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					    Ancient History
                             Spartan Society

                     Greek Period 500 – 440 BC

                 Augustus and the Julio-Claudians

                        Agrippina the Younger
Reminders
   When citing ancient sources, comment on their unreliability
   When asked to explain the role, discuss what s/he did, when asked to assess
      the impact, discuss what the result was.




1
Greek Period – 500-440 BC
How was Athenian democracy developed?
   500 - Oath taken by bouletai - Indicates increased importance of the Boule
   500 - First strategoi (10 Generals) elected to advise the polemarch
         - Weakened the power of the archons and the Areopagus
         - At marathon, Polemarch was still Chief but the strategoi no longer
            needed Polemarch.
   488 - Ostracism law introduced
         - Five men from the family of tyrant Peisitratis and Alkmaedonids were
            ostracised.
   487 - Klerosis ek prokiton
         - Made lottery part of the process of electing archons
         - Redundancy of Polemarch by strategoi caused downgrading of archons
         - 9 archons chosen from a list of 500 - 50 put forward by each tribe
         - “Appointment to office by lot was central to democratic theory and
            practice” Aristotle
   483 - Naval bill had political implications
         - Opened up citizenship for more than just the hoplites
         - The creation of a new navy shifted the military epicentre away from
            the hoplite class to the people as a whole” Murray
   462 - Areopagus (Ephialtes)
         - Made Areopagus in control of only homicide and sacrilege
         - Hade been made up of less advantageous members due to the archons
            being chosen by lot, Powers were acquired – not given by constitution
         - Proposed at time when 4000 wealthier Athenians (hoplites) were in
            Sparta – these people would have opposed the reforms. Absence of
            Kimon.
         - Gave the people the duties that the Areopagus had once had, Made the
            people meet more often to increase power
   461 - Graph paranomen (Ephialtes)
         - Introduced law to enable any citizen to be questioned when they
            introduced a measure than was in conflict with existing law
         - The person bringing up graph paranomen would be rewarded and
            mover of unconstitutional proposal would be fined
         - However, if the graph paranomen did not get at least 1/5 of the votes,
            they would be fined 1000 drachmas and loose civic rights.
   453 - Deme judges
         - Thirty deme-judges were appointed - Minor disputes at a local level
   451 - Mithos (Pericles)
         - Payment for dikasts, magistrates and boule (commitment as a dikast
            (jury member) needed wealth, as days were lost to hearing the cases)
         - “Pericles bribed the multitudes, one and all, with theatre ticket and fees
            for dikasts and other forms of misthos” Whitehead
   451 - Laws restricting citizenship (Pericles)
         - Only people who‟s parents were both Athenian citizens were
            considered citizens - Reduced citizen numbers
         - Pericles gained popularity – Athenians felt part of an exclusive club
   457 – Archonship opened up to Zugitae


2
How democratic was Athens?
   Democratic features
        - “fundamental principals of democracy – accountability the lot and
           payment for office” Buckley
        - Misthos
        - Ostracism stopped tyranny and had accountability
        - Klerosis ek Prokiton
        - The Boule (the people) balanced power of Areopagus
        - Increased Authority of Ecclesia enhanced prestige of Boule
        - Proposed reforms went to the Ecclesia via the Boule.
        - There was political activity at deme level.
        - Payment allowed poorer people to have power
        - Deme judges brought in justice for the people in rural Attica
   Aristocratic features
        - Power of archons not reduced
        - Even though Areopagus was restricted, it still had some power
        - Areopagus remained restricted to ex-archons
        - Oligarchy – the strategoi were elected and those that were known were
           elected
        - Absence of state pay precluded thetes and poorer people from standing
           for election to Boule.
        - Ostracism could be corrupted as they were often pre-prepared and
           people could not read
   Democracy for Athens, tyranny for the empire?
        - “Athenians guiding their polis with the moneys which (Greece) had to
           be compelled to contribute for the war”
        - Exploited they empire
   Isonomia
        - Equality under the laws, but not a true democracy




3
How was the Delian League transformed to Athenian Empire?
   The Delian league
          - “Retaliating for what they had lost” from the Persians – Thucydides
          - Founded in 477 after the defeat of Persia
          - States who had defended Greece – members of the Hellenic League
              minus Sparta “snatched the hegemony from Sparta” Thucydides
          - Independent allies, but with Athens as the predominant member
          - To liberate Greek states (Ionia) and also to preserve their liberty
          - Each state in the league had a vote on any issue raised.
          - Also the island of Delos served as a treasury for the league. This
              treasury was contributed to by all states in what was known as phoros
          - Each state chose contributing either money or ships to the league.
          - As each state joined the league, they had to swear an oath of loyalty in
              perpetuity. Dropping lumps of iron into sea
          - “Consciously and cynically planned the empire” Hornblower
   Revolt of Naxos, in 469bc.
          - The Athenians knew that they could not allow anyone to leave the
              league, so they besieged Naxos until they agreed to re-enter the league.
              Not a major change as Athens was only enforcing the constitution.
          - “I will act and speak and advise as fittingly and best I can concerning
              the people of the Athenians”
   The second case was Thasos, four years later, in 465bc. This differed from the
     first test because trade and gold mines in Thasos caused the dispute, which
     was well beyond the leagues concern.
          - Thasos were also besieged and brought back into the league. As a
              punishment Thasos lost the right of having a choice whether to
              contribute ships or money to the league.
          - It was made a Subject State. This meant that it had to pay tribute. This
              was a significant change to the league‟s constitution, because Athens
              punished Thasos for reasons outside the leagues concern.
   Military
          - Another change we can see gradually developing, is enforced military
              service. Athens claimed use of allies in the wars in Egypt was justified
              by the constitution because Egypt was rebelling against Persia.
          - The war in Egypt was too far away to concern the league - Athens was
              breaking the constitution by imposing military service on the league.
          - Forcing their allies to fight in battles outside the league‟s aims.
   Delos
          - Initially all members were given an equal vote in a council at Delos
          - Treasury kept at Delos
          - Because of real or imagined danger the treasury was transported from
              Delos to the Athenian Acropolis
          - The Synod never met again because Athens made all decisions
          - Athens took complete control over the leagues funds.
          - The league had now become the Athenian Empire
   Tightening power
          - Having created her empire, Athens started to tighten her control to
              make sure she could keep it.
          - The first thing she did was to make her allies swear a new oath of
              loyalty.


4
           -   “I will not revolt from the people of Athens, nor will I permit others to
               do so. ¨
           - Athens also started to set up democratic governments in most of the
               allied states. These were based on her own system.
           - Another measure introduced by Athens was the setting up of garrisons
               in states that had rebelled. The garrison was meant to discourage any
               other rebellions and also to help protect the inspectors ( Episkopoi),
               sent to these states by Athens.
           - Vowed to “have the same friends and enemies as Sparta”
           - Also Athens forced her allies to change to a common coinage and
               weights system. If they refused, they would be excluded from trade.
           - Many of the allies felt bitter at this change and felt they were losing
               their identity and just becoming a part of Athens empire.
           - The final change in this period was Athens insistence that all major
               legal cases be heard in Athens, by her own law courts.
       Peace of Callias
           - As the treaty of Callias effectively removed the threat from Persia
               many allies considered the leagues aims complete and felt they should
               be allowed to leave.
           - Athens however was not prepared to give up her empire. This is
               definitely an important point in the treatment of her allies as it showed
               the entire original purposes of the league were fulfilled. But Athens
               was going to hold on whether the allies liked it or not.. Athens was
               determined to hold the allies to their perpituitous oath and in 447bc the
               Cleinian decree declared that allies had to continue paying tribute and
               that tribute ships would be sent out to allied states to collect it.
           - Force would be used to get the tribute if payment was refused. The
               effectiveness of this decree is shown as the following year, the allies
               started to pay again!
           - Pericles, worried at the allies' desires to leave, decided to tighten up
               control further in 446bc. He issued the Chalchis decree. This declared
               that all allies must “promise not to revolt, promise to pay tribute and be
               obedient to Athens.”




5
Role of Aristeides
    As a military leader
          - Set an example at Marathon for Generals to defer to Miltiades as the
              “better man” giving him full credit
          - Marathon, fought “in the centre where the struggle was most furious”
          - With Themistocles led and destroyed Persian fleet at Salamis
          - Helped Themistocles by reporting Persian encirclement of Salamis.
          - Aristeides led Greek force that “destroyed the flower of Persian youth”
          - Commanded Athenian contingent at battle of Plantae which drove
              Persian army away from Greece
          - Commanded Athenian contingent in Hellenic league. Plutarch says
              Pausanias was antagonistic that allies urged Aristeides to take control,
          However
          - Plutarch idealises him: “Aristeides was a quiet, steady man who loved
              justice and truth and would never lie, flatter or abuse anybody”
          - Sealey suggests that due to a sea level rising since antiquity, the
              channel between Salamis was too narrow so credit for alerting about
              the encirclement of salamis is impossible.
          - Why would allies have suddenly changed their mind about being
              subservient? This may have been more urging on the part of Athens –
              or a way to make Aristeides look better in the eyes of history.
    As part of the Delian league
          - Aristeides took over as “chief organiser” (Eherenberg) of Delian fleet
          - Aristotle says Aristeides assessed Phoros “fairly”.
          - Plutarch reports that Aristeides opposed the movement of the Delian
              treasury to Athens, as it was “unjust but to Athens advantage”
          However
          - Fairness of phoros? The total sum of 454 talents in the “Athenian
              quota lists” at the beginning, compared to 490 later indicates that, with
              an increase in members, the early member were charges a great deal
          - How could he be opposed to this movement, as it being dated at 454 it
              is to late for him to still be alive (sealey), when it is told by Sealey that
              he died in 468BC.
    As a politician
          - Was a conservative and opposed Themistocles Naval Bill
          - Election as archon in 489 following Marathon and was very strict with
              “opposing anybody breaking the rules of Cleisthenes‟ reforms”
              Eherenberg
          - Aristeides the just
          - Ostracised after opposing Themistocles Naval bill
          - A law was passed about exiles having to be outside a line between
              Geraitos and Skyllaion as Aristeides was within this
          - Plutarch says Aristeides had no opposition, but Themistocles did
          - Plutarch says that he was so poor (as he did not profit from politics)
              that his tomb was “built at the public expense”
          However
          - Aristeides the Just – political propaganda – an encomium
          - Plutarch is critical of Themistocles, reflecting wide distance in writing
              – proof that he had become powerful
          - Why would he be ostracised if there was no opposition? Eherenberg


6
Account for the Persian Wars
    Reasons for the Ionian Revolt
          - Persian was exploiting Ionia
                  Severe enough for Greek resentment
          - Trade had been disrupted
                  When Persia moved into Egypt, Ionia lost their markerts
          - Racism
                  Persians were seen as barbarians
          - Aristagoras
                  Tyrant of Miletus, placed by Persians
                  Had been given permission to go for a raid on behalf of Persia
                          Raid failed
                          Feared response by Persia following hi failure
                  Decided to encourage Ionia Tyrants to rise up against Persian
                     authority
    Existing disharmony between Athens and Persia
          - Democracy: introduced by Cleithenes 508-7
                  Athens introduced Democracy but knew Sparta would attempt
                     to invade and end their democracy
                          Sparta was most powerful state
                          Sparta feared democracy: in their own State, would give
                             way for revolution of helots
                  Athens wanted a powerful Ally to protect her from Sparta
                          Cleithenes sent envoys to Persia for Alliance
                          Persia agreed on condition of “Land and water”
                                o Traditional symbols of Subservience and
                                    Submission
                          Envoys agreed
                  Breaking the agreement
                          Cleithenes said Persian could not be the Athenian
                             overlord, as the Spartan situation had been resolved
                                o See notes (Failed Spartan invasion of Athens)
                          Athens was now disliked by Persia, as the agreement
                             was broken
    Mardonis‟ policy towards Greece
                  Policy of continuing advancement
          - Mardonis
                  Son-in-law and nephew of Darius
                  Took control of Western operations in 492
                  Established democracies in Ionia
                  Extended Persian Power.




7
What were the Persian and Greek Strategies prior to the Great Invasion?
   Greek
         - All feuds between member states were brought to an end. Particularly
            Athens and Aegina
         - The command of the army and the navy should be given to Sparta
         - All states who medized voluntarily and not under compulsion should
            have their land confiscated.
         - Envoys to be sent to Argos, Syracuse, Crete and Corcyra to request
            military aid.
         - Second meeting to be held at Isthmus and 480 when report from spies
            would be available.
   Persian
         - Used Hippias who was an old Tyrant of Athens, knew Athens wand
            wanted to reclaim postion.
         - Canal built though Isthmus so that fleet would not have to go around
            story point.
         - Bridges were built across Hellespont in Thrace to speed up movement.
         - Food depots located on route to feed troops and be supplies for
            advancement into Greece.
         - Roads were built and paved where necessary
         - Guard posts, etc, made to protect Persian communication lines.
         - Numbers of Persian Forces
                 Herodotus:
                         1,7000,000 land forces
                         1000 ships
                 Modern:
                         80,000 land forces
                         600 ships
         - Psychological warfare
                 Hellenic League sent three spies to gather information about
                    Persia. Spies were captured by Persians. Allowed to see the
                    extent of Persian military strength and sent back




8
What were the Persian and Greek Strategies during the Great Invasion?
Thermopylae (Persian Victory)
    Greek Strategy
          o Warfare styles
                  Success on land achieved with heavily-armed hoplites
                  Persian fighting was different to Greek
                  Persians used cavalry and archers
                  Suited to Wide open terrain
          - Land strategy of Greeks was therefore based on what would benefit the
             hoplites
                  Thin, narrow passes
                  Areas where the Greek hand to hand fighting and thrusting
                     spears would be better than the Persians.
          - Naval Strategy
                  Athenians had heavier ships
                  Both sides aimed to board enemy ship and take it
                  Greeks needed to fight in narrow strait where Persian larger
                     force would be a handicap.
          - The Greek Strategy was to outwit the Persian planning with careful
             strategic selection of battlegrounds that would allow the geeks the
             greatest advantage.
          - Hellenic League decided to guard Thermopylae - “guard the pass at
             Thermopylae” – Herodotus
                  Based on defensive an offensive strategy
          - Leonidas ordered allies to retreat except 700 Thespians and 400
             Thebans as well as his 300 Spartans.
                  Leonidas sacrificed himself – two possibilities
                          Delphi said a Spartan king would have to die for Sparta
                             to survive.
                          Had to buy time for the Greeks to retreat, otherwise,
                             Persia would have killed entire force.
    Persian Strategy
          - Xerxes determined than army and navy should work together
          - Necessitated early advance of the army in order to ensure safe
             anchorage.
          - Strategy
                  Unassailable at a frontal attack
                  Perfect defensive land position
                  Persians could not be defeated but could be held up and force
                     Persia to take to sea, where Greece would defeat them.
          - Reality
                  Breakthrough after three days
                  After Ephialtes revealed existence of the Anopaean path, so the
                     Persian troops turned the Greek position – after 1000 Phocians
                     had fled.
Artemisium (Persian Victory)
    Greek Strategy
          - A storm had destroyed 400 (Herodotus exaggerates) ships
          - Waited until late in the day so the Persian ships would be dispersed
          - Reduced Persia ships os they were closer to being equal


9
      Persian Tactical advantage
          - If fighting occurred in open water, Persian ships (faster and lighter)
              would take Greeks.
Salamis (Greek Victory)
    Greek Strategy
          - Athenian Evacuation
                   After loss at Artemisium, the Greek fleet put in a Salamis to
                      evacuate the women and Children to Salamis, Magara and
                      Aegina
                   Greek ships then joined rest of Greeks ships joined main fleet
                      and Isthmus was the base for the fleet.
          - Debate at Salamis
                   Retire to Isthmus where defensive wall was being built.
                           “At the Isthmus, they could escape to their own people”
                              – Herodotus
                   Stay at Salamis (Evidence from Themistocles)
                           If you fight at Isthmus, would have to be an open sea
                              battle. Salamis gives narrow fighting, where Greece
                              would win.
                           If You fight at Isthmus, “will loose Salamis, Magara
                              and Aegina when children are, even if you are
                              successful” – Herodotus. But if Salamis is kept, then
                              women and children are safe.
                           If you fight at Isthmus, you will lead Persians to the rest
                              of Greece. No matter where you fight, you will be
                              fighting in defence of the Peloponnese.
                           Themistocles threatened Eurybiades that Athenians
                              would leave Greece if they were to fight at isthmus
    Persian Strategy
          - Relied upon joint operation between army and navy.
                   Destroy Greek navy by attacking with whole of Persian Fleet
                   Divide the navy and leave one behind to neutralise the Greek
                      Navy, and other to the Isthmus to invade.
                   Had huge losses
                   Couldn‟t afford to split navy – took option one.
                   “Everything was being done by the God in order to make the
                      Persian navy equal to the Greek.” - Herodotus
          - Persians would not have been eager to fight in narrow straits.
                   Hoped to tempt Greeks into open waters or do battle at the
                      Isthmus.
          - Persians were forced to attack
                   Sailing season was coming to an end, otherwise Persian would
                      be forced to retire to Thessaly in order to have an adequate
                      supply of grain for the winter.
                   The bulk of the Greek forces remained intact and dangerous
                           To retreat for the winter, he would have to surrender his
                              control of central Greece and thus have to face another
                              Thermopylae and Artemisium
479



10
       Greek Strategy
          - Hard to deduce
          - Herodotus described Platea and Mycale as two sperate events and does
              not describe and strategic connection.
          - Athens and Sparta
                   Athens wanted the Greek land army to forsake the Isthmus and
                     go into the offensive
                          Had already evacuated their population and did not
                              want to do it again.
                          Themistocles lost support in Athens as he wanted land
                              camapign
                   Sparta were reluctant to pursue defensive land strategy
                          Overwhelming advantage of defence behind Isthmus
                              wall – this protected the Isthmus
                          Spartan praise for Themistocles shows their agreement
                              with his plan for a naval campaign in order to force the
                              withdrawal of the Persian from Greece.
                   Shortage of Greek man power
                          May have been because Athens were holding back some
                              of their ships because they disapproved of the naval
                              campaign.
                          May have been because there was a shortage of Greek
                              manpower
                          More men were allocated to the army at the expense of
                              the navy
                          Focus on land attack
    Persian Strategy
          - The Greeks were protected behind Isthmus wall
                   Mardonis knew he would have to turn the Isthmus wall.
                   Would offer Athens incentives to help them – the rebuilding of
                     their cities
                   Athens refused his offers
          - Backup plan
                   Tempt the Greeks to come out from behind the wall
                   Fight a land battle that his cavalry would win
          - Problems
                   The troops were demoralised
                   Inability to fight an effective sea battle due to loss of ships
                   Xerxes leaving with troops reduced the numbers to fight.
                   Might be forced to concede the advantage of fighting on his
                     chosen terrain
Plataea (Greek Victory)
    Greek Strategy
          - Response to provoking Athens into land battle
          - Athens sent envoys to Sparta
                   Reminded them of the rewards for Athenian medizing and
                     reprimanded them for not prevented occupation.
                   Sparta excuse for the delay in protecting Attica was the
                     religious festival of Hyacinthia



