2                                 ENERGY
 4                          Xin Li1, Luiz A. C. Lopes1, and Sheldon S. Williamson1
 5                                 P. D. Ziogas Power Electronics Laboratory
 6                           Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
 7                                           Concordia University
 8                                      1455 de Maisonneuve Blvd. W.
 9                                   Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8, Canada
10                                    Phone: +1/(514) 848-2424, ext. 8741
11                                          Fax: +1/(514) 848-2802
12                         EML:;
13                                 URL:
                                                                 ZENN’s commercialized EV has an average speed of
     ABSTRACT                                                    25 mph and 30-40 miles driving range per charge.
     Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are recently       Currently, the most promising and practical solution is
     being widely touted as a viable alternative to              the hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Its propulsion
     conventional vehicles due to their environment friendly     energy is usually from more than two types of energy
     and energy-wise features. Assuming that moving              storage devices or sources, and one of them has to be
     into the future, a large number of PHEV users will          electric. HEV drive trains are basically divided into
     exist, the overall influence of charging the on-            series and parallel hybrids. Series hybrids are electric-
     board ESS is non-negligible. Instead of charging            intensive vehicles, as the electric motor is the only
     from grid, solar energy is a potential alternative.         traction source, and the internal combustion engine
     In this paper, based on the photovoltaic potential of       (ICE) merely works at its maximum efficiency, as an
     certain locations in Canada, the sizing of the PV panel,    on-board generator, to charge the battery.
     required for charging a PHEV, for operating in an all-      Keeping in mind the goals of creating an energy-wise,
     electric mode for 40 miles daily, is disccussed. More       cost effective, and overall sustainable society, plug-in
     importantly, senario-based case studies based on            hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are recently being
     different vehicle structures are carried out to evaluate    widely touted as a viable alternative to both
     the possiblities of reducing the costs. Finally, a          conventional as well as regular hybrid electric vehicles.
     comprehensive comparison is carried out to summarize        PHEVs are equipped with sufficient on-board electric
     the advantages from different points of view.               power, to support daily driving (an average of 40
                                                                 miles/day) in an all-electric mode, only using the
     INTRODUCTION                                                energy stored in batteries, without consuming a drop of
     Conventional vehicles (CVs), which use petroleum as         fuel. This, in turn, causes the embedded internal
     the only source of energy, represent majority of the        combustion engine (ICE) to use only a minimal amount
     existing vehicles today. As shortage of petroleum is        of fossil fuel to support further driving beyond 40
     considered as one of the most critical world-wide           miles, which further results in reduced green house gas
     issues, costly fuel becomes a major challenge for CV        (GHG) emissions.
     users. Moreover, CVs emit green house gases (GHG),          PHEVs can reduce fuel consumption by charging its
     thus, making it harder to satisfy stringent                 battery from the grid. It is, thus, a valid assumption that
     environmental regulations.                                  moving into the future, a large number of PHEV users
     One of the most attractive alternatives includes electric   will most definitely exist, and the overall influence of
     vehicles (EVs) or zero emission vehicles (ZEVs),            charging the on-board energy storage system (ESS)
     which only consume electric energy. However, due to         cannot be neglected. Related literature by L. Eudy and
     the limited energy densities of the current                 A. Burke firmly states that by the year 2018, the market
     commercially available battery packs, the performance       share of PHEVs will increase to about 25%. Based on
     of EVs are restrained as neighbourhood vehicles, with       this data, the additional electric energy demanded from
     limitations of low speed, short autonomy, and heavy         the distribution grid for 5 million PHEVs would be
     battery packs. As a successful example, Canada-based        roughly about 50 GWh per day. According to Y. Li’s
paper, the typical charging time would be 7 to 8 hours,     such as, long daily driving distance, reasonable on-
which might make it hard to accommodate these               board battery pack weight, high fuel economy, and
additional loads in the load curve without increasing       environment friendliness.
the peak load. Also, the required additional charging
                                                            A typical electrical power system of a PHEV is shown
energy would have a possible impact on the utility
                                                            in Figure 1. Charger plugs in the grid to charge the
system. Expanding the electric system the conventional
                                                            high energy battery. A bidirectional DC/DC converter
way, with large generating plants located far from the
                                                            connects the battery to high voltage bus and it is also
load centers, would require upgrading the transmission
                                                            used to deliver the energy back to battery during
and distribution systems too. Besides the high costs,
                                                            regenerative breaking events.
this can take many years before obtaining the right-of-
way. Alternatively, smaller power plants based on
renewable energy, such as solar energy, can be
installed in a fraction of that time on the distribution
system, which is commonly referred to as “distributed
generation (DG).” Photovoltaic (PV) presents a
modular characteristic and can be easily deployed in
the roof top and facades of residences and buildings.
Many corporations are adopting the green approach for
distributed energy generation. For instance, Google has
installed 9 MWh per day of PV on its headquarters,
Googleplex, in Mountain View, California. At the
moment, it is connected to Mountain View’s section of        Figure 1. Power system schematic of a plug-in HEV
electricity grid. Alternatively, it could be used for                             (PHEV).
charging PHEVs during work hours, being a great perk
for environmentally concerned employees. The energy         As shown in Figure 2, a series PHEV liberates the ICE,
stored in the batteries could also be used for back-up      which is disconnected from the shaft, compared to a
during faults. In Canada, the latest projections (2000)     parallel PHEV, to operate in its optimal efficiency
indicate that by 2010, renewable DG sources will            region. The electric motor is the only propulsion source
represent at least 5 % of the total energy produced and     for the vehicle. Fuel energy is used to charge the
20 % of cogeneration, from the actual figures of 1%         battery when all the electric energy is drained from the
and 4 %, respectively. Therefore, from the environment      battery. Hence, the electric-intensive structure, which
point of view, charging PHEVs with solar power will         represents the future developing trends, is a
be the most attractive solution.                            combination of different energy sources.
This paper deals with the sizing of the PV panel
required for charging a PHEV for operating in an all-
electric mode for 40 miles daily. Keeping the same
autonomy, comparison among different types of
vehicles, such as CVs, HEVs, PHEVs, and EVs is

