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (Disabled Persons), 1983 Recommendation 168: Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (Disabled Persons), 1988 There are many more ILO conventions and recommendations that include elements relating to TVET and the workplace, although they primarily address other specific such as mining, agriculture or seafare. Full access to the whole range of standards is provided on the ILO website: http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/recdisp1.htm 3.2 Private sector and civil society involvement As we have noted with respect to the ILO, the adoption of international standards relevant to TVET is not a monopoly of governments represented in international organizations. It occurs likewise in partnership between the United Nations and its specialized agencies in direct cooperation with the private sector and civil society. We will look into two examples: the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism adopted by the Word Tourism Organization (WTO) and endorsed by the General Assembly of the United Nations, and The Global Compact of the United Nations. 3.2.1 The Code of Ethics for Tourism The World Tourism Organization (WTO/OMT)2, a specialized agency of the United Nations, serves as a global forum for tourism policy issues and as a source of tourism know-how. In 2005, the WTO's membership is comprised of 145 countries, seven territories and more than 300 Affiliate Members representing the private sector, educational institutions, tourism associations and local tourism authorities. 2 The World Tourism Organization should not be confused with the World Trade Organization that uses the acronym WTO as well. Hans Krönner: International Standards in Technical and Vocational Education and Training Page 7 In 1999, the WTO General Assembly, which brings together senior tourism officials and high-level representatives of the private sector from all over the world, approved the "Global Code of Ethics for Tourism" (WTO 1999), which has subsequently been endorsed officially by the General Assembly of the United Nations (United Nations 2001). This Global Code stipulates obligations and rights of tourists as well as of professionals and entrepreneurs engaged in this area, including "the right and the duty…" of salaried and self-employed workers in the tourism industry "…to acquire appropriate initial and continuous training" (WTO 1999 Article 9,2) This is but one example of one particular branch of economy. Knowledge workers will certainly find conventions, recommendations, codes and similar documents that relate to their particular area of professional activity (see section "Retrieving more standards" further below). 3.2.2 The Global Compact The Global Compact was initiated by United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan at the World Economic Forum in 1999. It brings companies together with UN agencies, with labor and with civil society to support ten principles in the areas of human rights, labor and the environment: The Ten Principles of the Global Compact The Global Compact's ten principles in the areas of human rights, labour, the environment and anti-corruption enjoy universal consensus are derived from: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights The International Labour Organization's Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development The United Nations Convention against Corruption. The Global Compact asks companies to embrace, support and enact, within their sphere of influence, a set of core values in the areas of human rights, labour standards and the environment. The principles are as follows: Human Rights Principle 1: Businesses should support and respect the protection of internationally proclaimed human rights; and Principle 2: make sure that they are not complicit in human rights abuses. Labour Standards Principle 3: Businesses should uphold the freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining; Principle 4: the elimination of all forms of forced and compulsory labour; Principle 5: the effective abolition of child labour; and Principle 6: the elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation. Environment Principle 7: Businesses should support a precautionary approach to environmental challenges; Principle 8: undertake initiatives to promote greater environmental responsibility; and Principle 9: encourage the development and diffusion of environmentally friendly technologies Anti-Corruption Principle 10: Businesses should work against all forms of corruption, including extortion and bribery. (UN 1999; Principle 10 added later) While, at a first glance, these principles refer to business activities and to the world of work in general, it is obvious that they need to be implanted in TVET curricula, some of them even in general education. Hans Krönner: International Standards in Technical and Vocational Education and Training Page 8 3.3 Retrieving more standards The ILO provides a helpful website that links virtually all areas of human resource development to normative instruments at the level of the United Nations, of the ILO, of UNESCO, of the European Union, as well as of individual countries. I commend this rich and well-structured access to international standards in TVET to professionals engaged in TVET policy, legislation, planning and management. http://www.logos-net.net/ilo/195_base/en/main.htm 4 Legal basis and monitoring Thus far we have referred to instruments entitled "Convention", "Recommendation", "Declaration", "Code" or "Principles" that we consider international standards relevant to TVET. In a next step, let us turn to their legal quality. The United Nations have developed a complex system of mechanisms and procedures for the monitoring of its various international standards related to human rights, including the introduction of a High Commissioner for Human Rights (since 1994). Given that TVET is not a central issue in these instruments, we will not elaborate on these in this paper. Instead, we will turn to the specialized agencies. 