11
                               Chileos made it clear that the Isthmus wall was futile if
                                Athens medized.
                                   o Combination of Athenian blackmail and the
                                       pressure from Peloponnese caused them to
                                       mobilise and advance into Boetia.
        Persian Strategy
            - Persia sent the Macedonian king to Athens with an offer that, if the
                Athenias joined the Persia side, they would receive favourable terms
                     Forgiveness of all Athenian hostile acts
                     Return of Attica
                     Gift of Territory
                     Rebuilding of all temples
            - Sparta‟s response
                     Sparta immediately sent envoys to Athens.
                     Athens had no intention of medizing, but delayed refusal to
                        pressure Sparta in to the land campaign against Boetia.
            - Persian Response to refusal
                     Mardonis brought his army from Thessaly into Boetia then into
                        Attica
                     Led to a second evacuation when they realised Sparta had no
                        intention of protecting them.
            - Provoking Athens into a land battle (reserve strategy)
                     Mardonis knew that occupation of Attica would cause Athens
                        to pressure Sparta into resolving the stalemate.
            - Persian Withdrawal
                     Persian heard of Greek mobilisation
                             Mardonis devastated Attica
                             Withdrew to Boetia
                                    o Attica was unsuitable for his cavalry
                     With Thebes as his base, he deployed his forces on the north
                        side of the River, close to Platea and awaited the arrival of the
                        Greek forced under Pausanias, who was the Spartan Regent for
                        the under aged son of Leonidas.
Mycale
    Greek Strategy
        - Gathering of 110 ships at Aegina under Leotychidas 9other Spartan
            King)
        - Led the fleet Delos
                 Stopped before Ionia
                 Risky to sail a large fleet closer to Ionia
                 Attack Mardonis
        - Reasons for Greek attack
                 Ionians were ready to revolt (the Second Ionian Revolt)
                 Persians too demoralised to defend properly
    Persian Strategy
        - Persian fleet refused to fight a sea battle
        - Withdrew to Mycale to be under the Persian army protection




12
Directions and reasons for Athenian foreign policy in the Pentekontaetia
    Delian League
          - The Delian League Formed in 478/7
          - Athens able to “snatch the hegemony” from Sparta – Thucydides
          - Expand the Athenian Empire
          - Thucydides - “retaliating for what they had lost”
          - Hornblower - not to offer protection from Persia, but for Athens to
              “impose their will on the allies” and create an empire.
          - Athens probably “consciously and cynically planned their empire from
              the first.” Hornblower
          - Kimons use of Delian fleet to serve Athenian purposes - Kimon used
              the Athenian fleet to coerce Karystos to join league (471)
          - Revolts (460s)
                   Revolt of Naxos from Delian fleet - “Reduced to tribute paying
                       allies”
                   Revolt of Thasos - Suppressed by Athens
          - Beginning of Athenian Land Empire. Athens also attempted to prevent
              Spartan invasion of Boiotia, as Athens could not allow this large
              amount of land to be in Spartan control, creating an increased risk of
              invasion into neighbouring Attica.
          - Athenian moves Delian treasury to Athens rather than Delos.
              Symbolic step of Athenian domination
          - Athenian power. Epigraphic evidence begins to say “the cities which
              the Athenians rule” – Athenian authority
          - Peace of Kallis made Delian league redundant
    Propaganda
          - South East Asia Campaign was “response to allied discontent at the
              way the league was turning into a machine for policing it‟s own
              members.” HB
          - This indicates that the campaign was just a façade to remind the allies
              that “subservience to Athens included security from Persia.”
          - However, Hornblower argues that protection from Persia was “at most
              times no more than propaganda.” The campaign may have been simply
              further propaganda to gain allied support.
    Relations with Sparta
          - Themistocles antagonises Sparta (470s)
                   Built Athenian walls
                   Opposed Spartan attempts to control the Delphic amphiktiony
          - Kimon‟s policy of peaceful co-existence with Sparta
          - Dissolved after Sparta refused Athenian assistance to help suppress the
              Helot revolt after they requesting aid, as the Spartans feared Athenian
              “subversive tendencies.”
          - Athens was “offended, not considering it right that she should be
              treated like this,” (Dillon and Garalnd) removing her alliance with
              Sparta.
          - It was at this time that Athens created alliances with Spartan enemies
              Argos and Thessaly, created, as Hornblower suggests, as part of an
              ongoing process in which the qualities that Sparta most feared “were
              gradually manifesting themselves” in Athens.



13
            -   The true Athenian enemy at this time was not Persia but Sparta, and
                Athens was allying herself against this.
            -   Outbreak of first Peloponnesian War (460) - Corinth not Sparta taking
                lead role against Athens
            -   Athenian independence from Sparta. - Athens abandoned alliance with
                Sparta and formed alliances with enemies of Sparta: Argos and
                Thessaly.
            -   Sparta enters Peloponnesian War (458/7) - With Kimon banished, there
                is no Spartan voice support in Athens
            -   Truce with Sparta (451) after Athenian defeat in Egypt
            -   Hornblower explains that the truce made with Sparta in 451 “need not
                have been motivated by more that a commonsense desire to deal with
                enemies one by one.”
            -    “Athenians made a thirty years peace with Sparta” and returned states
                that they had taken from the Peloponnesians.
        Delphi
            - The Athenian alliance with the amphiktiony allowed maximum
                influence at Delphi and ensured oracular support for the growing
                empire.
            - Hornblower explains this as “a religious focus for Athenian
                Imperialism,” and shows that Athens could not allow such power to lie
                in Spartan hands. Athens ensured Sparta did not have control of
                Delphi.
        Relations with Persia
            - Kimon‟s leadership of the Delian fleet against Persia
                     Liberation of Byzantium (470s)
                     Eion
                     Eurymidon
                     Expansion of Delian League into Asia Minor
            - Aid in the Egyptian revolt from Persia was not to follow up Kimon‟s
                aggression towards Persia, nor to cut off the Persian supply of corn
                from Egypt. Hornblower proposes that this “ambitious foreign
                policy,” was for guaranteed corn supplies. Or because of a “desire for
                abundant shipbuilding timber in south Italy.”
            - Peace of Kallis with Persia in 439.
            - War with Persian ended
                     “Athenians dedicat[ing] an altar of peace”
                     Sensible idea with grain supply and lack of ships
        Corinth
            - Athens defeated Aegina which became a member of the Delian League
                – hostile Corinth now isolated
            - Athens secures alliances with Megara and Argos. At risk of Corinthian
                expansion. Corinth enemy of Athens
            - Attempts to ain influence at Delphic Amphiktiony – whoever
                controlled the amphiktiony would control Delphi




14
What impact did King Cleomenes have in Greece?
  Attacking Athens
        - Motivation
                Attempt to overthrow the Tyranny of Pesistradidai in 510
                Pesistradidai had connections with Persian advance
                Hereditary ties with Argos (Saprtan enemy)
                Next step in a process that led to the leadership of Peloponnese
        - Delphi
                Convinced Sparta to attack Athens
                Bribery may have caused this decision on the part of the oracle.
        - First Invasion
                Won by Sparta
        - Second and Third invasion
                Second invasion headed by Cleomenes to end Democracy in
                  Athens. This was defeated
                He then combined the forces of the Peloponnese and Boetia but
                  did not tell them the aim
                       Corinth withdrew, unwilling to fight Athens
                Demoratus, Cleomenes fellow king
                Declared himself against attacking Athens
                Resulted in a more democratic Peloponnesian League
                       The right for the forces to know why they were fighting
  The Ionian Revolt
        - Request for support
                Aristagoras, Tyrant of Miletus, came to Cleomenes to ask for
                  Spartan support in the Ionia Revolt.
                Produced a bronze map, showed how Spartas hegemonial
                  position was established and how easy it would be to take on
                  Persia.
                Described Persian weapons as inferior to Spartan
                       Bows and short spears
                       Turbans and trousers
                       No hoplite armour
                Played on Spartas greed
                       Asia is wealthy
                       Gold and spoils
                       Sparta could have this
                Aristagoras flattered Sparta
                Aristagoras‟ speech was answered with Laconic speech
                Distance
                       Aristagoras told Cleomenes that it took three months to
                          get to Souza, the capital of Persia
                       Cleomenes refused, saying that he could not ask
                          Lacadonians to march for three months
                Bribery
                       Aristagoras offered him 10 talents and gradually
                          increased it to 50 to convince him
                       Cleomenes‟ daughter told him not to be corrupted.
                       Aristagoras left for Athens


15
                      Cleomenes next target was to be Argos
        Attack on Argos
            - At the battle of Sepia, Sparta won a crushing victory
            - Cleomenes surrounded a large group of argives who had sheltered
                 there in a sacred wood
            - On the pretext of ransom, he called them up by name and killed them
            - When the rest realised what was happening, the wood was burned
            - 6000 men were killed
            - Cleomenes lack of concern for the conventions of war were obvious
            - Eliminated Argos and made the Peloponnese a stronghold for Greek
                 resistance against the Persians,
        Persia seeking submission
            - In 491 BC, Persian envoys of King Darius arrived in Greece, seeking
                 earth and water – the traditional symbols of submission
                      The Persians were thrown into the pit, the normal mode of
                         execution for criminals – were told that earth and water were
                         aplenty there.
                      Envoys were supposed to have diplomatic immunity and were
                         protected by the Gods
        Aeginian Hostages
            - Aegina was giving signs of giving earth and water to Persia (Medized)
                      Athens feared that Persia might use Aegina as a base against
                         her.
                      Aegina was just off the coast of Athens
                      Athens complained to Sparta as the head of the Peloponnesian
                         League, to which Aegina belonged.
            - Sparta attempted to take Aeginian hostages and hand them over to
                 Athens
                      The ten richest men were taken
                      If Persia attacked Athens, the Aeginian sons would be killed
        Downfall of Cleomenes
            - Demaratos disagreed with Cleomenes plan
                      Cleomenes claimed that Demaratos was illegitimate and thus
                         had no right as king.
                      He bribed the oracle to support the claim.
                      Demoratus deposed in favour of Leotychidas and left for
                         Persia.
            - Cleomenes plan became known
                      He fled to Thessaly and then to Arkadia, where he began
                         organising an attack on Sparta.
                      The Spartans, in alarm, brought him back and reinstated him.
                      His relatives tied him up because he was mad.
                      Cleomenes acquired a knife and carved himself to pieces.
                      There followed a war between Athens and Aegina over the
                         Athenian refusal to return the hostages.
            - The legacy of Cleomenes was panhellenism – the uniting of Greece




16
The expansion of Athenian Naval power
    Initial funding
         - 483 B.C., silver was discovered in the old mining district of Laurion.
              Athens was unsure what to do with the 100 talents which came into its
              treasury as a result.
         - Themistocles, who was archon at the time, persuaded the Assembly to
              use the money to construct a fleet of triremes.
         - Placed Athens in a strong military position when war came.
    The fleet
         - Fleet of 200 triremes, state of the art warships, to protect Athenian
              shipping.
         - The ulterior motive for fleet construction seems clear -- each ship
              required a crew of approximately 200 sailors (170 rowers, 30 marines),
              none of whom could be expended by the phalanx
         - Themistocles knowingly drew upon the landless poor citizens, or
              thetes, and resident aliens (metics) of the city center to staff this fleet,
              some 40,000 sailors in all
         - Sailors were paid a day's wage by the state for every day they served,
              generally 3-4 months during the summer rowing season
         - This significantly underwrote the livelihoods of the urban population
              and provided Themistocles and future democratic leaders with
              newfound leverage in the assembly.
    Great Invasion
         - By 480, Athenian fleet had grown to number 200 triremes
         - Athenian fleet made her the undisputed leader among the Greek cities,
              she was, as yet, no match for the Persians.
         - She still was dependent on the smaller Greek cities for help.
         - She was successful in her appeal and the contributions of the other
              states would increase the Greek fleet size to nearly 400 ships, Athens
              representing approximately 50% of the entire Greek fleet
         - Persian fleet was outmanoeuvred and destroyed by the Greek fleet at
              Salamis, led by Themistocles and Aristides.
         - The following year league naval forces inflicted yet another serious
              defeat on the Persian fleet of the Aegean at Mycale.
    Delian League
         - Without the prospect of naval support, dozens of Persian garrisons
              holding Greek city-states throughout the Aegean were now exposed.
         - Greek states throughout the Aegean appealed to the leaders of the
              Hellenic League to liberate them from Persian rule.
         - Delian League formed
         - New warships built with phoros and were Athenian by right. The
              gradual but inevitable result of this development was the
              demilitarization of the allies.
         - The Athenian navy grew in strength and numbers, while the military
              capacity of the allied states declined.
         - By 454 BC only 17 states were still furnishing naval contingents to
              league operations; by 431 only the three great maritime states, Lesbos,
              Chios, and Samos, were still providing ships.
    Empire



17
            -   Athens became a significant cultural, military, and economic center,
                and began to draw the most talented people of the region to its city
                center.
            -   Population rose to perhaps 400,000 by mid century. Thousands of
                rowers, artisans, and traders migrated to Athens to take up residence as
                metics because of the superior opportunities there.
        Egypt
            - Severe defeat in Egypt (200 warships and 20,000 forces lost in 454
                BC) induced a retrenchment in Athens.
            - The league treasury was moved to Athens where it was administered
                now by the priests of Athena on the Acropolis.
            - The priests began the practice of maintaining lists of annual phoros
                payments by the allies, known today as the Athenian Tribute Lists.
        Peace of Callias in 449
            - Pericles was able to settle the conflict with Persia while maintaining
                Athenian control of the Aegean.
            - Realizing that Allied states would immediately call into question the
                continuance of league operations, he convened a Greek Congress
                during the same year to determine future league direction.
            - All Greek states, including Sparta, were invited to attend, but none
                outside Delian league allies chose to do so. Sparta would not lower
                itself to be summoned to a congress by Athens.
            - This is precisely what Pericles expected. At the congress he announced
                that the league and its cash contributions must continue; that the 5000
                talents in League treasury would now be used to reconstruct the
                monuments destroyed by Persia, beginning with the temples on the
                Athenian acropolis.




18
Rome - Augustus and the Julio-Claudiuas
Augustus’ relationship with the senate
   Relationship with the senate
          o Doubling numbers of consuls
                  2 consuli ordinarii (first 6 months)
                  2 Consuli suffecti (last 6 months)
          o Made senate partner in administration
                  dyrachy
          o Increased status of senate
                  Revised rolls
          o Moral and religious reforms (see below)
          o The First Settlement
                  Officially relinquished his power to the people and the senate
                  “they compelled him, as it seemed, to accept autocratic power”
                    Dio Cassius
                  Proconsular Imperium
                  Ongoing proconsular powers (power over provinces)
          o Remained Republican
                  Refused dictatorship
                  “vigorously opposed a temple to himself” Seutonius
                  Talked of auctoritas not potestas or imperium
                  Prestige and authority no power
                  Used Republic words: Princeps Senatus NOT Rex, Proconsular
                    Imperium, Tribunicia Potestas (power of a tribune)
          o Revised senatorial role
                  Removed “sad and ill assorted rabble” Seutonius
                  Expelled 150 people
          o Games
                  “Gave gladiatorial shows three times in my own name” “26
                    times I provided for the people…hunting spectacles.” Res
                    Gestae
                  “none of Augustus‟s predecessors had ever provided so many,
                    so different, or such splendid public shows.” Suetonius
          o Augustan Building Program
                  “He built the forum because the two already inn existence
                    could not deal with…the increase in population.” Suetonius
                  Political propaganda
                  Temple to Julius Caesar
                  “The city became a showplace simultaneously of Rome‟s
                    power and his own power in Rome.” Wallace Hadrill
                  Work for the plebs
          o Ensured that military power was in his hands
                  Peaceful provinces were senatorial
                  Barbaric provinces were imperial (so the army would be under
                    his control)
          o Maius Imperium
                  Allowed him to interfere in senatorial provinces
          o Conspiracies
                  Crassus demanded a triumph and spoils of war


19
                       Primus was condemned for treason by making war without
                        Augustus‟ permission
                    Marcus Rufus executed for conspiracy
        Evidence for acceptance
            o “they compelled him, as it seemed, to accept autocratic power” Dio
               Cassius
            o Ongoing proconsular powers (power over provinces)
            o The title of Augustus given
            o The senate, the equestrian order and the entire Roman people gave me
               the title of father of the country”
            o Given civic crown
            o Continues to be elected to the consulship every year, giving him
               imperium in Rome and Italy
            o Literary - Horace talks of Roman Peace – “Shuts tight the gates there”
            o Dismay caused at relinquishment of consulship
            o Award of pater patriae and civic crown
            o Held power until the end of his natural life
            o Didn‟t revert to the republic after his death
            o Emulation of Augustus in ordinary people – Alter of vicomagistri
            o Through Res Gestae reminds people that he was given the position “by
               the senate, the equestrian order and the whole people of Rome”
        Evidence for non-aceptance
            o Criticism in Tacitus
            o Conspiracies
            o Crassus demanded a triumph and spoils of war
            o Primus condemned for treason: making war without Augs‟ permission
            o Marcus Rufus executed for conspiracy
            o Mass agitation over new taxes to provide revenue for military treasury
            o Augustus‟s fear of rioting on his death bed - “Augustus frequently
               inquired whether rumours of hill illness were causing any popular
               disturbance.” Seutonius
            o Mutinies of legionaries in Germany and Pannonia at time of his death
            o Increased Security




20
Augustus’ Relationship with the people
   Moral and religious reforms
   The First Settlement
   Remained Republican
   Absences from Rome
   Cash donations to plebs
   Games
   Augustan Building Program
   Discouraged worship in Rome
          o Cult of the deified Julius not Augustus
   Army
          o 60 legions were reduced to 28 - Made it look less like a milliary
             dictatorship
          o Reduced terms of service
          o Three of the nine cohorts were stationed in or near Rome, while the
             remaining 6 were distributed between Italian towns - Reduced the
             appearance of a milliary dictatorship - Looked like peace time
   Propaganda
          o Res Gestae as a champion of freedom
          o The Ara Pacis
          o The Statue from Prima Porta
          o Numismatic - corn supply in 22, Made to look like Alexander the
             great, Augustus raising the empire, Son of God, Father of the
             fatherland, Reminding the people of Augustus‟s Julian (divine)
             heritage and his pater patriae status.
          o Augustus always wore homespun clothes, not luxurious
          o Literary - Horace talks of Roman Peace – “Shuts tight the gates there”
          o Cardinal virtues “clemency, courage, justice, piety” RG
          o Secular Games – Golden age – 17BC