For the analyses conducted in this paper, the selected
PHEV presents the features of the vehicle’s existing
state as well as the developing trends in terms of the        Figure 2. Block diagram of a typical series PHEV.
vehicle size and pure electric autonomy. The typical
daily driving mileage for a commuter in N. America is       The proposed SUV employs a lithium-ion battery pack
approximately 35-40 miles. Thus, PHEV-40, which has         as the on-board energy source, which has a typical
40 miles daily driving in all-electric mode, is proposed.   energy density of 180 Wh/kg or volumetric energy
In addition, the mid-sized sport utility vehicle (SUV)      density of 250Wh/L. Its price is usually in the range of
possesses the most significant market share in N.           3-5 Wh/dollar. Taking the Toyota Highlander and GM
America. Therefore, a mid-sized SUV PHEV-40,                Volt as references, on an average, about 15 to 17 kWh
configured as a series HEV, is used as the case-study-      of energy is needed (including regenerative breaking)
case vehicle for this paper. As one of the developing       for driving the first 40 miles in all-electric mode. Here,
trends, PHEV-40 presents the user favourable features       an important parameter, battery state of charge (SOC),
is introduced, to describe the charging state of the         in the morning. Therefore, the extra radiant energy in
battery pack. Due to typical PHEV properties, the            summer from 6:00 a.m. to 9:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. to
upper limit of SOC is 95% while the lower limit of           9:00 p.m. cannot affect the PV panel cost.
SOC is 20%. In other words, only 75% of the total            Consequently, the minimum PV panel size for the best
energy is used and the battery cannot be literally fully     day in a year is 20 m2.
charged or completely discharged. Thus, the actual
capacity of battery pack is calculated by Equation (1):