4.1 ILO Legal quality The ILO standards take the form of international labour conventions and recommendations. ILO's conventions are international treaties, subject to ratification by ILO Member States, whereas recommendations - often dealing with the same subject as conventions - are non-binding. (Hüfner 2002 section 4,2) Accession Member States become parties to ILO conventions through a ratification process. The current status of ratifications is recorded in a database that can be accessed on the ILO website at http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/newratframeE.htm Monitoring The monitoring of ILO conventions includes regular reporting of each Member State on the measures taken to give effect to the provisions of conventions which it has ratified. An ILO Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations composed of 20 independent legal experts 1provides observations, or addresses requests directly to the reporting government. The Committee's report is then considered at the annual session of the International Labour Conference by a tripartite "Committee on Application of Standards". (Hüfner 2002 section 4,2) Hans Krönner: International Standards in Technical and Vocational Education and Training Page 9 Violations For ILO Conventions, a representation may be filed by a trade union or an employers' organization if a State "has failed to secure in any respect the effective observance within its jurisdiction of any Convention to which it is a party". The representation should contain detailed information concerning the alleged violation. The ILO Governing Body may appoint a tripartite committee to study the allegations. (Hüfner 2002 section 4,2) 4.2 UNESCO Legal quality UNESCO’s standard-setting activities comprise Conventions, Recommendations. They are seen as proposals for submission to Member States. Recommendations are adopted by the General Conference with simple majority. Conventions are adopted by the General Conference with two thirds majority, and, as a rule, subject to ratification, acceptance or accession by states. Conventions define rules with which the parties undertake to comply. Member States are obliged to submit Recommendations and Conventions to their competent national . authorities (e.g. parliaments) within one year. (UNESCO 1945, Article IV,B4) Member States shall make the text of any convention or recommendation known to the bodies, target groups and other entities interested in matters dealt with therein. (UNESCO 2004 Article 16,2) A legal framework for declarations, charters and other similar standard-setting instruments is currently being developed. Accession UNESCO Conventions frequently include a procedure for member states to become parties to the Convention, which, in the case of the Convention for Technical and Vocational Education, may include ratification, acceptance, accession or approval. Monitoring Conventions and Recommendations normally include provisions for member states to submit reports on the measures that they have adopted in relation to each convention in force and each recommendation adopted. UNESCO’s Executive Board examines the reports and submits a summary and its observations to the General Conference (UNESCO 2004 Article 18). Violations In 1978, UNESCO has established a procedure for the examination of alleged human rights violations in its fields of competence, which includes education. For the Convention on Technical and Vocational Education, no specific instruments or provisions have been adopted to this end. 4.3 Global Compact Legal quality The Global Compact is a voluntary initiative. It seeks wide participation from a diverse group of businesses and other organizations. Accession To participate in the Global Compact, a company sends la letter to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, expressing support for the Global Compact and its principles. The company sets in motion changes to business operations so that the Global Compact and its principles become part of strategy, culture and day-to-day operations. The company is expected to publicly advocate the Global Compact and its principles via communications vehicles such as press releases, speeches etc. It is expected to publish in its annual report or similar corporate report (e.g. sustainability report) a description of the ways in which it is supporting the Global Compact and its ten principles. (UN 1999) Monitoring "The Global Compact is not a regulatory instrument – it does not “police”, enforce or measure the behavior or actions of companies. Rather, the Global Compact relies on public accountability, transparency and the enlightened self-interest of companies, labor and civil society to initiate and share substantive action in pursuing the principles upon which the Global Compact is based." (UN 1999) Hans Krönner: International Standards in Technical and Vocational Education and Training Page 10 Violations As the Global Compact is a purely voluntary initiative, it provides no instruments or mechanisms to enforce its principles, nor to prosecute or sanction violations. 5 Utilizing international standards for action planning At the end of this overview of international standards relevant to TVET, you may be asking yourselves how you can benefit from all this in your day-to-day work as TVET "knowledge workers". In line with a definition of "knowledge" presented earlier at this workshop, my presentation is nothing but – hopefully well-structured – information. It is up to you, in your capacity as knowledge workers, to convert this information into "knowledge" by making educated judgments on how to apply it in your specific work context. To that end, you might wish considering relevant conventions and recommendations as follows: As checklists that can help you covering all essential elements in the context of TVET legislation, policy and planning. As reference documents to convince ministers and key officials, since these documents represent internationally agreed standards that can be referred to as legitimate guidelines or benchmarks for national development; as a rule, your government has even actively participated in the adoption of for these instruments at the international level; As legally binding documents to the extent to which they have been ratified in your country through parliaments or otherwise, or to the extent of which your government has spelled out its unequivocal political support. As a curriculum content in technical and vocational education and training. Since TVET is a preparation for work, principles and standards of working life need to be incorporated in the learning process. You might therefore agree that the future workforce should be well informed about existing international standards, including labor standards. This is particularly the case in a more and more globalized economy All this will contribute to not only turning our economies into knowledge economy, but, at least as important, converting our societies into knowledge societies. Hans Krönner: International Standards in Technical and Vocational Education and Training Page 11 References Al-Masri (1999), Munther W., President, National Centre for Human Resources Development, Jordan, in: Second International Congress on Technical and Vocational Education, Final Report. http://www.unevoc.unesco.org/publications/pdf/cld07e.pdf (19.08.2005) Dixon (2000). Nancy M. Dixon. 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