21
Tiberius’ relationship with the Senate
    Gaining senate‟s approval
           o Attempt at co-ruling
                   Treated senate with respect
                   Fostered “freedom of discussion” Tacitus
                   Officers fell on “the worthiest men” Tacitus
           o Sought advice
                   “Asking for advice in every matter that concerned national
                     revenue” Tacitus
           o Avoided un-republican terms
           o Refused to have temple built in his honour
                   Refused to be called pater patriae and Imperator
                   Discouraged flattery
           o Increased duties of senate
                   Senate became the only legislative body after AD14
                   Never overrode the electoral system
           o Copying the hesitation of Augustus‟ accession
           o Tried to appease the senate by removing the Electoral assembly
                   He hoped that they would love him for it.
                   The senate would now officially decide all positions and would
                     not have to spend money buying the votes of the people
    Loosing Senate‟s approval
           o Tiberius pretended not to want the job to detect what leading men were
              thinking
                   set the tone from the suspicion throughout the reign. Seutonius
           o Sejanus
                   “Partner of my labours” took the rightful role of the Senate
                   Sejanus was encroaching on the role of the senate.
                   The senate had to respect and obey Sejanus to gain voice with
                     Tiberius.
           o The removal of electoral assembly actually lost senators money
           o The treason trials - Maiestas
                   Treason trials in front of the senate ie the trail against Piso
                   The senate does not like this as they have to judge one of their
                     own.
           o Delators
                   They would look into the background of another senators
                   Cultivation of paranoia
                   Delators got ¼ of the property if the person was prosecuted
           o Withdrawal to Capri
                   Had to go through Sejanus for everything
           o Contempt “men fit to be slaves” Tacitus
                   Forcing the senate to be more active?
           o Character
                   Aloof – did not have the popular approach
                   Poor communication
           o Reign of terror
                   The senate lived in fear of delation
                   Senate forced to go through Sejanus



22
Gaius’ relations with the senate
   Acceptance from Senate
          o Accession after Tiberius greeted with rejoicing
          o Put end to treason trials and delation
          o Son of Germanicus
          o Tiberius‟ supporters saw him as Tiberius‟ choice, and Agrippina‟s
              supporters saw that her only surviving son was emperor
          o Senate ignored will that stated him as joint heir with Gemellus
              Restored people electoral assembly-The vote was nominally given
              back. Extra income for the people who could now sell their votes.
          o Attempted to build consensus with the senate
                   Did not assume consulship until consuli ordinarii had complete
                      their term in mid-37.
                   Reassured senators by burning records that related to the deaths
                      of his mother and brothers so that they could not be implicated
                   These were later released to have not bee burned
   Disapproval from Senate
          o Marcus Silanus was forced to commit suicide
          o Marco who was a prefect of the praetorian gaurd was killed
          o Tiberius Gemellus was killed in 37
          o Senators who made gestures of loyalty during illness – such as
              sacrificing own life and offering to fight as a gladiator – and were
              forced to keep their pledges.
          o Attacked senators who rivalled him by having special status
                   Pompeii lost name “magnus”
                   Cincinati lost lock of hair
                   Torquati lost torque
          o Senators were forced to wait at his table and run alongside his chariot
          o During Gallic campaign he ordered the senate not to vote for him in
              triumph then berated them for not doing so and threatened them with
              execution.
          o Apparently made his horse into a senator.
                   “One of the horses, which he named Incitatus, he used to invite
                      to dinner, where he would offer him golden barley and drink
                      his health in wine from golden goblets; he swore by the
                      animal's life and fortune and even promised to appoint him
                      consul” Dio Cassius
          o Removed African legion from Senate‟s control
                   This was the only legion that was left in the control of the
                      senate.
          o Made speeches threatening the senate
          o As a way of appeasing Gaius they would try to criticise Tiberius, but
              Gaius condemn them for doing that, saying that they are guilty of
              treason.
          o Execution of many senators
          o Proculus was killed in the senate house by being stabbed with quills
              when accused of hating emperors.
                   “May have been one of the few emperors who seriously
                      considered abolishing the senate” Alston
                   “Let them hate me as long as they fear me”


23
     o According to Seutonius, after an illness changed from Gaius to
       emperor to Gaius the monster
     o “doing away with the pretence that he was merely the chief executive
       of the republic.” Seutonius
     o Insisted on being treated as a God
     o Contempt for the senate - “made some of the highest officials run for
       miles beside his chariot” Seutonius - Deposed two consuls who forgot
       to announce his birthday
     o Renewed treason laws
     o Executed any senator who offered him advice
     o Performed in theatrical productions and as a gladiator - This was
       highly offensive to the roman elite. Degrading himself and Rome.
     o Actively supported the Green team in Circus chariot races




24
Gaius’ relations with the people
    Acceptance from people
           o Tiberius had been very unpopular and his death was greeting with
              public rejoicing. Anyone would be popular after the reign of terror.
           o The accession of Caligula would bring back the Julian blood-line into
              the Principate
           o United the sides of imperial family as his was the great-grandson of
              both Augustus and Mark Antony.
           o He was the son of the beloved Germanicus.
           o Army liked him as son of Germanicus who was a military hero.
           o Gaius had inherited a huge treasury from Tiberius – see below.
           o Payment of the legacies on behalf of Tiberius and Livia
           o Payments of 300 sesterces to every citizen on grain dole.
           o Sponsored lavish games, festivals, theatrical displayed
           o Kissed the actors as friends
    Loss of acceptance from people
           o “So much for the emperor, the rest of this histry must deal with the
              monster” Seutonius
           o He was very ill in September 37 and the ancient sources say that this
              caused insanity.
                   Seutonius describes insomnia, nightmares, fainting fits,
                      alarming mood swings.
           o His brutality was legendary
                   “Make his feel that he is dying”
                   “Kill every man between that bald head and the other one over
                      there” instead of judging criminals on their crimes
                   “he claimed that no personal trait made him prouder than his
                      „inflexibility‟.”
                   “Let them hate me, so long as they fear me”
                   “he frequently had trials by torture held in his presence while
                      he was eating or otherwise enjoying himself.
           o Legendary for his psychopathic sense of humour
                   Laughed maniacally when he realised that “I have only to give
                      one nod and both your throats will be cur on the spot”
           o He increased taxes.
                   “21/2 % in every law suita nd legal transaction”
                   Prostitutes (had to hand over 1/8) of their standard fee for a
                      single sexual act”
           o “Regulations were announced by word of mouth” and when he did
              post them “in an awkwardly cramped spot and written so small that
              nobody could take a copy”
    Evidence of loss of support
           o Demonstrations against his intimidation of the senate
           o “I wish all you Romans had only one neck”
           o Withdrew theatre awnings so that the sun would burn the people.
           o He closed the granaries
                   He tried to build a bridge of boats and to do this he
                      commandeered grain ships.
                   Grain had also run out because he had been too careless with
                      money.


25
Claudius’ acceptance from the senate and people of Rome
    Gaining acceptance
          o Paid senators annual sums of money
          o Gave them respect
                  Encouraged senators to debate among themselves
                  Recognised the senates point of view
          o Broke off treason trials
          o Did not prosecute those involved in Gaius murder
          o Recalled exiles
                  But never without the permission of the senate
          o Promised immunity to those who had hope for return to republicanism
          o Revised the membership of the senate in order to recruit new political
             talent
          o Added new patrician families
          o Expelled bad senators and became a consul to do this, but he did give
             them chance to voluntarily renounce their position and avoid
             humiliation.
          o Distributed new provinces between legates of senatorial and imperial
             rank
                  Senate given the power to elect magistrates
    Loss of acceptance
          o Senate lost importance as partner as Claudius set up staff of freedmen.
                  “To obtain administrative efficiency not to humble the senate”
                     Salmon
                  Became disillusioned as he entrusted senatorial tasks to the
                     freedmen.
                  Narcissus (ab epistulis – secretary)
                  Pallas (a rationibus – financial)
                  Callistus (a libellius – legal)
                  Polybius (a studiis – librarian)
          o Very little room for senators, although he did use Lucius Vitellius
          o Attempt to introduce foreigners to senate
                  “bringing excellence to Rome from whatever source”
          o Treasury became even more under Claudius‟ control when he replace
             praetors with quaestors that he chose himself.
          o Provincial treasuries were removed from senatorial control when the
             governors gained control of financial cases in provinces, over the
             senate.
          o Senate became bitter about the condemnations of senators (35 were
             executed). He took over the law courts so the senators would not have
             to prosecute their own but it caused discontent.
          o Nominated governor of senatorial province – Galba in Africa
          o Resented the power given to freedmen
          o Was a Claudian, not a Julian
                  The people remembered the last Claudian, Tiberius, with hatred
                     from the reign of terror. Tiberius had been adopted but
                     Augustus hadn‟t really liked him.
                  Claudius had none of these, and was very much a Julian (until
                     he married Agrippina II)
          o Did no appear at the senate until 30 days after accession


26
Explain the changing role of the senate
    Changing role in accession
          o Augustus
                  The First Settlement - Officially relinquished his power to the
                    people and the senate. “they compelled him, as it seemed, to
                    accept autocratic power” Dio Cassius
          o Tiberius
                  Copying the hesitation of Augustus‟ accession
          o Gaius
                  “immediately and unanimously conferred absolute power upon
                    him” Seutonius
                  Set aside will of Tiberius
          o Claudius
                  Did no appear at the senate until 30 days after accession
                  The Praetorian guard carried him off to the barracks where he
                    was pressed to accept imperial power. He accepted the position
                    and gave the guardsmen 15000 sesterces each.
                  The senators discussed the possibilities of what could be done.
                    Suggestions of reverting back to republic. Senators put selves
                    forward to be princeps senatus. “While the senate deliberated,
                    the praetorian guard resolved” Gibbon
          o Nero
                  Mainly Agrippina
                  Went first to Guard, was sworn in, then went to senate
    Provincial powers / military powers
          o Augustus
                  Ensured that military power was in his hands. Peaceful
                    provinces were senatorial. Barbaric provinces were imperial
                    (so the army would be under his control)
                  Maius Imperium - Allowed him to interfere in senatorial
                    provinces
          o Gaius
                  Removed African legion from Senate‟s control. This was the
                    only legion that was left in the control of the senate.
          o Claudius
                  Provincial treasuries were removed from senatorial control
                    when the governors gained control of financial cases in
                    provinces, over the senate.
    Degrading and dignifying
          o Augustus
                  Increased status of senate - Revised rolls Revised senatorial
                    role. Removed “sad and ill assorted rabble” Seutonius.
                    Expelled 150 people
          o Tiberius
                  Sought advice - “Asking for advice in every matter that
                    concerned national revenue” Tacitus
                  Contempt - “men fit to be slaves” Tacitus
          o Gaius




27
                       Senators who made gestures of loyalty during illness – such as
                        sacrificing own life and offering to fight as a gladiator – and
                        were forced to keep their pledges.
                       Attacked senators who rivalled him by having special status -
                        Pompeii lost name “magnus”, Cincinati lost lock of hair.
                        Torquati lost torque
                       Senators were forced to wait at his table and run alongside his
                        chariot
                       Apparently made his horse into a senator. - “One of the horses,
                        which he named Incitatus, he used to invite to dinner…and
                        even promised to appoint him consul” Dio Cassius
                   
            o Claudius
                    Paid senators annual sums of money
                    Gave them respect. Encouraged senators to debate among
                        themselves. Recognised the senates point of view
                    Revised the membership of the senate in order to recruit new
                        political talent. Added new patrician families. Expelled bad
                        senators and became a consul to do this, but he did give them
                        chance to voluntarily renounce their position and avoid
                        humiliation.
            o Nero
                    Degraded Rome and the senate through his actions
        Changes in structure
            o Augustus
                    Doubling numbers of consuls - 2 consuli ordinarii (first 6
                        months), 2 Consuli suffecti (last 6 months)
            o Tiberius
                    Tried to appease the senate by removing the Electoral assembly
                        The senate would now officially decide all positions and would
                        not have to spend money buying the votes of the people
                    At the end, became increasingly dependant on Tiberius and
                        would not make decisions without his authority.
            o Gaius
                    Restored people electoral assembly-The vote was nominally
                        given back. Extra income for the people who could now sell
                        their votes.
        Changes in Duties and role
            o Augustus
                    Made senate partner in administration - dyrachy
            o Tiberius
                    Initial attempt at co-ruling - Treated senate with respect,
                        Fostered “freedom of discussion” Tacitus. Officers fell on “the
                        worthiest men” Tacitus
                    Increased duties of senate. Senate became the only legislative
                        body after AD14.
                    Sejanus. “Partner of my labours” took the rightful role of the
                        Senate. The senate had to respect and obey Sejanus to gain
                        voice.



28
                    “May have been one of the few emperors who seriously
                     considered abolishing the senate” Alston
            o Claudius
                  Distributed new provinces between legates of senatorial and
                     imperial rank
                  Senate given the power to elect magistrates
                  Senate lost importance as partner as Claudius set up staff of
                     freedmen.
            o Nero
                  Promised end to encroachment on senate‟s powers. “From my
                     house, bribery and favouritisms will be excluded. I will keep
                     personal and state affairs separate” Tacitus
                  Senate initially had enough power to block free trade proposals
                  While he was in Greece he let his freedmen rule
        Threats
            o Augustus
                  Hesitant about invoking treason law
                  Punishments generally only after crime
            o Tiberius
                  The treason trials – Maiestas. Treason trials in front of the
                     senate ie the trail against Piso. The senate does not like this as
                     they have to judge one of their own.
                  Delators. They would look into the background of another
                     senators. Cultivation of paranoia
                  Reign of terror
            o Gaius
                  Put end to treason trials and delation
                  Reassured senators by burning records that related to the deaths
                     of his mother and brothers so that they could not be implicated
                  Later threats. Marcus Silanus was forced to commit suicide.
                     Marco killed. Tiberius Gemellus was killed in 37.
                  During Gallic campaign he ordered the senate not to vote for
                     him in triumph then berated them for not doing so and
                     threatened them with execution.
                  Made speeches threatening the senate
                  Renewed treason laws
            o Claudius
                  Broke off treason trials
                  Did not prosecute those involved in Gaius murder
                  Promised immunity to those who had hope for return to
                     republicanism
            o Nero
                  Initially delation was refused.
                  Tyrannical power almost annihilated the senate – “often he
                     hinted broadly that it was not his intention to spare the
                     remaining senators” Seutonius
                  Revival of treason law. Veiento “insults against senators”.
                     Octavia banished at Poppaea‟s urgings, despite unsuccessful
                     attempt at conviction for adultery
                  No freedom of speech


29
What was Augustus’ relation with provinces and frontiers?
 Augustus
     o Proconsular Imperium (27)
            Was able to have a ten year authority over all proconsuls – had
               maius imperium
            The provinces that he controlled were the ones that required large
               armies.
     o Control of army
            Realised that there was a tradition of ambitious commanders with
               large loyal armies becoming powerful.
            To stop this and civil wars he placed most of military power in his
               hands
            Empire divided into two groups (Dio Cassius) – those under
               control were senatorial provinces and those that needed military
               presence were imperial provinces – therefore the army stayed
               under his command.
     o Divisions
            Interference in senatorial provinces - Sometimes senatorial
               provinces needed interference - Maius imperium gave him power
               to interfere
            Later changes - When armed provinces became settled and troops
               no longer needed, they were transferred to the authority of the
               senate.
            All new territory went into the hand of Augustus
     o Aimed to establish secure frontiers
            “pax Romana”
            Threat from Germany
            Threat from Parthia
            Never a long term peace
            Prima Porta (Statue of Augustus shows recovery of eagles from
               Pathia)
     o Taxes
            Higher Tax Yield from Imperial Provinces - Use produce for Rome
            Introduced fairer provincial taxes based on regular censuses
            The publicani – tax collectors – roles was reduced so the taxes
               (trbutum soli (salt) and tributum capitus (head)) were not exploited.
            They were now collected by imperial procurators
            In senatorial provinces, the publicani continues to collect taxes
     o Client Kings
            Left client kings, or native rulers, in control of own territories
            To ensure loyalty, families were held in Rome
            If local kingdoms became unstable, they were annexed to Rome
     o Governors
            Saw provincial government as his priority and made extensive
               tours of provinces.
            Governors chosen directly by Augustus from the best men
            Salaried to avoid corruption and plunder
            Imperial procurators could move between provinces and
               unofficially spy on the governors
            Road improved to make communication fast


30
              Provincial councils formed to conduct the cult of Rome and
               Augustus – created loyalty between provinces and Rome
              Charges against corrupt governors heard in senate and Augustus
               present to increase the chances of a fair trial.
              Visited the provinces regularly
              Inscriptions from provinces praising Augustus
              Asia “savour for us and our descendants, him who has put to end
               wars and adorned peace”
     o Egypt
           Controlled privately by Augustus
           Was the source of private income
           Funded building program, etc
           RG – Senators needed permission to set foot there
     o Expansion of the empire
           New provinces created in Lower and Upper Germany, Rhaetia,
             Pannonia
           The Gemma Augusta depicts the roman victory over Pannonia
           RG “subjected the world to the power of the Roman people”




31
What was Tiberius’ relation with provinces and frontiers?
     o Mutinies
             The bad feelings towards Augustus were realised at accession of
                Tiberius
             Length of service, Pay, Conditions
             Sent Drusus (son) to Pannonia and he succeeded with great
                brutality and suppressed the mutiny. Demanded increase in
                payment to 4 sesterces per day and a 16 year term. There was an
                eclipse of the moon, and Drusus played on their superstitions.
             Sent Germanicus (adopted son) to Germany –There was a threat of
                loss of Territory, as having no troops would mean that Roman
                territory was open to invasion. Sword - “death would be better
                than disloyalty” Tacitus. Backfired as a soldier pulled out his
                sword and offered it to him as it was sharper. Germanicus made
                concession to the troops, but then Tiberius had to grant the same
                concessions to the Pannonian troops.
             Tiberius was criticised for sending “two half-grown boys” to
                control the mutinies – Tacitus
     o Frontiers
             Tacitus admits was run with “astute diplomacy without warfare”
             Tiberius was warned by Augustus “left the frontiers in a more
                stable condition” Webster and he followed this
             Improved discipline following the mutinies
     o Securing borders
             Rhine – Curtailed Germanicus‟ attempt to expand as he believed
                that the rebellious tribes should be left alone
             Danube – Hired native leaders to watch over area, strengthened by
                placing as an imperial province, placed Roman resident to
                supervise Client King
             The East – Installed new king of Parthia
             Africa – a problem area, where he used guerrilla raids for 7 years
                and placed Junius Blaesus in command who brought back peace
     o Governors
             To allow them to be governed by men of merit
             Gaius Poppaeaus Sabinus served for 24 years.
             Allowed men to become more familiar with the demands of the
                province
             However, made the mistake of appointing Pontius Pilate who
                governed for 9 years in Judea and seriously offended the Jews. For
                example, brining Roman military standards bearing the image of
                Tiberius.
     o Centralised the system of administration
             Allowed some governors to rule their provinces from Rome, such
                as Lamia who was a legate of Rome from Syria
     o Generosity
             Generous to provinces – Asia Coin minted - help after earthquake
             Promised Sardis “10 million sesterces and remitted all taxation”
             “Senatorial inspection to rehabilitate suffers” TA
     o Worship
             Discouraged worship of himself