                                                             Daily average solar radiation
                         E req
     E real =                                     (1)                                           5

                SOC hi − SOClow                                                                 4
Here, SOChi is the battery high SOC and SOClow is the
battery low SOC. Hence, the real battery pack range is
from 20 to 23.4 kWh.
                                                                                                        1   2   3      4    5     6    7     8     9    10   11    12
Based on the energy requirement, the size of the PV
panel, used to charge a PHEV in the worst situation          Figure 3. Variation of mean daily solar radiant energy
(under minimum solar radiation received during a day),                       with month in Alberta.
is calculated. The required PV panel size can be

                                                               Hourly average solar radiation
proportionally expanded according to the number of
vehicles, by simply multiplying the unit PV panel size                                          0.6

with the number of vehicles.                                                                    0.5

A great deal of research with regards to solar power
radiation in different areas of Canada has been                                                 0.3

conducted for years. Reliable data is retrieved from the                                        0.2
latest projects for calculation purposes. Figure 3 shows                                        0.1
the variation of mean daily solar radiant energy with
respect to each month, in Alberta, which possesses                                                      1 2 3 4 5 6    7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
greater solar radiation than many other Canadian cities.                                         December       July              Hours
As the required energy (Ereq) charges the PHEV-40
                                                               Figure 4. Variation of solar radiant energy with hour.
from low SOC to high SOC, and mean daily radiation
(Rday) is known, considering the PV array efficiency
( η PV =15%) and DC/DC convert efficiency
                                                             However, the design should be able to meet the needs
                                                             in the worst situation. Therefore, the minimum unit PV
( η DC / DC =95%), the area of the PV array can be           panel size for all year operation should take December
calculated by Equation (2),                                  as a reference, which yields 78 m2. Keeping the same
                                                             PV array size in July, the best day, the received solar
                  Ereq                                       energy can be used to charge 4 PHEVs or to inject
     A=                                           (2)        power into the grid.
          Rdayη PVη DC / DC
                                                             In this way, there is no impact on the grid, no fuel
It is easy to note from Figure 3 that December is the        expenses, and great perk for the employees. However,
month with the lowest solar radiation in a year. In          there is a cost, which can be reduced in different ways.
contrast, July receives the greatest solar radiant energy.   In the next section, different cases are studied to find
However, in winter, the day hour is considered from          out the appropriate PV panel size and possible
9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., whereas, in summer it is from        measures to reduce the overall cost.
6:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., as shown in Figure 4. By
integrating the two curves in Figure 4, it is easy to find   CASE STUDIES
that the reduced radiant energy in December is
                                                             As mentioned earlier, the typical daily driving mileage
approximately 3/8 of the received solar energy in July.
                                                             in the N. America is approximately 35-40 miles. The
However, since PV can be connected with the grid, one
                                                             PHEV-40, if fully charged every day, can cover the
can always charge the battery from the grid with the
                                                             daily driving without using any fuel. In this section, the
energy that was injected there before the PHEV arrived
PHEV-40 is compared to different types of vehicles, in       Pure EVs
order to assess its advantages and disadvantages.
                                                             A pure EV replaces the petroleum-based CV
Conventional Vehicles                                        propulsion system with a pure electric drive train. The
                                                             commercialized EVs such as the REVA and ZENN
Considering the popular conventional SUV Highlander          usually employ an AC induction motor with a torque-
as an example; it employs a 270hp, 3.5L, V6 ICE, with        capability of 45-55 Nm at zero speed. As energy
an appalling fuel economy of 25 mpg in the city and 35       sources, they typically use several heavy-duty lead-acid
mpg on highway. The capacity of the fuel tank is 19          battery packs, with typical sizes of 10-13 kWh, which
gallons, which endows the SUV 475-mile autonomy.             cost about $7/kWh.
Compared to EVs, there is no investment in PV panel
installation or maintenance of battery packs. However,       For the purpose of comparison, it is assumed that the
the costly fuel and serious environmental problems are       electric energy used to drive EVs over the first 40 miles
the limitations of CVs.                                      is totally provided by PV. Maintaining the minimum
                                                             PV cost (20 m2), as the previously proposed PHEV-40,
Assuming a user drives a mid-sized SUV in a regular
                                                             the users may charge the car at home at their own cost,
manner, the gasoline consumed over 40 miles daily
driving is approximately 1.6 gallons. Based on the           if further driving distance is needed. Different battery
estimated gasoline price trend, Table 1 depicts the          chemistries and their typical charging time from a
estimated average yearly gasoline price and fuel cost in     residential outlet, for 40 miles energy usage, are
10 years. The costs incurred due to fuel usage can be        summarized in Table 2. Even though it is the auto
saved if the 40-mile daily drive can be replaced by all-     industry’s preliminary battery, lead-acid (PbA)
electric driving. As the fuel price increases, the savings   batteries are out of favour for EV applications, because