32
What was Gaius’ relation with provinces and frontiers?
 Client Kingdoms
      o Revered policy of Augustus and rewarded friendly provinces with Client
         Kings
      o Deposed the client king from Maurentania and ordered him to commit
         suicide
      o People resisted annexation and so was made into an imperial legate with
         his troops.
      o Restored Kings and princes to thrones in friendly areas.
 Treatment of Jews
      o “revealed the havoc an irresponsible rulers might create” Syme
      o Gaius supported a request from the Greeks that the Jews display an image
         of him in the temples and in Jerusalem,
 Question of British Invasion
      o Seutonius
      o Army refused to make crossing to Britain
      o Described as telling them to pick up shells, but musculi in Latin is also
         army tent, so this has probably been exaggerated.
      o He announced annexation even though no military action had been taken
 The Army
      o Went to the Rhine frontier on the pretext that he was strengthening, but he
         was attempting to suppress a possible conspiracy between his sisters and
         Aemilius Lepidus.
 Expansion
      o Not interested
      o Was more interested in security in eastern parts of empire rather than
         expending
      o “seems to have been concerned primarily with stabilising…rather than
         extending the Roman Imperium” Barrett




33
What was Claudius’ relation with provinces and frontiers?
 Expansion
      o Desire to be known as extender of the empire
      o Believed that direct Roman rule was better than client kingdoms
      o Added five provinces, including Britain
 Frontiers
      o Expanded the frontier in Gaul to the mouth of the Rhine
      o Believed that Gaul would never be fully Romanised while Britain
          remained independent
      o Gave citizenship to many Gallic tribes
 Britain
      o Believed that a British conquest would strengthen his reign and increase
          popularity
      o Named his son after this conquest – Brittainicus
      o 50 000 troops crossed to Britain in 43 and by 54 most of Britain was under
          control pf Rome
      o The port city of Londinium became the headquarters of the imperial
          governor
 Rebellion
      o Rebellion of Mauritania
      o Annexed it and divided it between two provinces
 Jews
      o Attempted to curb anti-Semitism of the Greeks of Alexandria
      o Insisted that the Jews not make demands for local citizenship
      o Reversed the policies of Gaius
 Romanisation
      o Improved infrastructure
      o Via Caludiua Augusta road in Danube
      o Towns and cologne build such as Cologne
      o The granting of citizenship to Anauni tribe
      o Rose status of provincials by encouraging Romanisation and extending
          Roman citizenship.
      o Allowed Gallic nobles to enter senate




34
What was Nero’s relation with provinces and frontiers?
 Expansion
      o No desire to expand
      o Preferred simply to spend the money earned from the provinces
 Taxes
      o Exempted the Greeks from Taxes - Was interested only in the artistic
         accomplishment of the Greeks
      o Rest of the empire had to pay steep taxes
 Governors
      o Chose the governors for those provinces which were armed
      o Some had incompetent administrators
 Client Kingdoms
      o Reversed the policy of Claudius
 Boudica
      o Uprising following the death of the Client King
      o She and her daughters flogged and raped by Romans
      o And revolts spread throughout Britain
 The Jews
      o Post of governor of Judea was unpopular and the Jews difficult to govern
      o There was constant strife between Jews and Greeks and Jews and
         Christians
      o There was a rebellion from the Jews in 66




35
What was Augustus’ succession policy?
  Augustus
        o Marcellus
               Son of Octavia by her first marriage.
               Marcellus was Augustus‟ nephew
               When Augustus was sick, Marcellus was also sick and died.
               Augustus was close to death, gave his signet ring to Agrippa
        o Agrippa
               Octavia persuades Augustus to betroth Julia to Agrippa.
               Agrippa was Octavia‟s son-in-law.
               In 18, Agrippa became Augustus‟ colleague in the Tribunicia
                  potestas and imperium proconsulare
               In 17, Augustus adopted Gaius and Lucius to create a two-
                  tiered succession – Augustus was to be succeeded by Agrippa,
                  who would be succeeded by Gaius or Lucius.
               Agrippa dies in 12BC and Octavia in 11BC
        o Tiberius
               Stepson of Augusrus
               Forced to marry Julia whom he hated
               Designed to be regent for Gaius and Lucius
               Received Tribunicia power for 5 years in 6BC
               Retired in 6BC to Rhodes
               Livia secured Tiberius marriage to Julia
               Tiberius replaced Agrippa as first-tier succession
        o Gaius and Lucius
               Adopted in 17BC
               Entered public life aged 15
               Attended senate at 15
               To be consuls at 20
               Gaius died in AD4, Lucius in AD2
        o Tiberius
               Lucius and Gaius both died of wounds
               Tiberius was adopted and made colleague in Tribunicia
                  potestas, and Tiberius was required to adopt Germanicus.
               Banishment of Agrippa (see below) removed last on of Julia
                  from succession.
               In AD 13 Tiberius was given Tribunicia potestas again
               In AD 14, Augustus died.
               Accession of Tiberius
                       Hesitation insincere
                              o Mirror the 1st Settlement – Augustus hesitated
                                 when he was given power.
                              o A way to detect supporters of the republic – gain
                                 their support for his hesitation and when he
                                 gained power, he would know who was against
                                 the republic.
                              o He eliminated Argippa Postumus as the heir
                                 apparent
                              o Married Julia – showed his true ambition
                              o He had the support from the senate.


36
        Hesitation sincere
            o He had previously retired to Rhodes – perhaps
                 no ambition
            o He was actually from a republican family – the
                 Claudians were republicans
            o Livia wanted his in power
                      Livias ambition not his own
                      Resentment/fear of Livia
                      Feared that Livia would want a say in
                        government, and her dominance.
            o Fear of Germanicus overthrowing him
            o Historic
                      Claudians were very dramatic
                      Highly emotional
            o He didn‟t have the personality to carry out the
                 role
            o There was no fixed succession policy
            o “no fixed or even generally recognised rule of
                 succession” Tacitus




37
What was Tiberius’ succession policy?
   Germanicus
         o Was the son of the popular brother of Tiberius, Drusus
         o Was adopted by Tiberius
         o Was favoured by the Roman people as handsome and an army general
         o Germanicus was given maius imperium
         o Sent to Egypt, after which he met his downfall
                 Tiberius sent Calpurnius Piso to watch over Germanicus, but
                    this resulted in antagonism between them.
                 Germanicus made two big mistakes of arrogance
                         Entering Egypt without the Tiberius approval
                         Released grain from granaries without assent, which
                            lowered the price of corn.
                 Germanicus was trying to gain popularity and this would
                    threaten Tiberius
                 Germanicus had maius Imperium, which made him feel that he
                    had the power to send Piso out of Syria – felt that he had the
                    power to override Tiberuis‟ orders.
                 Piso knew that something was going to happen – Germanicus
                    dies.
                 Piso was accused of poisoning Germanicus at the orders of
                    Tiberius, which made Tiberius unpopular.
                 Piso committed suicide – looks like the act of a guilty man.
                    But the senate says that their allegations were ridiculous. But
                    Piso had tried to gain Syria by force and challenged the
                    commander there. This was war against Rome and was an act
                    of treason.
                 However, Tacitus does not say that Piso‟s death was a suicide.
                    He talks of “secreta mandata” – secret documents that may
                    have revealed correspondence between Emperor and Piso,
                    saying that Tiberius ordered Piso to kill Germanicus.
                 So, Sejanus may have committed the murder as a way to
                    disguise the truth for Tiberius.
   Drusus
         o Tiberius planned to secure the succession for his son
         o Drusus became consul for a second time in 21AD
         o Killed by Livilla and Sejanus
   Sejanus
         o Was prefect of praetorian guard
         o Had an “unbounded lust for power” Tacitus
         o Removed Drusus in conjunction with Livilla (Drusus‟s wife)
         o Tried to increase position by applying to Tiberius for permission to
            marry Livilla
         o When Tiberius retired to Rhodes, Sejanus was the only access to him
         o Saved his life from a cave in
         o Got rid of Drusus Caesar and Nero Caesar
         o Had control of Praetorian guard
         o Downfall when Sejanus‟ ex-wife told Tiberius that it was Livilla and
            Sejanus who killed Drusus
   Nero Caesar


38
            o Arrested, convicted and imprisoned under authority of Sejanus
            o Driven to suicide
        Drusus Caesar
            o Arrested, convicted and imprisoned under authority of Sejanus
            o Executed in 33
        Tiberius Gemellus
            o Gemellus was the son of Livilla and Drusus
            o So Gemellus was his nephew
            o Made joint heir with Gaius
            o Gemellus was too young
        Gaius
            o Made joint heir with Gemellus
            o Gaius was in the prime of his early manhood
            o Had been taken to Capri with Tiberius at 19
            o Won support of Macro
        Claudius
            o Even his mother believed he was a monster




39
What was Gaius’ succession policy?
   Was assassinated
   Did not have a definite succession policy
   Claudius‟ Accession
         o Was 51 when he succeeded in 41AD
         o Claudius was supposedly found hiding in the palace behind a curtain
            when Gaius was killed
         o The Praetorian guard carried him off to the barracks where he was
            pressed to accept imperial power.
         o He accepted the position and gave the guardsmen 15000 sesterces
            each.
         o The senators discussed the possibilities of what could be done
                 Suggestions of reverting back to republic
                 Senators put selves forward to be princeps senatus
                 “While the senate deliberated, the praetorian guard resolved”
                    Gibbon
   Despite Vincius, Claudius was in “possssio” of the property of the emperor of
     the Domus
   Numismatic evidence
         o Coins of Claudius clasping hand of praetorian guard
         o “The praetorians have been received into Claudius‟ trust”
   Possible rival to succession
         o Claudius‟ relationship to Gaius was uncle.
         o Gaius brother-in-law had a more rightful claim
         o Julia Livilla‟s husband was Vincius




40
Assess the causes of the downfall of Nero ad the Julio-Claudians
    Initial attempt at acceptance (quinquennium Neronis)
       o Promised end to encroachment on senate‟s powers
                “From my house, bribery and favouritisms will be excluded. I will
                    keep personal and state affairs separate” Tacitus
       o Refused un-republican terms
                Refused Pater patriae
                Refused gold and silver statues of himself
                “the senate praised this vigorously” Tacitus
       o Individual senators able to speak out
 Loss of approval from people and senate
       o Artistic extravagances
                “wildest impropriaties”
                Instituted “neronia” a contest including poetry, rhetoric and music
                    as well as athletics
                Performed on the stage in front of the people
                Participated in chariot races (“winning” even when he didn‟t finish
                    the race)
       o Debauched sexual activities
                Dress up as a lion and attack people tied to posts
       o Delation
                Informers were everywhere
       o Tyrannical power almost annihilated the senate – “often he hinted broadly
           that it was not his intention to spare the reaming senators” Seutonius
    The Great Fire
           o Nero suspected of starting fire
           o But Tacitus is rational and says “whether accidental of caused by
               criminal act on the part of the Emperor is uncertain”
           o Praises the energetic relief and fire controls, as well as new building
               regulations
           o To divert pubic resentment, he blamed “a religions sect” Christians
    Personal extravagances
           o Rebuilding an extravagant new palace
           o Gold coins reduced in weight and silver coins reduced silver content
           o Forced contributions frm provinces and Italy
    Capriciousness
           o Revival of treason law
                     Veiento “insults against senators”
                     Octavia banished at Poppaea‟s urgings, despite unsuccessful
                        attempt at conviction for adultery
           o Murder
                     Agrippina - matricide
                     Octavia “all her veins opened” “her head was cut off and taken
                        to Rome for Poppaea” TA
                     Poppaea kicked to death when pregant
    Discontent
           o While he was in Greece he let his freedmen rule
           o Caused displeasure
           o At the same time, there was a breakdown in the grain supply and
               actions of delators


41
             o Helius urged his return
             o “I detested you! I was as loyal as any of your soldiers as long as you
                 deserved affection, I began detesting you when you murdered your
                 mother and wife and became a charioteer, actor and incendiary”
                 Flavus, a conspirator in Tacitus
        Rebellion
             o Julius Vindex was a governor and planned a rebellion
             o His battle cry was “freedom from a tyrant”
             o When it became known, Vindex suggested to Galba, governor of Spain
                 that he should accept leadership of the revolt
             o When Vindex was defeated by a general from upper Germany, he
                 committed suicide
        Galba
             o Galba declared himself legate of the senate and Roman people and was
                 declared emperor by his troops and other commanders, and gained
                 support of the praetorian guard by offering 30 000 sesterces per man.
             o Tigellinus had deserted Nero and gave support to Galba
        He fled from Rome and hid in the home of a freedman, but chose to commit
         suicide.
        He had killed off all possible successors, ending with the death of Poppaea and
         unborn child
        “The senators were happy and at once used their new freedom of speech more
         freely”




42
What were Augustus’ reforms and policies?
   Political
         o Change from republican to principate
         o Attempted to disguise by saying that the republic was transferred to the
            people and senate
   Military
         o Pax Romana – “enjoyable gift of peace”
         o Creation of praetorian guard
         o Reduction of army
   Administrative
         o Diarchy with senate
         o The Equestrian Order
                 Attempted to stop hostility between equestrians and senators
                 new and worthwhile positions for equestrians, revive the
                   ancient link between the equestrians and the military
                        Commander of auxiliary infantry cohort or cavalry
                           squadron (praefectus)
                        Commander of Fire brigade, police force, praetorian
                           guard
                        Prefect of Egypt
         o Building program
   Provincial
         o See provincial relations
   Social
         o “If he seeks to have “father of the cities” inscribed on his starues let
            him curb license and be famous through the ages; faults must be
            discouraged by punishment, for without morals laws must fail. -
            Horace
         o Marriage
                 Limits for marriage (25 for men, 20 for women)
                 Penalties on unmarried people (were not permitted to accept
                   inheritances)
                 Rewards to those with children (preference to family men in
                   elections).
                 Ara Pacis
                        Woman with babies
                        Family
                        Speaks even to an illiterate audience
         o Luxury
                 Attempt at sumptuary law
         o Religion
                 Replaced old Gods who had associations with the Republic
                        Jupiter
                        Mars
                        Juno
                 The Cult of Caesar Worship
                        Provincial non-Romans – Cult of Rome and Augustus
                        Provincial Romans – Rome and the Deified Julius
                        In Rome - Cult of Genius Augusti


43
              Increased employment through building program
              The Plebs
                    Unemployment
                    Reduced the number of those eligible for grain dole
                      from 250 000 to 200 000
                    Augustus made cash donations as well as providing
                      grain from his own granary.
     o First Settlement
            Introduction of his „sons‟ to official life
     o Economic
            Stabilise funds after civil war
            Personal donations
            New system of regulation o revenue that he had control over
                    Taxes on land and property
                    Tax on manumission of slaves
            Started minting new coins
            Public treasury supervised by two praetors
            Fisci were provincial treasury that came from taxes and were
               used for military and administrative purposes.
            Personal profit from Egypt
            Pax Roman allowed uninterrupted economic activity and
               prospering of empire
     o Judicial Reforms
            Added a court for dealing with adultery
            Increased numbers of jurymen available
            Criminal courts
                    Senatorial court for treason
                    Imperial court for parricide, forgery and murder




44
Assess the achievements of Augustus
    The republic
           o Republic
                   RG “restored the republic”
                   Powers held by “universal consent”
                   Gave back trimvir and ongoing consulship
                   Were given back by “senate, equestrian order and whole people
                      of Rome”
           o Monarchy
                   “Twice considered restoring the republic” but “did not do so” S
                   Dio Cassius “”façade”
                   “Absorbed the functions of the senate, the officials, even the
                      law” Tacitus
    Popular support
           o Nominally republic
           o Cash donations
           o Absences from Rome
           o Games – “no predecessor had provided so many, so different and so
              splendid shows”
           o Cult of genius augustii and Deified Julius not Rome and Augustus
           o Used propaganda such as RG
           o “Whole people of Rome” gave civic crown and power
           o Fear of riots
    Senatorial support
           o Doubled numbers of consuls
           o “dyarchy”
           o Increased status by revision of rolls “”removed the ill assorted rabble”
              S
           o Nominally republic – refused dictatorship, auctoritas not potestas or
              imperium, princeps senatus and civiatus not rex
           o Held power to end of natural life and did not revert back
           o Conspiracies of Crassus and Marcus Rufus
    Peace
           o Had not been civil war
           o Stationed army outside Rome
           o Reduced army from 60 to 28
           o Horace “gates shut tight”
           o Riots after death from Army
    Building program
           o “He built the forum because the two already inn existence could not
              deal with…the increase in population.” Suetonius
           o Political propaganda
           o Temple to Julius Caesar
           o “The city became a showplace simultaneously of Rome‟s power and
              his own power in Rome.” Wallace Hadrill
           o Work for the plebs
    Provinces
       o Proconsular Imperium (27) - Was able to have a ten year authority over all
           proconsuls – had maius imperium



45
                    The provinces that he controlled were the ones that required large
                     armies.
         o Control of army
                 Realised that there was a tradition of ambitious commanders with
                     large loyal armies becoming powerful.
                 To stop this and civil wars he placed most of military power in his
                     hands
                 Empire divided into two groups (Dio Cassius) – those under
                     control were senatorial provinces and those that needed military
                     presence were imperial provinces – therefore the army stayed
                     under his command.
         o Aimed to establish secure frontiers
                 “pax Romana”
                 Threat from Germany
                 Threat from Parthia
                 Never a long term peace
                 Prima Porta (Statue of Augustus shows recovery of eagles from
                     Pathia)
         o Introduced fairer provincial taxes based on regular censuses
         o The publicani – tax collectors – roles was reduced so the taxes (trbutum
            soli (salt) and tributum capitus (head)) were not exploited.
         o Left client kings, or native rulers, in control of own territories
         o Visited the provinces regularly
         o Inscriptions from provinces praising Augustus
         o Asia “savour for us and our descendants, him who has put to end wars and
            adorned peace”
         o Expansion of the empire
                 New provinces created in Lower and Upper Germany, Rhaetia,
                     Pannonia
                 The Gemma Augusta depicts the roman victory over Pannonia
                 RG “subjected the world to the power of the Roman people”
        Reforms
            o “father of the cities” “ curb license” Horace
            o Limits for marriage (25 for men, 20 for women)
            o Penalties on unmarried people (were not permitted to accept
                inheritances)
            o Rewards to those with children (preference to family men in elections).
            o Ara Pacis
            o Luxury - Attempt at sumptuary law




46
What were Claudius’ reforms and policies s?
         o Claudius‟ Administration
                He was an efficient administrator
                Public works
                        Extensive road building, Via Claudia Augusta
                        Aqueducts carting water up the hills of Rome
                        New harbour and light house
                        Excavation of 3 mile tunnel to drain the Fucine lake for
                          agricultural land
                        Secured food supply by encouraging non-Romans to
                          build ships and insuring ships against storm damage
                Religion
                        Secular games
                        Reorganisation of the college of 60 haruspices
                        Expulsion of astrologers from Rome
                        Suppression of Druidism
                        Curb practice of worship of foreign Gods – Jews denied
                          the right to worship in synagogues although was
                          tolerant of many
                        Extension of the sacred boundary of Rome to include
                          the Campus Martius
                        Prohibition of himself in temples in the provinces
                Finances
                        Supervisions of imperial treasury by Pallas
                        Procurators created to look after personal estates and
                          revenues and supervise the inheritance tax.
                        Increased control by imperial procurators in senatorial
                          provinces
                        Greater control of state treasury by appointment of
                          quaestors
                Justice
                        Many legal abuses removed and legal business sped up
                        Introduction of minor laws – laws against:
                              o Unruly behaviour in the theatre
                              o Harsh treatment of debtors
                              o Purchase and demolition of buildings for profit
                              o Loans made to a son in expectation of fathers
                                  death
                              o Disclaiming sick slaves by masters (if they
                                  recovered, they were freed)
                        Frequent judgement of cases previously herad by the
                          senate
         o Numismatic evidence
                Coin of Claudius grasping hand of Praetorian Gaurdsman
                        “The praetorians have been received into Claudius‟
                          trust”
                        Looks like a military dictatorship?
                        Warning against opposition?



47
Assess Augustus
    Propaganda
          o “in my fifth consulship I gave 1000 sesterces to every one of the
             colonists draw from my soldiers” Brunt and Moore
          o “I delivered the whole city from apprehension” Brunt and Moore
          o Horace “shuts tight the gate there”
    Was he successful
          o Acceptance
                  Ara Pacis
                  Honours and titles - Pater patriae - Civic crown
                  Dismay caused at relinquishment of consulship
                  Award of pater patriae and civic crown
                  Emulation of Augustus – Alter of vicomagistri
          o Non acceptance
                  Criticism in Tacitus
                  Conspiracies
                          Crassus demanded a triumph and spoils of war
                          Primus was condemned for treason by making war
                            without Augustus‟ permission
                  Agitation over taxes to provide revenue for military treasury
                  Augustus‟s fear of rioting on hi death bed
                          “Augustus frequently inquired whether rumours of hill
                            illness were causing any popular disturbance.”
                            Seutonius
                  Mutinies of legionaries in Germany and Pannonia
                  Increased Security
          o Held power until the end of his natural life
          o Didn‟t revert to the republic after his death – he was able to hand
             power over to his heir
    What did he achieve
          o Moral reforms
          o Praetorian gaurd
    Did he restore the republic in 27
          o Republic
                  At first settlement he gave the powers that he had gained back
                    to the senate and people of Rome
                  E A Judge says that handed back control of the “country” after
                    holding powers by “universal consent”
                  Paterculus writes “force was restored to the courts, its majesty
                    to the senate and the rule of the magistrates was restored to its
                    old form”
          o Monarchy
                  Seutonius writes “Twice Augustus seriously considered
                    restoring the republican system” but that he “did not do so”
                  Tacitus writes that he did restore the republic but then
                    “absorbed the functions of the senate, the officials, even the
                    law”
                  Dio Cassius wrote 200 years later that the restoration of the
                    republic was pretence and a “façade”



48
Assess Tiberius
    Was Tiberius‟ hesitation sincere or insincere?
          o Sincere
                 He had previously retired to Rhodes – perhaps no ambition
                 He was actually from a republican family – the Claudians were
                    republicans
                 Livia wanted his in power
                         Livias ambition not his own
                         Resentment/fear of Livia
                         Feared that Livia would want a say in government, and
                            her dominance.
                 Fear of Germanicus overthrowing him
                 He didn‟t have the personality to carry out the rol
                 There was no fixed succession policy
                         “no fixed or even generally recognised rule of
                            succession” Tacitus
          o Insincere
                 Mirror the 1st Settlement – Augustus hesitated when he was
                    given power.
                 A way to detect supporters of the republic – gain their support
                    for his hesitation and when he gained power, he would know
                    who was against the republic.
                 He eliminated Argippa Postumus as the heir apparent
                 Married Julia – showed his true ambition
                 He had the support from the senate.
    Who killed Germnaicus?
          o Piso
                 Tiberius sent Calpurnius Piso to watch over Germanicus, but
                    this resulted in antagonism between them.
                 Germanicus made two big mistakes of arrogance
                         Entering Egypt without the Tiberius approval
                         Released grain from granaries without assent, which
                            lowered the price of corn.
                 Germanicus was trying to gain popularity and this would
                    threaten Tiberius
                 Germanicus had maius Imperium, which made him feel that he
                    had the power to send Piso out of Syria – felt that he had the
                    power to override Tiberuis‟ orders.
                 Piso knew that something was going to happen – Germanicus
                    dies.
                 Piso was accused of poisoning Germanicus at the orders of
                    Tiberius, which made Tiberius unpopular.
                 Piso committed suicide – looks like the act of a guilty man.
                    But the senate says that their allegations were ridiculous. But
                    Piso had tried to gain Syria by force and challenged the
                    commander there. This was war against Rome and was an act
                    of treason.
          o Tiberius‟ orders
                 However, Tacitus does not say that Piso‟s death was a suicide.
                    He talks of “secreta mandata” – secret documents that may


49
                         have revealed correspondence between Emperor and Piso,
                         saying that Tiberius ordered Piso to kill Germanicus.
                      So, Sejanus may have committed the murder as a way to
                         disguise the truth for Tiberius.
        Was it really a reign of terror?
           o Not a reign of terror
                      Tiberius the monster is a Tacitean creation (Tacitus seeing him
                         as an earlier Domitian)
                      Terentius
                              There is evidence of a trial
                              Had a chance to defend himself
                              Terentius talked himself out of implication and his
                                 accusers were banished
                      Few deaths
                              Historian Walker calculated 18 cases of executed
                                 people under maiestas
                             
           o Truly was a Reign of terror
                      Everyone who was associated with Sejanus was implicated
                      “Friends and relations were as suspect as strangers” TA
                      “A remark on any subject might mean prosecution” TA
                      Rejoicing at accession of Gaius
                      Tiberius was misunderstood – he was actually one of the most
                         efficient of the emperors
                      Tiberius is presented badly by Tacitus who saw him as the
                         same sort of Emperor as Domitian – despotic and tyrannical
                              “could not refrain from adding his own commentary and
                                 reconstruction in generous measure” Syme
                              “Tiberius, through fear” killed Agrippa Postumus
                              “cruel disposition”
                              Tiberius felt “joy at the death of Germanicus”
           o Relationship with the senate
                      Tacitus hate a hatred towards Tiberius that stemmed from his
                         hatred of Domitian – he saw him as the precursor of Domitian.
                      Came from a hostile tradition of senators who only
                         remembered the reign of Terror.
                      Tiberius and the monarchy
                      Tiberius accession
                      Sejanus
                      The political trials - Maiestas
           o Tiberius attempted to define the treason law?
                      Strong legal background, the senators struggled
                      They would look into the background of another senators
                      Watch dogs




50
Assess Gaius
    Was mad
          o Ferril, Seutonius
                 “So much for the emperor, the rest of history must deal with the
                     monster”
                 “Kill every man between that head and the other one”
                 “Bloodthirstiness”
                 “Let them hate me so long as they fear me”
    Re-evaluation Of Gaius
          o Alston
                 Many continued to support him through his reign
                 Sources come from a hostile tradition
                         Seutonius and Dio worked as senators with a hostile
                           attitude towards emperors.
                         Josephus and Philo were Jewish and hated him for his
                           anti-Semitism.
                 Gaius representation as God made political sense
                         He was inferior to the senate in experience and age, he
                           needed “some way to assert his superior status over the
                           nobles” Alston
                         Assumption of divinity allowed him to rise above
                           normal constraints of social behaviour.
                         His behaviour may not have been because of madness
                           but as a way to act like a God, asserting his divinity –
                           sexually rapacious, drinking, incest. He made no secret
                           of his behaviour, it asserted his power.
                 His madness may be exaggerated
                         For example, after his soldiers refused to attack
                           Britannica, he ordered them to collect seashells
                         However, musculi (seashells) also means army tents, so
                           he may have been simply ordering them to break camp
                           and this has been exaggerated.




51
Assess Claudius
    Claudius was mad
          o Apocolocyntosis
                 Seneca
                 The Pumpkinification of Claudius
                 Augustus was deified, Claudius was pumpikified
                 Also describes in detail what Claudius did – killed 35 senators,
                     221 Roman knights and “other persons: as many as the sands
                     on the sea shore”
                 Would be exaggerated as he did not like him, however, it gives
                     an indication of the resentment of him.
    Re-evaluation of Claudius
          o Admission of his own fallibility
                 “as far as my memory serves” – Trento Edict (bronze)
          o Criticisms of past Emperors
                 “Obstinate retirement of my uncle” – Trento Edict (bronze)
                 “Gaius Caesar, who in his great stupidity and madness
                     humiliated the Jews” – Edict to Alexandrians
          o Promotion of the involvement of senators
                 “say at once, frankly and honestly…you must state your own
                     view” – Berline Papyrus
          o Not to be worshiped
                 “I deprecate the appointment of high priest and the building of
                     temples…my opinion is that temples and the like have by all
                     ages been granted as special honours to the gods alone” –
                     Letter to the Alexandrians
          o Is not lacking courage – is not a pusillanimous weakling
                 “I tell you once and for all that unless you put a stop to this
                     ruinous and obstinate enmity…I shall be driven to show what a
                     benevolent emperor can be when turned to righteous
                     indignation” – Letter to Alexandrians
          o End factionalism
                 “I explicitly order the Jews not to agitate for more privileges
                     than they formally possessed, and in the future not to send out a
                     separate embassy as if they lived in a separate city” – Letter to
                     Alexandrians
          o Saw human weaknesses
                 “Whereas it seems to me that I have devised many and
                     sufficient remedies, still…men‟s negligence…” Portion of
                     stone inscription
          o Expansion
                 Had a desire to be known as “extended of the empire”
          o Innovator
                 Attempted to introduce foreigners into senate
                 “Bringing excellence to Rome from whatever source”
                 “The innovation no proposed will, in its turn, one day be old”




52
Assess Nero
 Matricide of Agrippina the younger
          o Agrippina encouraged?? And boasted about incest with Nero
                 Incest was a religious offence and this accusation was
                    compromising for Nero
                 This may be why Nero happily killed Agrippina, but he also
                    encouraged her to leave Rome
                 “Agrippina was boasting of her intimacy with her son…the
                    army would never tolerate a sacrilegious emperor” - Tacitus
          o Death of Agrippina
                 She had taken antidotes to poison and was alert for plots
                 Anicetus suggested a collapsible boat
                        After dining with Nero, she boarded the boat and it
                           collapsed, but she was only slightly injured
                        She realised that it was planned but pretended she did
                           not and sent her freedman to assure Nero that she was
                           alive and well.
                        Burrus and Seneca were consulted and did not oppose
                           the matricide, and Burrus said that th Guard would
                           finish the job.
                        Anicetus was allowed to invade Agripina‟s house with
                           soldiers and she was hit and stabbed to death, saying
                           “strike here” pointing to her womb.
                 Is it legitimate or written for dramatic impact?
                        Nero was very dramatic – it was in the Claudian blood.
                        Power isolates and insulates you – however, there
                           would have been a great deal of people involved in
                           building the boat.
                        Several people were present at the assassination
                 Why had it come to this?
                        Incenst allegations
                        Anti-Julian partes
                        Supporter of Brittainicus
                        Supporter of Octavia
                        Involved in treachery
                        Poppaea Sabbina‟s influence
          o The impact of Agrippina‟s death of the reign of Nero
                 Loss of free opinion
                        The nadir of political debate (lack of)
                        The adulation given to Nero after the death of
                           Agrippina
                               o “Agrippina‟s birthday was among ill-omened
                                   dates”
                               o “complimentary proposals” made to Nero
                 Thrasea Paetus
                        Walked out of the Senate (the senate had no freedom of
                           speech)
                        “endangering himself without bringing general freedom
                           any nearer”


53
    Great fire - Tacitus is rational and says “whether accidental of caused by criminal
     act on the part of the Emperor is uncertain”
         o Started by Nero/Sanctioned by Nero
                  Tradition that Nero started fire and fiddled while it burnt
                  Blames a religious sect – the Christians
                  “Despite their guilt as Christians and the ruthless punishment they
                     deserved, the victims were pitied”
                  Started in Tigellinus‟ estate
                  Intended to found Neropolis
                  Attempts to put out flames were “prevented by menacing gangs”
                  “perhaps they received orders”
         o Accident
                  Brought in energetic relief and fire control methods
                  New building fire regulations
                  “perhaps they just wanted to plunder unhampered”
                  “Nero constructed emergency accommodation”
    Neronian Terror
         o Victims included Seneca, Thrasea Paetus for treason
    Ended the Julio-Claudian dynasty




54
Explain the importance of the Praetorian Guard under each emperor
 Praetorian guard
      o The favour of the praetorian guard was the most important thing in Rome
      o Augustus
               Organised by Augustus in 28 BC
               Superior soldiers to normal legionaries
               Considered body guard (although he had a specific body guard)
               Did not take part in campaigns unless princeps went on campaign
               3 cohorts in Rome, the other 6 distributed within Italian towns
      o Tiberius
               Sejanus was prefect of the praetorian guard
               Carried out activities on behalf on Tiberius  may have killed
                 Germanicus on the orders of Tiberius
               Regarded as the only person with whom Tiberius could trust and
                 was “partner of my labours”
               Eliminated Drusus
               Saved the life of Tiberius
               Increased Tiberius‟ authority over the senate, as senators feared the
                 praetorian guard
      o Gaius
               Macro declared Gaius to be emperor
               Murdered by praetorian guard
                      Chaerea (guardsman), Sabinus stabbed him
      o Claudius
                  Compare Lyons Tablet with Tacitus – almost the same
                  Tacitus uses evidence and presents things as in official reports
          o Accession
                  Was 51 when he succeeded in 41AD
                  Claudius was supposedly found hiding in the palace behind a
                     curtain when Gaius was killed
                  The Praetorian guard carried him off to the barracks where he
                     was pressed to accept imperial power.
                  He accepted the position and gave the guardsmen 15000
                     sesterces each.
                  The senators discussed the possibilities of what could be done
                          Suggestions of reverting back to republic
                          Senators put selves forward to be princeps senatus
                          “While the senate deliberated, the praetorian guard
                             resolved” Gibbon
      o Nero
               Burrus
                      The Praetorian Guard who helped to raise Nero to prefect.
                      Burrus and Seneca, owed their positions to Agrippina, but
                         they soon tired of her arrogance and encouraged Nero to act
                         independently.
                      From then until 62, Burrus and Seneca were the effective
                         rulers of the empire.
                  Burrus and Seneca started to turn against Agrippina
                  Agrippina‟s position is weakened by his passion for Acte, who
                     is found for him by Burrus and Seneca.


55
             “Nero became openly disobedient to his mother” Tacitus
             Agrippina let Nero use her room for “the relaxations natural to
              Nero‟s age and position”
           Nero‟s response was that he withdrew her military escort and
              removed
     o Nero “resolved to kill his mother” Tacitus
               Poppaea Sabina was the nemesis of Agrippina
        Agrippina
           Burrus and Seneca were consulted and did not oppose the
              matricide, and Burrus said that the Guard would finish the job.




56
What was the role of Freedmen – libertini – under the emperors?
 Augustus
     o Augustus introduced discriminatory measures (as well as the manumission
         tax) to limit numbers of libertini
     o There were able to take part in the cult of Rome and Augustus and
         promoted Caesar worship
     o Augustus could present freedmen with a Gold Ring which would allow
         them to reach equestrian class
     o Could be artisans, messages, attendants, clerks
 Claudius
     o Positions of freedmen
              Narcissus
                      ab epistulis
                      Handled correspondence
         o Pallas
                   a rationibus
                   Financial
                   Supervised revenues
         o Callistus
                   a libellis
                   Legal
                   Attended petitions and requests
                   Dealt with judicial inquiries
         o Polybius
                   a studiis
                   Librarian
                   Privy seal
                   Material for speeches and edicts
         o The freedmen became very powerful and influential, and some sources
             indicate that Claudius became their tool – they manipulated him.
             However, he did seek their advice but made his own decisions.
         o Angered the senatorial and equestrian classes as traditionally advisers
             should be taken from these groups not from foreigners.
         o Messalina
         o Narcissus, Callistus and Pallas discussed what to do about the
             Messalina, Sillius affair. Pallas and Callistus did not want to put their
             positions in jeopardy, but Narcissus decided to denounce her without
             warning, and bribed mistresses to inform
         o Narcissus urged Claudius into action
                   Narcissus took over the guard for a day and accompanied the
                     carriage, presenting Claudius with a list of Messalina‟s
                     immoralities
                   Narcissus had children of Messalina removed
     o Marriage
                   Freedmen tried to back different new wives, but it had to be
                     Agrippina – Pallas recommended her
   Nero
         o curbed the power of corrupt freedmen in the bureaucracy
         o Agrippina was weakened by Nero‟s dismissal of Pallas



57
Spartan Society to the Battle of Leuctra
     “Herodotus considered the Spartans so odd that he gave them the sort of
      ethnographic treatment that he usually reserved for no-Greeks” Todd

The influence of the geographical environment
 Location
          - Sparta lay in the Peloponnese
                   Eurotas river (Sparta lies on the river bank)
                   Mt Parnon was a range to the east of Sparta
                   Mt Taygetus was the range to the west (east of Messenia)
                   Arcadia is the remote centre of the Peloponesse – mountainous
                      range that is the source of the river
                   Isthmus is the narrow area of land to the north-east – Corinth
                   Laconia and Messenia were the regions outlying. Messenia to
                      the west of Taygetus and Laconia between Taygetus and the
                      Eurotas River.
          - Isolation
                   Three mountain ranges and jagged coastline surrounding
                      Spartan city.
 Climate
          - Mediterranean climate
                   hot near coast, cooler inland
                   Heavy rainfall in winter
                   Ice and snow in winter