on fuel cost will be a justified reason for the consumers    of its low energy density. In comparison, the nickel-
to invest in advanced EVs.                                   metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery is favoured more,
                                                             because of its higher energy density, shorter charging
                        Table 1                              time, and long life cycle, but it presents an immature
    Estimated average yearly gasoline price trend            recycling system. The lithium-ion (Li-Ion) battery
   (dollar/gallon) and savings on gasoline (dollar).         chemistry is considered as a definite future trend, but
                                                             compared to the other 2 candidates; it has lower
    Year        2007    2008     2009     2010      2011
                                                             durability, which is an issue that needs to be focussed
   average      2.81    3.22     3.86      4.64     5.80
 yearly price                                                                       Table 2
    Daily                                                     Typical charging time and energy density of popular
                4.50    5.15     6.18      7.42     9.27
   saving                                                                 battery candidate for EVs.
                1641    1880     2257     2708      3385
    Year        2012    2013     2014     2015      2016
                                                                Battery       PbA      Ni-MH      Li-Ion      Unit
  Estimated                                                                  8 - 10     6 - 14     5-7       Hours
   average      7.25    9.42     12.24    15.92    22.28
 yearly price                                                   Energy
                                                                               60         80        180      Wh/kg
                11.59   15.07    19.59    25.47    35.65
   Yearly                                                    The performance of commercialized EVs is mainly
                4231    5500     7151     9296     13014
                                                             restrained by the capacity of on-board battery packs.
                                                             For instance, the ZENN can only drive at 25-35 mph
Apart from fuel cost, the inefficient operation of ICE,      and has a limited driving distance with each full
which results in roughly about 15% overall drive train
                                                             charging. In order to have the same performance and
efficiency, is also not energy-wise. Moreover, from the
                                                             autonomy as CVs, the size of battery on an EV has to
environmental point of view, a CV emits almost 9 tons
                                                             be at least 8 times greater. As is well-known, lead-acid
CO2 equivalent greenhouse gas emissions per year,
                                                             battery has the low energy density about 30-40 Wh/kg
based on 40-mile daily driving. Thus, it is gradually
                                                             or 70 Wh/L. As a result, greater vehicle weight and
becoming hard for auto manufacturers to meet the
stringent requirements of environmental regulations.         larger space to store battery pack will be accepted
                                                             neither by the manufacturers nor the consumers.
HEVs                                                        emission, environmental issues, and the increasing
                                                            gasoline price are the major drawbacks in this case.
Combining the advantages of CVs and EVs, HEVs are
an available alternative to the aforementioned vehicles.    Grid PHEVs
Compared to CVs, EVs have higher fuel economy,
less GHG emission, and more comfortable driving             Simply, an HEV that can be pre-charged from the grid
experience. It is totally disconnected from either PV or    is termed as a PHEV. As one of the HEV family, an
the grid. For series HEVs, the on-board ICE works as a      advanced attribute of the PHEV is that the control
generator, to convert the fuel energy to electric energy,   strategy guarantees the usage of electric energy, and is
when needed. In this way, it ensures that the ICE           the first priority. Fuel is only used for further traveling
operates in its maximum efficiency region and provides      after electric energy is drained out.
the vehicle the ability to drive long distances.            Considering the same battery as that for the HEV, fully
Consequently, a relatively smaller on-board battery         charging the battery takes almost 8 hours from a
pack can be used, compared to that of pure EVs.             conventional residential power outlet. Driving PHEVs
For a mild series hybrid vehicle, the hybridization         in places, such as Montreal and Vancouver, where
factor (HF), which is defined as the ratio of the           electricity rates are among the lowest in the world,
difference between the powers of both the electric          fully charging the battery only costs approximately $9.
motor and the ICE to the power of the electric motor, is    However, by employing the aforementioned battery,
no more than 40%. Assuming that the monitored mild          when fully charged, it is only capable of driving almost
series HEV is driven in a city and highway combined         25 miles in all-electric mode. For this reason, either a
pattern, the sizes of both the ICE and the motor are        2-times greater on-board battery pack needs to be
dertermined based on the load demands of Figure 5 as        installed, or the vehicle needs to run in an electric-fuel
well as the HF. Therefore, the sizes of ICE and electric    combined pattern for 40 miles daily driving. In the
motor are 75 kW and 125 kW (continuous power),              latter case, based on the above analysis, driving 40
respectively. As the favoured battery of the HEV            miles per day in Montreal needs 2 more dollars for
industry, the 25-module NiMH-60, which has a rated          gasoline, which is more economic and more
voltage of 335 volts, 60 A peak current, and 316 kg         environmentally friendly than driving HEVs. However,
weight (with 6 kWh stored energy), is used for the          apart from the fuel cost, GHG emission cannot be
above mentioned HEV.                                        eliminated since it is only a half ZEV and if the utility
                                                            is using thermal generation, charging PHEV from grid
                                                            eventually contributes to GHG emission.

                                                            PV-Grid PHEVs
                                                            The best solution from both the environmental and fuel
                                                            economy points of view is that the PHEV can be fully
                                                            or partially charged regularly from a renewable energy
                                                            source. For example, when charging with solar energy,
                                                            the user drives the car to work in the morning and back
                                                            in the evening. Hence, the vehicle can be charged
                                                            during the day.
                                                            Keeping the same size of PHEV as that in previous
                                                            sections, the first case (Case 1) presented here is that a
Figure 5.City and highway combined driving schedule.
                                                            large PV panel is needed to guarantee the ability of
Unlike the PV-based PHEV, charging from the grid            fully charging a PHEV all year long. Thus, the PV
eliminates the limitation of charging from PV.              panel is designed based on the worst situation of a year.
However, charging from grid will be a problem as the        As mentioned earlier in the paper, 78 m2 is required for
number of PHEV users grow. In addition, HEVs save           charging a PHEV all year long.
the cost of PV panel, electricity, and huge battery pack,   Also, the proposed PHEV-40 is armed with a 23.4kWh
but incurs gasoline costs. The essential difference         Li-Ion battery pack, used to store the 17kWh electric
between an HEV and the proposed PHEV-40 is that             energy, which can be used to satisfy 40 miles of daily
more gasoline is involved in the activities of HEVs. 1.3    driving. In summer, the surplus solar energy can be
gallons of gasoline is needed for the 40 miles daily        injected into the grid. During the best days of the year,
driving for 30 mpg fuel economy. Also, GHG                  the surplus energy generated by the 78 m2 solar panel is
67kWh. This is able to create at least $4.6 revenue per      of the year, the initial cost for PV panel would be
day in Montreal, or $22.1 per day in New York City.          almost $20,000. For latter case, the initial cost for PV
                                                             panel is only $10,000. However, for the first case,
From the vehicle point of view, the on-board battery
                                                             surplus energy can be injected into grid, to balance the
would be the major element that needs to be considered
                                                             final cost. It is important to note that the solar
into cost. However, benefit of driving a PHEV-40 is
                                                             electricity sales rate in May 2007 was 27.33
irresistible, such as no fuel cost over regular daily
                                                             cents/kWh. Assuming that users fully charge their
driving, zero green house gas (GHG) emission in pure
                                                             vehicles for 40-mile driving every day and use PV as
electric mode, and the comfortable driving experience.
                                                             first priority, Table 4 elaborates the operation costs for
The second case (Case 2) presented here is that the PV       the 2 above cases during a year. Apparently, Case 1
panel is designed based on the best day of year, which       suppresses Case 2.
means the PHEV can only be fully charged for 40-mile
                                                             It is critical to note that although the proposed PV-
daily driving during the sunniest day of the year. In this
                                                             based PHEV needs the investment for the solar panel
way, as described in the second section of this paper,
                                                             integration with buildings, the enormous environmental
one can obtain the minimum PV panel size, which is 20
                                                             impact is non-negligible. Moreover, as the years go by,
m2. Keeping the same on-board battery capacity as in