58
Governmental structure
   General overview
        - Fusion of Monarchy, oligarchy and democracy
        - Primarily a military state and required army authority
        - Kings
                 Diarchy
                 Two kings
                 Descendants from Agiadai and Eurypontidai families
                 Founder Leaders
                 Considered to be the most important priests
                 Limited in regal power
                 Lost power after establishment of ephorate
                 Military power
                 Kings were “not a sovereign over everything” – Aristotle
                 “Hereditary generalship for life” – Aristotle
                 Kings had sole right to declare war, expected to go first in to
                   battle and return last and were held responsible for the failings
                   of the army
                 Privileges
                        Double rations
                        Had a special guard
                        They had a religious function
                               o Consulted the oracles
                        Were given as many cattle as they wanted
                        Reserved seats at public venues
                        The heir to the king was the first son born during his
                           reign
                        The heir was except from the laws that made Spartans
                           equal
                        He was not obliged to obey orders
                        No expected to go through agoge as failure would be
                           humiliating for the future king
                        Made up part of the gerousia
                 “Enjoyed a status that was not achieved but endowed” -
                   Osborne
        - Gerousia
                 28 members + the two kings
                 Role
                        Prepare and present proposals for the vote of the
                           ecclesia and advise the Kings
                        Maintain the balance between democracy and tyrnanny
                 Appointment through the Great Rhetra
                 Uncertain when it was first instigated, but most Ancient
                   historians cite Lycurgus
                        Suggested that the poers may date to the first Messenian
                           war
                 Authority




59
                    When gerousia made propositions and the assembly
                     made changes to these, the gerousia could withdraw the
                     proposal
                   Instigated through the rider
              Degradation of importance
                   Senile elders
                   Aristotle criticizes, questions whether they should have
                     a lifelong influence when they could be subject to
                     bribery and favoritism as well as senility
              Homoioi
                   There was aristocracy in Sparta
                   Gerousia was made up of “aristocratic houses”
                   Gerousia was an oligarchy – had the power without the
                     input of the people up until the time of the ephorate.
     -   Ephors
             Role
                      Introduced to “limit the regal power of the gerousia” –
                       Ehrenburg
                    Ensure the smooth running of the Spartan state
                    Power over state affairs, including the army and agoge
                       and absolute power over the magistrates
                    Supervised the life of the people and to apellaze (call
                       the assembly)
                    Controlled the Krypteia
                    Called on the army to fight
                           o Later, two Ephors would accompany the kings
                               on campaign
                    Watch for divine signs that the king‟s reign should end
                       – watched the sky and if they saw a shooting star, the
                       king‟s reign would be suspended
                    Supreme jurisdiction and the “right to punish
                       whomsoever they choose” - Xenephon
                    Appeasement of the people
                           o The kings power would now last longer because
                               he yielded power to the people
                           o Did not reduce power of the monarchy, but
                               ensure its perseverance
              Structure
                    Five men who were elected yearly from the ecclesia
              Origin
                    Aristotle and Plutarch concur that it as instituted 130
                       years after Lycurgan reform
                    May have originally been a council of royally appointed
                       officials – evolved to become the most powerful group
                       in Sparta
              Criticism
                    As the ephorate was open to all Spartan men, it was
                       open to those who were poor and thus susceptible to
                       bribery


60
                       Apparently without the restriction of birth
                       An element of democracy
     -   Ecclesia
             Warrior assembly open to all Spartiates over 30
             It is from these that the ephors are elected
             Ecclesia were summoned to meet between the river Knakion
                and Babka Bridge
             Issues
                     War and peace
                     Alterations to laws
                     Right to respond to any proposal put forward by the
                        Gerousia but the rider states that of they altered the
                        proposal negatively, the Gerousia could withdraw it.
                     The Spartan were denied all real power
                     Tokenistic gesture of appeasement
     -   Tyranny
             Sparta was against Tyranny as much as it was democracy
             Tyranny was a step towards democracy as tyrants gave
                concession to the people. Sparta believed if there was tyranny
                the helots may expect a say just as they would if there were
                democracy.




61
     Military State
      Military elite
            - Appearance
                     The men looked impressive
                            Long hair
                            Muscular appearance
                            Red cloaks
                     Intimidating to an enemy
            - Hoplite revolution 650BC
                     New type of fighting
                            Heavily armed infantrymen
                            Perfect understanding of the battle
                     middle class revolution
                            Not on horse back – expensive for the elite
                            Everyone could afford to fight
                     Phalax
                            Troop formation
                            Frontline against frontline - pushing
            - Colonisation of Taras
                     Two theories that explain the one and only colony of Sparta
                            The men could not afford to pay for training, and thus
                              could not invade Messenia were named helots and
                              denied citizenship. Children born during the war must
                              have been born of Helots, as all the other men were at
                              war. These children were the Partheniai – “Sons of
                              virgins” – and had no citizenship. This was an entire
                              generation out of place. The Partheniai started to revolt
                              but the revolution was discovered and they were sent
                              away to Taras to form a colony.
                            The women who were left behind during the war
                              complained about not having children produced. So the
                              young and robust men were sent back and ordered to
                              sleep with the virgins and produce a generation of
                              children. These were named the Partheniai or “sons of
                              virgins”. The Partheniai were not given citizenship and
                              rose up in anger. There were given the opportunity to
                              go to Taras but they could return and be given 1/6 of the
                              land claimed from messenia for the Partheniai.
      Military Way of life
            - The reputation of the Spartan hoplite was well established.
                     Their equipment was excellent, especially compared to that of
                      non-Greeks.
                     They had willpower and no fear of dying on the battlefield; to
                      die in this way was the greatest honour a Spartan could hope
                      for.
                     At the back of every Spartan's mind, as he prepared for battle,
                      lay the words of Spartan women ...that a Spartan hoplite
                      should return home carrying his hoplon or being carried on it!




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        When retreating, a hoplite discarded his hoplon (shield) as it
         was very cumbersome when attempting to run.
        To retreat was, for a Spartan, unthinkable. Hence the loss of a
         shield was considered cowardice.
        If a Spartan was killed in battle, his comrades carried his body
         on his hoplon back from battle for burial.
        Comradeship in the Spartan army was extremely strong.
         According to Spartan tradition, Lycurgus had been most
         particular in fostering it.




63
Spartan Social Structure
    Helots
         - The origin of the Helots
                  The Spartans who did not take part in the Messenian War were
                     adjudged to be slaves and named helots
                  Derived from hel- meaning to capture
                  Helot derived from Helos a town in Laconia that was
                     conquered and destroyed by the Spartans.
         - Function of helots
                  Local inhabitants of areas of Messenia and laconia owned by
                     Spartan state
                  They were not chattel slaves and did not belong to a person
                  They belonged to a property and stayed with their family
         - Helot rebellion of 464
                  The great earth quake
                          Helots seized the opportunity to rise up
                          Called allies to put an end to the helot uprising
                  Called for Athens help then ignored the help, as they did not
                     trust democratic Athens
                  Krypteia came about as a result of this
         - The Krypteia – secret police
                  Youth organisation (20 years of age)
                          Marry or join Krypteia
                  Helot control task force
                          Go into messenian territory
                          Ambush and kill helots
                          Strong, tough, brave or smart Helots that might cause an
                             uprising
                          Crown then like they were free, then kill them
                  Sparta declared war on the helots every year so that they could
                     continue to kill them at their own will
                  “There is nothing to match either the freedom of the free man at
                     Sparta or the slavery of the slave” – Plutarch
         - Only helots and perioikoi worked
    Perioikoi
         - Sparta had five villages
                  Obai
                          Limnai (Nth East)
                          Kynosoura (south)
                          Mesoa (Central)
                          Pitana (Nth West)
                          Amyklai (far south)
         - Agora
                  Meeting place
                  Public gathering
         - Freedom
                  Each town was able to self-govern
                  Providing it did not break away from Spartan policy




64
                However, the Perioikoi had no decisions when it came to war
                 and foreign policy.
     -   Production
              The Perioikoi became simple after having to produce simple
                 products for the Spartans
                     Furniture was wooden
                     Metal work was les skilled than in other areas of Greece
              Perioikoi had adjoining land that they were free to work
                 themselves
     -   The villages served as a buffer zone or escaping helots
     -   They were not permitted to intermarry with Spartans
     -   They owned allegiance to Sparta
     -   Those along the coast were fishermen, and ship builders
     -   Spartan kings revenue came from their estates in the land of the
         Perioikoi
     -   They were expected to serve as hoplite but were not formally trained




65
Social roles
 Illusion of homoioi
           - Spartans followed the belief that everyone was equal – homoioi
           - This was not the reality
                  King and kings children were exempt from the laws that made
                     Spartiates equal
                  There was a Spartan aristorcrcay ( see Political System)
    Men in Sparta
           - Birth
                  Father could chose to expose baby or allow it to live
                  Baby became possession of the state
                  Education began before birth
                          Eugenic breeding
                  Spartan babies do not cry
                  Best nurses
                  Washed in wine – ritual, toughened skin
                  Toughened to emotional decisions
           - Agoge
                  Rearing, upbringing (cattle imagery)
                  Age of 7, distributed into herds (troops)
                  Live together as a group with little contact with parents
                  Encouraged to fight among themselves in order to gauge their
                     abilities
                  Given less food than they need
                          Encourage them to steal
                          Punished if caught
                          Encourage stealth and cunning
                  Age of 12, training gets harder
                          Are denied a cloak – harden them
                          Only rarely get to bathe
                  child leaders
                          Paidonomus – boy herdsman, Trainer, Chief
                          Eiren – 20 years old, almost through agoge, leaders
                              foreach troop
                          Melleiren – 18-20 years old, prospective Eirens
           - Training
                  Training was mainly athletic and military
                  There was the singing of traditional songs
           - Homosexuality
                  Youngsters are supposed to attach themselves to older boys
                  Relationships encouraged
                          Experimentation
                          Love for comrades – more faithful on battlefield
                  however, they were expected to marry and reproduce
           - Syssitions (anareia, messes)
                  Continued attack on luxury
                  Common messes
                          Eat together
                          Eat the same


66
                   “Prevented them from spending the time at home, lying at table
                    on expensive couches, being waited on by confectioners and
                    chefs, fattened up in the dark like gluttonous animals, and
                    ruining themselves physically as well as morally.” - Plutarch
                 Barley allowance – “70 medimni for men, 12 for his wife” -
                    Plutarch
                         Part of this is payment to the syssition
                 Systition structure
                         Group of 15 men (no women or children)
                         Monthly contribution: “1m bareley-meal, eight choes
                            wine, five minas of cheese, ffive half-minas figs” –
                            Plutarch
                         “Anyone who had made an offering of first fruits or had
                            been hunting sent a share to the mess” – Plutarch
                 Rules
                         If he was out late hunting, he could eat at home
                                o King Agis returned from campaign but his
                                    portion would not be sent home to him. The
                                    next day, he was fined
                 Boys taken into syssition as part of training
                         Witnessed what was appropriate entertainment for men
                         “ability to take a joke would seem to be very Spartan” –
                            Plutarch
                         Helot might be brought into the syssition to be made
                            drunk and made example of to young men
                 Joining a syssition
                         Cannot be a citizen unless you are part of a syssition
                                o Gave you full citizenship rights
                         People would thrown bread at a bowl
                         If all were as is, he was accepted
                         If one was squeezed tight, he would not be allowed
                         These were men who had just gone through the agoge
           - Appearance
                 Hair was worn long
                         Long after passing through agoge
                         Looked good in battle
                 Lean and muscular
                         Spartans had a reputation for looking good
           - Oliganthropia
                 Shortage of men in war times
           - Archaeology
                 Masks to wear for rituals, events in life
        Women
           - Education
                 Certain amount of physical training with boys
                         Racing, dancing, javelin, discus
                 Dancing and singing competitions
                 Learning to play the lyre
                 Recite poetry


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             Dancing
     -   Function of women
             Different to activities in other Greek states
                     Weaving and spinning was done by helots
                     Very little family duties, as boys and men were away at
                        the barracks
                     All food was provided by helots, and men ate at the
                        syssition
             Produce babies
                     Produce men as soldiers for Sparta
                     Produce women to produce men in the future
                     “The pride of a Spartan woman was to be the mother of
                        a truly courageous member of the Equals” - Barrow
     -   Child bearing
             Women must be active and healthy to produce healthy babies
                     “How can one expect girls brought up like this [a
                        sedentary lifestyle] to give birth to healthy babies” –
                        Xenophon
                     “Exercise the girls‟ bodies…so that the embryos formed
                        in them would have a strong start in strong bodies and
                        develop better.” - Plutarch
     -   Reputation
             Physical
                     Reputation for great beauty
                     Reputation of great physical strength
             Power
                     Aristotle claims that Lycurgus gave up on women
                     Athenian opinion that women were out of control
                     Women had power over men:
                    “You Lakonian women are the only ones who can rule
                    men.” “That is because we are the only ones who give birth
                    to men” Foreigner to wife of Leonodas – Plutarch
     -   No Political power
             Excluded from sharing public office
             No right to vote
     -   Wealth
             Women could inherit land
             By 5th Century women owned 2/5 of the land
     -   Dress
             Jewelry
                     Forbidden to wear any jewelry or adornment
                     Not allowed to use perfume or cosmetics
             Clothing
                     Unattractive clothing
                     Material not dyed – forbidden except for crimson cloaks
                        of warriors
             Nakedness
                     Walked in parades naked to take away fear of exposure
                        to the air


68
        “Nor was there anything shameful in this nakedness” –
         Plutarch




69
Marriage
            -    Naked parades
                     Put the idea of marriage into their minds
             - Marriage by capture
                     Captured by prospective husband
                     Shaved her head, dressed her as a man
             - Meeting
                     Were to use stealth to meet
                     If they were caught, they would be punished
                     If she became pregnant without other people knowing, they
                       would be praised
             - Adultery
                     There was no such notion as adultery in Sparta
                     A man could ask permission to sleep with a man‟s wife
                     If the couple could not conceive, another man could “assist” so
                       the couple could be seen to have reproduced
             - Eugenic breeding
                     The best bred with the best
        Inferiors
             - Loss of citizenship due to lack of bravery when fighting
             - Illegitimate birth
             - Freed helots
             - Adopted playmates




70
The economy
    Industry and trade
         - Spartans were forbidden to engage in trade.
         - They were also forbidden to travel abroad, except on state instructions.
         - Foreigners were not admitted to Sparta without supplying a very good
            reason for doing so.
         - This was to prevent the citizens from being corrupted by foreign ideas
            and morality.
         - As the Spartiati (Spartans) were forbidden to engage in trade, the
            perioekoi gained considerable "wealth".
         - However the development of a wealthy merchant class in Sparta was
            hampered by Sparta‟s adherence to the iron coinage mentioned by
            Xenophon
         - One reason why wealth was less desirable lay in the fact that Sparta's
            authorities refused to adopt the system of making silver into coins in
            the manner of other Greek cities.
         - Instead she continued to use unwieldy iron bars for money. Such a
            clumsy currency discouraged trade between Sparta and other city
            states.
         - Trading in such a medium was, on one hand, unwieldy, while on the
            other, silver was clearly preferable to iron.
         - Trade
                 Gytheon was the main port (but Sparta was not a major
                    exporter)
                         In Swinging Sparta, would export iron spits
                 Imports
                         Tin and copper was needed to make bronze
         - Production
                 Olives, Grain, Goats, Timber, Marble, Iron
                 Fish, octopus
                 Red dye from octopus for military clothing




71
Death and Religion
 Funeral rites for kings
         - Death was announced throughout the land
         - Women going through the city beat cauldrons
                   Perhaps a traditional from frightening away evil spirits
         - One man and one woman in each household had to put on mourning
             clothes or would be heavily fined.
         - Spartans, Perioikoi and helots were obliged to attend the funeral
         - They beat foreheads as a sign of grief, wailing and moaning
         - Cried that the dead king was the best king that they ever head.
 Function of Religion
         - Necessary to please the gods
                   If you do something for them, they‟ll do something for you
                   Crops, fertility, prosperity
                   If you don‟t do things for them, you will be punished
                   Gods require sacrifices
         - Identity for a person and for a people
         - Social cohesion
         - Holidays
                   Recreation
                   Food
                   Drink
 Hero worship
         - Hercules
         - Caster and Polydeuces
                   Sons of Zeus, born from an egg
         - Herowarriors and hunters
         - Belief in spirits and the underworld
         - Sacred animals
                   snakes
 Gods
         - Spartans shared similar Gods with Athens
 Spartan Festivals
         - Karneia
                   Celebrated in August marking the harvest of the grape crop
                   Young men called “staphylodromoi” – grape cluster runners
                      pursued a garlanded man whose capture brought good luck
                   Karos was a horned fertility God, later assimilated into the cult
                      of Applo Karneios
                   Spartans suspended military operation during Karneia,
                      explaining their delay to Marathon in 490 and limited numbers
                      at Themopylae in 480.
         - Gymnopaidiai
                   Several days at the end of July
                   Connected to Apollo – possible a thank offering for military
                      success
                   Singing, dancing, gymnastic display of naked boys
         - Hyakinthia
                   Celebrated at Amyklae in late May, early June for around ten
                      days


72
                    Most important festival
                    Dedicated to Apollo – Hyakinthos was a youth loved by Apollo
                     who was accidentally killed by Apollo throwing a discus.
                   Military operations suspended during Hyakinthia
                   Celebration had two stages
                          Rites of sorrow and mourning. Rhythmic wailing and
                              chanting. Mourning for the loss of youth. Ban on
                              wearing of garlands. There were offerings to the dead.
                              A ban on eating cakes and bread. Special funeral meal.
                          Rejoicing in honour of Apollo. Wearing of wreaths.
                              Choirs, young boys playing lyre or singing, dances.
                              Singing the paen. Festive meals. Procession to
                              Amyklae.
                   City is emptied for Hyakinthia as they all go to Amyklae to
                     celebrate.
    Death was only worthy if you dies on campaign or in childbirth
           - You only had your name inscribed if you died in this way




73
Cultural Life
    Myths and Legends
    Art
          - Bronze
                750-650BC
                Geometric
                Simple
                Animals
                Almost post-modern representations of animals and people
                        8th Century BC “seated man”
                Figures of women
                        How women dressed
          - Ivory and bone carvings
                Reflections of powerful and predatory animals
                Hunting themes
                Soldiers and military themes
                Use of ivory ended c. 600BC (it had to be imported from Syria
                   or Egypt – growth of Xenophobia and barrack Sparta in 6th
                   Century.
                        Ibex grazing – ivory comb: swinging Sparta
                        Head of solder: Barrack Sparta
          - Painted Pottery – made in Laconia for Sparta or exported to Africa
                Laconian II
                        630 – 575 BC
                        Prior to Barrack Sparta
                Sumptuous lifestyle
                        Animal prints
                        Nature
                        Symmetry
                        Some geometric shapes
          - Laconian III
                575 – 550BC
                        just prior to Barrack Sparta
                Finest designs of all Laconian pottery
                        People instead of animals
                        Scenes of action
                        Complex patters and designs
                        Mythological figures
                        Beautiful body, shape of figures
                        Commissioned for certain market: African themes in
                           Arcesilas cup, dockside preparation, attempt at a
                           genuine African feel
          - Laconian IV
                550-500BC
                Start of Barrack Sparta
                Focus on military
                Hunting, warriors
                Focus on body and military valour
          - Religious archaeology


74
                       Santuary and temple of Artemis Orthia
                            Temples dating from 570BC
                            Carved ivories, limestone reliefs,
                            Offerings by pregnant or barren women, thank offerings
                               for successful birth
                       Menelaus
                            Shrine to Helen and Menelaus
                            Pre-Dorian Greeks
                            Return on the Heraklids
    Poetry
              -  Tyrataeus
                     Middle of 7th Century
                     Poet of “barrack Sparta”
                     Types of poetry
                             Marching songs
                             “Eunomia” “good order”
                     Writing style
                             Elegiac metre
                     usefulness
                             Earliest and most explicit writing of practice and values
                               of hoplite warfare
                             Ideas rejecting the aristocratic ideal of physical
                               excellence, eloquence or wealth
                             Strong supporter of monarchy
                             Talked of city as being more important than the
                               individual
             - Alcman
                     Poet of “swinging Sparta”
                             Carefree, beauty-loving, intellectual interest and wide
                               geographical horizons
                             Early 7th century OR late 7th century
                     Types of poetry
                             “Maiden Songs”
                             choruses to be sung and danced to
                             Hymns for male voices
                     Usefulness
                             Retold Homeric stories
                             Keen and close observer of situations around himself
                             Gives details
        Literature
             - Ancient: Writers with an Athenocentric background
                     Herodotus – Athenian; work was coloured by the realationship
                        between Athens and Sparta. Writing 480-79BC. Persian Wars
                     Thucydides – Spartan secretiveness made it impossible for
                        thorough analysis. Peloponnesian wars 432-404BC
                     Plutarch – writes about Barrack Sparta, the memory of barrack
                        “swinging” Sparta was eclipsed by Barrack Sparta. “Life of
                        Lycurgus” was a biography not a history but it is our best story
                        of Spartan society. Inaccuracies in text: Plutarch says that


75
                     Lycurgus declared gold and sliver coinage was to be abolished,
                     yet there was no coinage in Greece at this time
            - Stereotype
                   Sparta is considered odd as it is compared with Athens
                          Athens is our image of a Greek Polis – Sparta is the
                             anti-type
            - Xenophobia
                   Sparta was immensely secretive – Particularly in Barrack
                     Sparta
                   Fear of people of other nationalities
        Lycurgus
            - Stasis
                   Political turmoil in Sparta
                   Lycurgus was called to help with stasis
                   There was a need for sweeping changes
            - Lycurgus
                   Human or devine?
                          “dear to the Gods”, “God rather than man” – Plutarch
                   Went to Delphic oracle to decide what to do
                          Eunomia – good order
                          Phoebus (Apollo) requested the rhetra
                          Made it appear as if the reforms were sanctioned by
                             Delphi
                   Three reforms
                          Gerousia
                                 o Would be able to propose and withdraw laws
                                 o But the people could change them
                                 o Great Rhetra
                                 o Rehtra is any Spartan (spoken) law
                                 o Spoken so it can be altered or manipulated to
                                     fulfill what the leader requires
                                 o The Great Rhetra
                                          Foundation constitution
                                          Set up the Spartan system
                                          “but to the people should belong the
                                              right to respond”
                                 o The Rider
                                          An addition added to the Rhetra – allows
                                              the Gerousia additional power
                                          “if the people should make a crooked
                                              choice, the Elders and the founder-
                                              leaders are to set it aside”
                          Land redistribution
                                 o There had been “dreadful inequality”
                                 o Distributed the land so that there would be no
                                     distinctions
                                 o Part of the sumptuary laws to curb luxury
                          Syssition and sumptuary laws
                                 o Sumptuary laws



76
                       Barrack Sparta – 550BC
                       Preventing luxurious living
                           o Luxury did not allow good soldiers
                           o Ensure equality
                       Food distribution
                           o Supply of barley and fresh produce
                                    Enough but no more
     -   Eunomia
              Balanced and harmonious system
              Ideal of harmony in a political system
              Declared by Oracle
                      Declared “that God granted this and promised that his
                         constitution would be the finest” - Plutarch
     -   Against the law for laws to be put on paper
              The writing down of laws was a step towards democracy
              Lycurgus believed that laws should be learnt by heart – so
                 people did not become lazy
     -   Penalties for law breaking
              Loss of citizenship
                      Not paying syssition fees
                      Not attending syssition
     -   Citizens worked for community
              “Altogether he accustomed citizens to have no desire for a
                 private life, nor knowledge of one, but rather to be like bees,
                 always attached to the community, swarming together around
                 their leader, and almost ecstatic with fervent ambition to devote
                 themselves entirely to their country.” – Plutarch




77
Lives
    Lifestyle
          - No Spartan was permitted to live as he pleased
          - Strict lifestyle
          - Price paid to remain as an elite warriors force supported by slave
              labour.
 Festivals
          - Provided the only holidays the Greek people had
          - At least 30 days per year were dedicated to festivals
          - Celebrations
                   Singing, dancing, competitions
                   Women and children took part as well as men
 Music and dance
          - Music
                   Connected with military excellence
                   Musical competitions
                   Valued old songs and works of old poets
                   Poetry was recited to the flute or lyre
          - Dance
                   Co-ordination – athleticism
                   Traditional dances
          - Lyric poetry
                   Celebrate and honour Sparta in syssition
                   Alchman – “Swinging Sparta” poet
                   Tyrtaus – “Barrack Sparta” poet
                   Recited to music or lyre or flute
      - decline in the arts noticeable after the Persian Wars
 Hunting
          - Sport as well as gathering food
          - Echo basic ideas of battle
          - Plutarch refers
          - Scenes on pottery
          - Fits with ethos of athleticism
 Conversation
          - Laconic speech
 Flogging contest
          - Endurance
          - Statue of honour to the boy who held out the longest
          - May have been a form of initiation ceremony




78
Spartan War and foreign policy
 Spartan Imperialism
         - Territorial controls – battles
         - Spartan becomes the hegemon
                  Hegemonial position
                  Power over its allies
 Persian War
         - Greeks States joined together to defend Greece from Persia
                  480-479BC
         - Sparta led the Greek states
                  31 states
                  Athens gave Sparta control of her navy
         - Greek victory
         - Athens liberated States from Persian rule and put then under Athenian
             rule
                  478BC
                  Sparta allowed Athens to colonise
         - Battle of Themopylae
                  Cutting of the Persians from the Peoloponnesus
 Peloponnesian War
         - Athens vs Sparta and Allies
                  27 years: 431-404
                  Athens was a navy giant
                  Sparta was an army giant
         - Formation of Peloponnesian League
                  Individual cities bound themselves to Sparta
                  The other states have protection by Sparta and from Sparta
                  There was a League Congress, but Sparta had veto power
         - Sparta was victorious
 Growth of millitary
         - Had no navy
                  Would have to post people overseas, leaving Sparta open to
                    revolution from the helots
         - Had to have a strong military to protect herself
         - Keep helots under control
 Battle of Luectra
                  Lost in 371AD
                  Loss of true, Great Sparta




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The Peloponnesian War
From Thucydides – the Peloponnesian War
    The Peloponnesian League
         - Peloponnesian War
                 Athens vs Sparta and Allies
                 27 years: 431-404
                 Athens was a navy giant
                 Sparta was an army giant
         - Formation of Peloponnesian League
                 Individual cities bound themselves to Sparta
                 The other states have protection by Sparta and from Sparta
                 There was a League Congress, but Sparta had veto power
         - Structure
                 Bi-Cameral – two chambers
                         The Spartan Ecclesia (only this chamber could initiate
                             Peloponnesian policy)
                         The allies – including Spartan representatives
         - Stage One
                 A member of the league has a problem
                 The delegates must be together and go to Sparta
         - Stage Two
                 Ecclesia meets and the delegates are able to put forward their
                    problems to Sparta
         - Stage Three
                 Allow the complaints to be made against Athens
                 Athens then has the chance to speak to defend themselves
                 Foreign delegates leave and Spartans alone make the decision
         - Stage Four
                 The question is put to the Ecclesia
                         Voting by acclimation (cheering)
                         On this occasion, the ecclesia was divided equally so
                             that it was clear that it was the will of eth ecclesia that
                             the were to go to war.
         - Stage Five
                 Summoned the delegates
                 Tell the delegates that the ecclesia has made its decisions and
                    the allies should go home and rally support
                 Want allied assembly to be in full unanimous support
         - Stage six
                 Calling of allied assembly
                 Corinthians getting the final word
                 Before voting of assembly, the differences between Sparta and
                    Athens were discussed
         - Stage Seven
                 Voting of all the allies, city by city
                 Majority voting for war
                         Will prepare for war individually




80
Definitions
 Periokoi – dwellers around the city-state
                    From less dominant cities
                    All answerable to Sparta
                    Traders, potters, jewellers
 Poleis (polis) – city state (made up of chora and astu)
 Chora – outlying districts of the city
 Astu – city centre
 Politeia – citizenship
 Helots – slaves (see above)
 Lacedaemonians – Spartiates + Perioikoi
 Pythia – interpreter of the words of the oracle – Apollo
 Apellaze – an assembly coming together
 Kleroi (lots of land
 Medimni – unit of measurement
 Laconic speech – sharp, to the point, full of wit
 Skytale – device for sending messages in secret. Leather strip wound around a
staff and written on. Only could be read if a staff of the same size was used




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The true nature of the Spartans
    There is no evidence that the Spartans as a whole ever became restless over
       their way of life although, of course, there are examples enough of Spartans
       who failed to live up to the ideal standards expected of them.
    For many, the communal spirit and dedication to the state must have been very
       satisfying. It was also a feature of life in the messes that there was a great deal
       of banter, which was neither to be resented nor repeated outside the mess.
    Another Hellenic adjective for Spartan, lakonikos, has also passed into our
       language in the word "laconic", used of a dry wit which says much in a few
       words. This was the style which the Spartans encouraged and for which they
       were famous.
    When a Spartan was asked why it was that Lycurgus had made so few laws he
       replied: "Men of few words require few laws." Another, in reply to someone
       who was praising the people of Elis for their fairness in the management of the
       Olympic Games, answered: "Yes, they deserve a lot of praise if they can do
       justice on one day in five years."
    The retort of a Spartan to an Athenian who had said that the Spartans had no
       learning was: " You are right. We alone of all the Hellenes know none of your
       bad qualities."
    It can be seen from such remarks that the Spartans were both intensely
       patriotic and sure of their superiority over others. They had chosen to remain a
       select minority dominating a majority of inferiors, in the form of the helots
       and the perioikoi.
    The helots did all the everyday work, so that the Spartans could be free to
       become exceptional soldiers. Curiously, in order to preserve their privileged
       position, they adopted a system of living in which their individual freedom
       was very slight.
    Spartan dilatoriness (unwillingness)
           - Their religion was very important to them and was often the reason for
               delayed attack.
                    Carnea stopped them going to marathon
                    Carneia was cited for only sending 300 Spartans to
                       Thermopylae
           - This may have been because of the Ethnocentric perspective
                    Great deal of hostility between Athens and Sparta following the
                       Persian Wars and Herodotus reflects this




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Personality Study: Agrippina the Younger
Describe Agrippina’s family background
    Family background
          o Parents
                 Agrippina I
                 Germanicus
          o Siblings
                 Nero Caesar
                 Drusus Caesar
                 Gaius Caligula
                 Drussila
                 Julia Livilla
          o Son
                 Nero
    She was related to Augustus through Julia and Agrippa to Agrippina I and
       Germanicus – her parents.
    Agrippina is a Julian through her mother
    Agrippina is a Claudian through her father
    Germanicus dies in AD 19
          o Devastating for the Tiberian principate
          o Tried to make a scandal out of it
                 Exposed the body to the people
                 Encouraged people to look of a sign of foul play
                 People came to their own conclusions about his death
          o Agrippina‟s bid for power
                 Tiberius and Livia never recover from accusations of murder
    “Partes Agrippinae”
          o Faction of Agrippina I
          o She had sons
          o Senators had to commit to her faction or to Tiberius
          o Used treason law for party politics
    Sejanus
          o Sejanus is identified as untrustworthy
          o Sejanus is given permission to remove the family of Agrippina
          o When Sejanus tried to kill Caligula, Tiberius turned on him
    Later life
          o Fertility was much in her favour
          o Marriage to Ahenbarbos




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Discuss Agrippina’s life prior to marriage to Claudius
    15      Agrippina born
    16      Drussila born (sister)
    18      Julia Livilla born (sister)
    19      Death of Germanicus (father)
          o Actions of Agrippina the elder
          o Agrippina accused Piso and Plancina of murder of Germanicus on
             orders of Germanics – possible secreta mandata which were documents
             between Tiberius and Piso
          o Agrippina therefore openly hostile to Tiberius for next 9 years and
             built up “partes Agrippinae” to bring her sons to power
    28      Marries Ahenobarbus
    33      Death of Agrippina I (mother)
    Politically used by Gaius
          o Importance
                  He was young, virtually inexperienced
                  Had to do something to assert his power
                  Used bloodline – showed his sisters to the world
          o Received special privileges
                  Given Vestal privileges
                  Given seats in imperial enclosure at games
                  Given constitutional status y inclusion in vows for emperors
                     safety
                  Included in annual vows of allegiance to Caligula
                  Featured on reverse side of bronze sesterces
    Son was born
          o Gaius displeased at the birth of Nero
          o “I name him Claudius” – Seutonius
    Birth of Julia Drussila to Gaius and Milonia
          o Gaius affection for Drussila threatened Agrippina‟s ambitions
          o Drussila was Caligula‟s favourite sister
          o This meant that Drussila‟s children would be more likely to gain power
          o Drussila‟s death in 37 meant that Agrippina had chance again.
          o Named Julia Drussila after his dead sister
    Agrippina‟s implication in conspiracy with Aemilius Lepidus
          o (Dead) Drussila‟s husband implicated with Agrippina and Julia Livilla
             (Agrippina‟s sister)
          o Lepidus was executed
          o Agrippina was banished to Ponita (after Agrippina had been forced to
             carry the ashes of Lepidus to Rome) in 39
          o Friends were also implicated
                  Seneca – avoided punishment as Caligula believed him to be
                     dying of consumption
                  Tigellinus – implicated for adultery with Agrippina
          o Agrippina could have married Lepidus, who, as the husband of
             Drussila, could have helped Nero gain power
    Claudius married Messalina
          o Any children of this marriage would become very powerful
          o Threat to power of Agrippina



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        Death of Agrippina‟s husband Ahenobarbus (AD 40)
             o Nero was looked after by Domitia, his aunt while Agrippina was in
                 exile
        Agrippina unable to take advantage of Gaius assassination
             o She was exiled with no husband to put pressure on to gain power
        Recalled From exile (41)
        Birth of Brittainicus
             o The son of Claudius and Messalina
             o Born February 2nd 41 AD
             o Further threat to power
        Agrippina‟s marriage to Sallustius Passienus Crispus
             o He divorced his wife Domitia (Agrippina‟s Sister in Law) to make
                 himself available
             o He was worth 200 million sesterces per year
             o His death
                      Opportune – assisted by poison (?)
                      Agrippina and Nero inherited his estate
                      Agrippina free to marry Claudius next year
        The Downfall of Messalina
             o Messalina was married to Claudius
             o Agrippina lived in fear of Messalina
                      Messalina‟s son Britannicus was a threat to Nero‟s inheritance.
                      Nero did, however, have Julian blood
                      Agrippina‟s sister Julia Livilla was banished and executed
                      “Pity was felt for…Agrippina, owing to her persecution by
                         Messalina” – Tacitus
             o Can this be attributed to Claudius and Agrippina?
                      Agrippina‟s husband, Passienus Crispus died, leaving her a
                         widow
                              Because Agrippina was widowed, Claudius could marry
                                her – uncle M. niece
                              Messalina would not have considered this danger,
                                because it would be incest
                              The idea for the marriage had come from Silius  did
                                Agrippina ask Silius to do this?
                              Their behaviour is seen as conspiracy – someone wants
                                Messalina out of the way.
                              If Agrippina were to marry again, that person/their son
                                would be emperor




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Agrippina’s Role under Gaius (Caligula) (37 41 AD)
    Advance Gaius politically
         o Importance
                  He was young, virtually inexperienced
                  Had to do something to assert his power
                  Used bloodline – showed his sisters to the world
         o Received special privileges
                  Given Vestal privileges
                  Given seats in imperial enclosure at games
                  Given constitutional status y inclusion in vows for emperors
                     safety
                  Included in annual vows of allegiance to Caligula
                  Featured on reverse side of bronze sesterces
    Gaius displeased at the birth of Nero
         o “I name him Claudius” – Seutonius
         o Agrippina ignored the suggestion
    Position threatened by Drussila
         o Drussila was Caligula‟s favourite sister
         o This meant that Drussila‟s children would be more likely to gain power
         o Drussila‟s death in 37 meant that Agrippina had chance again.
         o Birth of Julia Drussila to Gaius and Milonia
                  Named Julia Drussila after his dead sister
    Agrippina‟s implication in conspiracy with Aemilius Lepidus
         o (Dead) Drussila‟s husband implicated with Agrippina and Julia Livilla
             (Agrippina‟s sister)
         o Lepidus was executed
         o Agrippina was banished to Ponita (after Agrippina had been forced to
             carry the ashes of Lepidus to Rome) in 39
         o Friends were also implicated
                  Seneca – avoided punishment as Caligula believed him to be
                     dying of consumption
                  Tigellinus – implicated for adultery with Agrippina
         o Agrippina could have married Lepidus, who, as the husband of
             Drussila, could have helped Nero gain power
    Agrippina‟s position threatened
         o Claudius married Messalina
                  Any children of this marriage would become very powerful
    Death of Agrippina‟s husband Ahenobarbus (AD 40)
         o Nero was looked after by Domitia, his aunt while Agrippina was in
             exile
    Agrippina unable to take advantage of Gaius assassination
         o She was exiled with no husband to put pressure on to gain power