                                                             it is easy to notice that the full-size design in the former
previous case, a PHEV is able to operate as the normal
                                                             case presents a more promising future, due to the
pure PV-based PHEV-40 in July, but as the solar
                                                             feature of injecting energy into the grid rather than only
radiation decreases during rest of the year, the PHEV
                                                             drawing energy. In addition, energy storage systems
needs to be charged from grid. Table 3 lists the average
                                                             with higher energy densities, such as ultra-capacitors
daily solar generated energy with respect to the month,
                                                             and fly-wheels, also provide the PHEV the ability to
based on the minimum PV panel design. Assuming
                                                             drive as a ZEV for a longer distance.
users need 40-mile daily driving, it is clear to see that
in the worst situation, only 4.3 kWh is generated and        In general, Table 5 briefly summarizes the key
therefore, the remaining 12.7kWh needs to be charged         elements compared in the above analyses. As shown in
from grid. Only in June and July can surplus energy be       Table 5, the potential of PHEVs is definitely very
generated, and in the worst case of December, user           promising.
needs to pay $0.9 for charging from the grid.
                       Table 3                               This paper presented a method for sizing the PV panel
    Average daily solar energy with month in kWh.            for PHEV charging stations, using solar energy. Also,
                                                             the cost from 2 different points of view, solar panel
  Month          January       February        March         oriented and vehicle charging strategy oriented is cross
 Generated                                                   compared. As a clean and renewable energy source, the
                   5.56           8.31         11.54
 PV Energy                                                   PV-based PHEV-40 is able to take advantages of the
  Month            April          May           June         distributed solar charging network, which features
 Generated                                                   attractive advantages such as low cost, pollution free
                   13.85         15.90         17.31
 PV Energy                                                   environment, and low maintenance. Therefore,
  Month            July         August       September       charging a PHEV using solar power is one of the most
 Generated                                                   attractive options, to create an energy-wise, cost
                   17.40         15.53         12.41         effective, and overall sustainable society.
 PV Energy
  Month           October      November      December        As the comparison in the last section suggested, costs
 Generated                                                   of charging PHEVs with solar energy will reduce as the
                   8.95           5.86          4.37         prices of solar modules go down. Also, it is important
 PV Energy
                                                             to note that PV harbours a great advantage, in that the
In summer, a vehicle can be fully charged by PV, and         extra energy can be injected into grid, which can be
charged by both PV and grid when solar radiation is          used to balance the PV costs.
not satisfied. It reduces the impact of PHEVs on the         It is evident that a lot of future research is needed to
power grid as well as helps companies reduce the costs       study the charging of PHEVs through PV. Several
on energy saving. However, from the PV panel’s point         issues, such as maximizing the use of solar energy for
of view, the second case saves the cost of PV modules.       charging a fleet of PHEVs in a location similar to
The typical lowest cost of solar modules as of May,          Googleplex, and using the PHEVs as uninterruptible
2008 is approximately $4.9 CAD/Watt. For case 1,             power supplies (UPSs) during power outages, to boost
when solar power is designed based on the worst day
the reliability of the intelligent buildings, could be the   S. Upson, “The greening of Google,” IEEE Spectrum,
interesting topics in the future work.                           Oct. 2007, pp. 25-28.

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                                                                        Table 4
                                                          Final operation costs during a year.

                                                                                                                                       Total grid electricity
         Month                       January                  February                    March                      April
                                                                                                                                         sales (Dollars)
     Generated PV                Case 1    Case 2         Case 1      Case 2       Case 1        Case 2      Case 1      Case 2         Case 1       Case 2
       Energy                    21.67         5.56        29.45          8.31     45.02             11.54   54.02       13.85
  Energy injected (+)                                                                                                                  2662.10      -241.43
   or drawn (-) from              4.67     -11.44          12.45          -8.69    28.02             -5.46   37.02       -3.15
                                                                                                                                       Total grid electricity
         Month                           May                       June                       July               August
                                                                                                                                         sales (Dollars)
     Generated PV                Case 1    Case 2         Case 1      Case 2       Case 1        Case 2      Case 1      Case 2         Case 1       Case 2
       Energy                    62.02         15.90       67.52          17.31    67.86             17.40   60.58       15.53
  Energy injected (+)                                                                                                                  6309.21       -15.94
   or drawn (-) from             45.02         -1.10       50.52          0.31     50.86             0.40    43.58       -1.47
                                                                                                                                       Total grid electricity
         Month                     September                   October                  November               December
                                                                                                                                         sales (Dollars)
     Generated PV                Case 1    Case 2         Case 1      Case 2       Case 1        Case 2      Case 1      Case 2         Case 1       Case 2
       Energy                    48.46         12.41       34.90          8.95     22.84             5.86    17.06           4.37
  Energy injected (+)                                                                                                                  1820.44      -310.92
   or drawn (-) from             31.46         -4.59       17.90          -8.05        5.84      -11.14       0.06       -12.63
               Total solar energy sales during a year (solar electricity sale rates: $0.27/kWh)                                       10791.75      -568.29
                                                       Initial PV panel cost                                                          20781.23      5328.52
                                           Final cost during a year operation                                                            9989         5897
  * Grid electricity rates: $0.07/kWh (Based on Montreal market)

                                                                      Table 4
                                                             Summary of cost comparison.

                                                    Estimated                                                                   Equivalent            Fuel
                      PV            Battery                                 GHG                               Engine
   Vehicles                                       fuel economy                                Motor size                       ZEV driving         equivalent
                      size           pack                                  emission                            size
                                                   per 40 miles                                                                rang/charge         price/mile
                                                                           9 tons per                        200kW @
      CV             0 m2            N/A               1.6 gallons                               N/A                                0 miles        $0.13/mile
                                                                              year                           5600 rpm
                                                                                               200 kW
      EV             0 m2           17 kWh         No fuel usage             ZEV                                N/A                 30 miles       $0.04/mile
                                                                            6.4 tons           125 kW        75 kW @
     HEV             0 m2           6 kWh              1.2 gallons                                                                  14 miles       $0.09/mile
                                                                            per year          continuous     5600 rpm
                                                                                               125 kW        75 kW @
 Grid PHEV           0 m2           23 kWh         No fuel usage             ZEV                                                    40 miles       $0.04/mile
                                                                                              continuous     5600 rpm
           Case              2                                                                 125 kW        75 kW @
 PV-                78 m            23 kWh         No fuel usage             ZEV                                                    40 miles         $0/mile
            1                                                                                 continuous     5600 rpm
PHEV       Case              2                                                                 125 kW        75 kW @
                    20 m            23 kWh         No fuel usage             ZEV                                                    40 miles       $0.02/mile
            2                                                                                 continuous     5600 rpm
* Electricity prices are based on the electricity rates in Montreal

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