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Agrippina’s Role under Claudius (pt 1: 41 – 48 AD) (pt 2: 48 – 54)
    Recalled From exile (41)
    Threat to power
         o Birth of Brittainicus
         o The son of Claudius and Messalina
         o Born February 2nd 41 AD
    Agrippina‟s marriage to Sallustius Passienus Crispus
         o He divorced his wife Domitia (Agrippina‟s Sister in Law) to make
             himself available
         o He was worth 200 million sesterces per year
         o His death
                  Opportune – assisted by poison (?)
                  Agrippina and Nero inherited his estate
                  Agrippina free to marry Claudius next year
    Possible assistance in downfall of Messalina
         o Messalina was married to Claudius
         o Agrippina lived in fear of Messalina
                  Messalina‟s son Britannicus was a threat to Nero‟s inheritance.
                  Nero did, however, have Julian blood
                  Agrippina‟s sister Julia Livilla was banished and executed
                  “Pity was felt for…Agrippina, owing to her persecution by
                     Messalina” – Tacitus
         o Messalina‟s love affair with Gaius Silius was her downfall
                  Gaius wanted to marry Messalina
                         When Claudius left she “celebrated a formal marriage
                            with Silius” – Tacitus
                         Messalina now had two husbands
                         This was an act of treason against her husband, the
                            Emperor
                                o But there are no indications that this was a
                                   political coup
         o The palace freedmen informed Claudius about the affair
                  He said “„Am I still emperor?‟” – Tacitus
                         Whoever controlled the praetorian guard would have
                            power
                         Rumours revealed that Claudius knew about them.
                  Messalina and Silius were arrested
                         Messalina relied on a personal appeal to Claudius
                         On the emperors orders, Messalina tries to kill herself
                            so had a soldier run her through
                         Claudius did not mourn
         o Can this be attributed to Claudius and Agrippina?
                  Agrippina‟s husband, Passienus Crispus died, leaving her a
                     widow
                         Because Agrippina was widowed, Claudius could marry
                            her – uncle M. niece
                         Messalina would not have considered this danger,
                            because it would be incest




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                                Claudius was to “punish his wife‟s excesses as a
                                 preliminary to coveting an incestuous substitute” –
                                 Tacitus
                              The idea for the marriage had come from Silius  did
                                 Agrippina ask Silius to do this?
                              Their behaviour is seen as conspiracy – someone wants
                                 Messalina out of the way.
                              If Agrippina were to marry again, that person/their son
                                 would be emperor
                              Claudius would only survive of he married her first, so
                                 Messaline had to be removed.
                      The Conspirators had not gone to the praetorian guard
                              They were having a party
                              After arrest, Messalina is bewildered
                                     o She knows that she has not been staging a coup
                      Agrippina got what she wanted, they were free to marry
        Established relationship between the Imperial family and the senate
            o Carefully prepared the senate prior to introducing contentious matters
                 like before her marriage
                      Agrippina and Claudius marriage was incestuous, he was her
                         uncle
                      Vitellius arranged the marriage
                              Senator
                              3 times consul
                              Ex-censor with Claudius
                      Married in January 49
            o Drop in Judicial marriages of 25 to 5 from Messalina to Agrippina
            o Recall of Seneca when Claudius had refused during Messalina years
        Provided Claudius with a link to Julian blood
            o Agrippina had the Julian bloodline that he did not have
            o People of Rome needed this
            o “From this moment on, the country was transformed. Complete
                 obedience was accorded to a woman.” - Tacitus
        Female despotism
            o “Compete obedience was accorded to a woman” – Tacitus
            o “This was rigorous, almost masculine discipline” – Tacitus
            o Power is promoted
                      After the success of the conquest of Britain was over
                      There was still disapproval over the incident with Messalina
                      Approval had dropped
                      New start  needed the political marriage of Agrippina to
                         express his power
                      Connection with Julian family
            o Title „Augusta‟(AD50)
                      First living person to be given this title
            o Right to use the state carriage “carpentum” at festivals (AD51)
            o Wore Golden military cloak, outshining Claudius military uniform
                 (AD52)




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             o Ara Ubiorum, her birthplace renamed Colonia Augusta
                Agrippinensium in her honour (AD50)
             o Became involved in major political events – homage of Caratacus
                     Assertion “of her partnership in the empire” – Tacitus
             o Nero was given premature honours, dress, where Britannicus was
                dressed as a minor
                     “Nero now prematurely assumed adult costume, to qualify
                        himself for an official career” – Tacitus
             o The Prefects of the praetorian guard replaced
                     Lusius Geta and Rufrius Crispinus were regarded as “loyal to
                        the memory of Messalina”
                     He who controls the praetorian guard controls Rome.
                     Burrus replaced these men
                     Burrus recognised Agrippina as the one who gave his this
                        power
                     “Useful friends in useful places” Barrett
             o Presence on coins, sculptures
        Changes succession policy
             o Betrothal of Octavia to Nero
                     Octavia was the daughter of Messalina and Claudius
                     Octavia had to marry Nero, the son of Agrippina, so that Nero
                        would become Emperor
                     Used incest as the excuse to break off betrothal with Junius
                        Silanus and were Nero was betrothed to her in 48
                     In 49, Silanus committed suicide (may have been enforced)
                             “had orders to commit suicide” – Seutonius
                     Claudius adopted Nero in 50
                     Octava was adopted to another family so the marriage would
                        not be incestuous.
                     Brittainicus, son of Messalina, was virtually disinherited.
        Cultivated praetorian guard
             o Replaced with her own men officers suspected of loyalties to
                Messalina and Brittainicus
             o “Useful friends in useful places”
        Provinces
             o Interfered on behalf of the Jews in a dispute (Jospehus)
        Power of money
             o Relationship with Pallas
             o “Passion to acquire money was unbounded. He wanted it as a stepping
                stone to supremacy”
        Influenced building of Domus Tiberiana
             o Was built at one time -- Swiss institute
             o Josephus says that in Caligula‟s time it was still a collection of houses,
                at his assassination
             o When Nero was presented it was before the “steps of the palace” SN
             o Building type suits a late Claudian date
        Influenced punishments
             o Arrest of Vitellius
                     In 51, charges were brought up against Vitellius
                             She protected him


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                       Agrippina threatened Claudius in order to save him
                             Agrippina had the power in their relationship
            o She told him that if he had Vitellius arrested, he would have to revive
                the treason law, which would mean arresting his own son, Brittainicus,
                as he failed to call Nero by his newly given name, NERO.
        Ended the Claudian principate
            o Why did Agrippina kill Claudius
                     Get rid of Claudius before Brittainicus came of age and could
                        claim the throne
                     Get Nero into power while he still needed his mother so she
                        could influence him
                     Poisoned with “poison sprinkled on a particularly succulent
                        mushroom” – Tacitus
                     The will of Claudius was suppressed because it probably
                        favoured Brittainicus over Nero
                     Was destroyed by Agrippina




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Role Under Nero
    Brought Nero to Power
         o He came to power at 17
         o Get rid of Claudius before Brittainicus came of age and could claim the
             throne
         o Get Nero into power while he still needed his mother so she could
             influence him
         o The will of Claudius was suppressed because it probably favoured
             Brittainicus over Nero
         o Was destroyed by Agrippina
         o Wasn‟t required so much, as he had Julian blood
    Influence over Nero
         o On the day of Nero‟s accession in 54, he gave the watch-word as
             “optima Mater” – the best of mothers
         o Barrett : When Nero became emperor he was only seventeen, and
             could not legally rule so for the first year of his reign Agrippina
             basically ran the empire until he was of legal age.
         o She was the first woman in the history of Rome to be given the title of
             empress.
         o Her picture later appeared on coins with her son; she was the first
             woman of the imperial household to be pictured on coins while she
             was still alive.
         o Appointment as priestess of deified Claudius
         o She appeared on coins, including the kissing coin
         o Shared authority over procurators (these were men placed in charge of
             Imperial property in the provinces. These were “Procurators of Caesar
             and Agrippina Augusta”
    Responsible for the first casualty of the reign of Nero
         o Death of Marcus Junius Silanus, brother of Lucius Junius Silanus who
             was betrothed in the past to Octavia
         o Without the knowledge of Nero.
    Close link with the senate
         o Agrippina, as a priestess, used her position to have a door built so that
             she could listen to affairs of the senate – yet she isn‟t actually seen
    Mounted opposition
         o In response to increasing disobedience and the dismissal of Pallas
                  starts supporting Brittainicus who was once her victim
                  Nero then has Brittainicus poisoned as a warning to her
                  Acknowledgment of Agrippina‟s power – he was too powerful
                     with her backing
                  Agrippina then becomes the supporter of Octavia
         o Agrippina was trying to form her own “partes Agrippinae” this one
             with a “anti-Julian slant” Bauman
         o Agrippina encouraged And boasted about incest with Nero
                  Incest was a religious offence and this accusation was
                     compromising for Nero
                  This may be why Nero happily killed Agrippina, but he also
                     encouraged her to leave Rome
                  “Agrippina was boasting of her intimacy with her son…the
                     army would never tolerate a sacrilegious emperor” – Tacitus


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     o Death
     o The impact of Agrippina‟s death of the reign of Nero
           Loss of free opinion
                  The nadir of political debate (lack of)
                  The adulation given to Nero after the death of
                     Agrippina
                        o “Agrippina‟s birthday was among ill-omened
                            dates”
                        o “complimentary proposals” made to Nero
           Thrasea Paetus
                  Walked out of the Senate (the senate had no freedom of
                     speech)
                  “endangering himself without bringing general freedom
                     any nearer”




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What was the opposition to Agrippina and how did she deal with it?
   Under Gaius
         o Position threatened by Drussila
                 Drussila was Caligula‟s favourite sister
                 This meant that Drussila‟s children would be more likely to
                   gain power
                 Drussila‟s death in 37 meant that Agrippina had chance again.
                 Birth of Julia Drussila to Gaius and Milonia
                 Named Julia Drussila after his dead sister
         o Agrippina‟s implication in conspiracy with Aemilius Lepidus
                 (Dead) Drussila‟s husband implicated with Agrippina and Julia
                   Livilla (Agrippina‟s sister)
                 Lepidus was executed
                 Agrippina was banished to Ponita (after Agrippina had been
                   forced to carry the ashes of Lepidus to Rome) in 39
                 Friends were also implicated
                        Seneca – avoided punishment as Caligula believed him
                           to be dying of consumption
                        Tigellinus – implicated for adultery with Agrippina
                 Agrippina could have married Lepidus, who, as the husband of
                   Drussila, could have helped Nero gain power
         o Claudius married Messalina
                 Any children of this marriage would become very powerful
   Under Claudius
         o Arrest of Vitellius
                 In 51, charges were brought up against Vitellius
                        She protected him
                 Agrippina threatened Claudius in order to save him
                        Agrippina had the power in their relationship
                        She told him that if he had Vitellius arrested, he would
                           have to revive the treason law, which would mean
                           arresting his own son, Brittainicus, as he failed to call
                           Nero by his newly given name, NERO.
         o Opposition to Agrippina
                 Narcissus
                        Was a freedman
                               o Should have no social status
                               o Indicated how far Rome had gone from the
                                   ideal, if their was such a major conflict between,
                                   what should be, twp people with no power.
                        Had worked with Messalina
                               o Had opposed the marriage between Agrippina
                                   and Claudius
                               o Her liaison with Pallas, another freedman, man
                                   him even more marginalised
                        Opening ceremony at opening of Fucine Lake Drainage
                           Scheme, 54 AD
                               o There had been a problem – the tunnel had not
                                   been sunk far enough down



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                                 o Agrippina accused Narcissus of “illicit profits” –
                                    Tacitus
                                 o Narcissus retorted by commenting on her
                                    “dictatorial, feminine excess of ambition” –
                                    Tacitus
                           Embraced Brittainicus‟ Cause
                                 o Narcissus knew that with Agrippina is power, he
                                    has no future – “my destruction is inevitable” -
                                    Tacitus
                                 o He is ready to “give my life” – Tacitus – to help
                                    Claudius
                                 o Suspicions on her chastity with Pallas
                                 o “That is final proof that there is nothing she will
                                    not sacrifice to imperial ambition – neither
                                    decency, nor honour, nor chastity” – Tacitus
                           Defeat
                                 o “fell ill”
                                 o Was forced into retirement, when Agrippina had
                                    him imprisoned and driven to suicide
                                 o Agrippina‟s agents burnt incriminating
                                    documents
                     The Senate (53)
                           Agrippina wanted the gardens of Stalilius Taurus
                           Had Tarquitius Priscus prosecute and execute him for
                             black magic
                           Tarquitius was expelled from Senate
                     Domitia Lepida
                           Agrippina‟s sister in-law
                           Tacitus attributes attack to “feminie jealousy” – Tacitus
                           Domitia Lepida was sentenced to death for charges of
                             Black magic (against Agrippina)
                           Domitia Lepida was Messalina‟s mother
                           She would have been aligned to a pro-Brittainicus push
                     Informers
                           Accusations from „delatores‟
                           “Accused of many crimes” - Seutonius
                     Claudius (54)
                           When drunk, remarked against Agrippina
                                 o “It was his destiny to first endure his wife‟s
                                    misdeeds and then to punish them” – Tacitus
                           Changed his succession policy (?)
                                 o “Composed his will” – Seutonius
                           Death
                                 o Poisoned with “poison sprinkled on a
                                    particularly succulent mushroom” – Tacitus
                                 o The will of Claudius was suppressed because it
                                    probably favoured Brittainicus over Nero
                                 o Was destroyed by Agrippina
        Under Nero


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     o Burrus and Seneca started to turn against Agrippina
            Prevented “other murders” - Tacitus
            Seneca and Burrus joined forces
            Speech that Seneca wrote for Nero renounced things that made
              the Emperors unpopular and also promised to keep Agrippina
              out of influence
            “I will keep personal and state affairs separate”
            Seneca stops Agrippina from mounting the same dais as Nero
              which would show her as having equal power.
     o Agrippina‟s position is weakened by his passion for Acte, who is found
       for him by Burrus and Seneca.
            “Nero became openly disobedient to his mother” Tacitus
            Agrippina let Nero use her room for “the relaxations natural to
              Nero‟s age and position”
     o Agrippina was weakened by Nero‟s dismissal of Pallas
            Agrippina (in retaliation) starts supporting Brittainicus who
              was once her victim
            Nero then has Brittainicus poisoned as a warning to her
            Acknowledgment of Agrippina‟s power – he was too powerful
              with her backing
            Agrippina then becomes the supporter of Octavia
            Agrippina was trying to form her own “partes Agrippinae” this
              one with a “anti-julian slant” Bauman
     o Nero‟s response was that he withdrew her military escort and removed
       her from the place
     o Rubellius Plautus was the great grandson on Tiberius and Agrippina
       was accused of plotting to have him revolt and marry her
            Agrippina was not punished and neither was Plautus
            Accusers, including Julius Silanus, were banished
     o Nero “resolved to kill his mother” Tacitus
     o Poppaea Sabina was the nemesis of Agrippina
            Poppaea‟s mother had been destroyed by Messalina for
              adultery
            Poppaeae had “every asses except goodness” Tacitus
            Nero falls in love with her, but Poppaea knew Nero would not
              divorce Octavia while Agrippina was still around so she attacke
              Agrippina‟s morals. “your mother‟s arrogance and greed”
              Tacitus
            Nero was persuaded and “everyone longed for the mother‟s
              domination to end” – Tacitus
     o Death of Agrippina
            She had taken antidotes to poison and was alert for plots
            Anicetus suggested a collapsible boat
                   After dining with Nero, she boarded the boat and it
                      collapsed, but she was only slightly injured
                   She realised that it was planned but pretended she did
                      not and sent her freedman to assure Nero that she was
                      alive and well.




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                 Burrus and Seneca were consulted and did not oppose
                  the matricide, and Burrus said that the Guard would
                  finish the job.
               Anicetus was allowed to invade Agripina‟s house with
                  soldiers and she was hit and stabbed to death, saying
                  “strike here” pointing to her womb.
        Is it legitimate or written for dramatic impact?
               Nero was very dramatic – it was in the Claudian blood.
               Power isolates and insulates you – however, there
                  would have been a great deal of people involved in
                  building the boat.
               Several people were present at the assassination
        Why had it come to this?
               Incenst allegations
               Anti-Julian partes
               Supporter of Brittainicus
               Supporter of Octavia
               Involved in treachery
               Poppaea Sabbina‟s influence




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Modern and Contemporary perspectives on Agrippina

Barrett
“Those who support this side of the story claim that it was recorded by men living in a
time period that did not approve of women having power or being in the spotlight.
Consequently, they argue that the story of Agrippina‟s role is biased and has been
blown out of proportion. They admit that she possibly had some influence over Nero‟s
reign when he was young, but just until he was able to get his feet on the ground and
know what he was doing. This side of the story also does not deny that Agrippina
manipulated those around her to get what she wanted using cunning plans. The basic
point of this side of the story is that Agrippina‟s character, as well as her relationship
with Nero has been exaggerated. It is not uncommon for history to exaggerate stories
to make them more interesting and memorable, and who is to say that this isn‟t what
happened with Agrippina? It is very possible that Agrippina is portrayed in a negative
light based on a few things she did that have been blown out of proportion. The fact
that her mother, Agrippina the Elder, is also portrayed in a negative manner, does not
help Agrippina the younger out. It is believable that some of the negative controversy
surrounding Agrippina the Elder‟s scandalous acts was passed down unjustly to her
daughter Julia Agrippina. Character of Agrippina”

Anthony Barrett‟s view of Agrippina differs from ancient written sources,
acknowledging Agrippina‟s ambition and power, but not condemning it. He shows
her as successful and admirable, admitting that her methods for achieving power were
often immoral and ruthless, and his view Agrippina‟s appearance is contradictory to
that of Tacitus. Barrett‟s reliability is supported by his position as a modern writer.
He has the advantage of hindsight and a proliferation of written, numismatic and
archaeological sources, in order to create his perspective on Agrippina the Younger.
Barrett analyses these ancient and archaeological sources in his writing before making
a judgement on any aspect of Agrippina and analyses Agrippina from a modern
perspective. Acknowledging that Agrippina‟s actions were frowned upon in Ancient
Rome, he argues looking at her “achievements, rather than her personality or
character,” she “demands admiration.” Barrett considers her powerful position “in a
society that offer[ed] no constitutional role to powerful and influential women,”
concluding that she is worthy of respect. Barrett also considers Agrippina to have had
considerable foresight and wisdom, shown through her manipulation of the Praetorian
Guard, ensuring “useful friends in useful places.”

Despite not sharing the ancient abhorrence of female rule, Barrett does not ignore
Agrippina‟s use of “intimidation and bribery,” nor the fact that she “exploited her
sexual charms,” indicating that she was a sexual creature. However, Barrett argues
that some accusations, such as incest with her son and murder of her husband may be
exaggerated, and that charges such as these “would almost inevitably be made” about
a figure like Agrippina. Because Barrett is a modern writer, he is forced to rely on
ancient archaeological and written sources that may be exposed to such bias, and thus
his sources would be unreliable. He does however present objective opinions and his
sources are rigorously analysed.. Barrett‟s works is very useful as it provides an
amalgamation of various sources as well as his personal opinions.

In relation to Agrippina‟s physical representation, an analysis of the views of Tacitus,
Pliny the Elder and Dio Cassius, compared to sculptures, busts and numismatic


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evidence, has formed Barrett‟s view. Barrett is faced with contradictory perspectives,
the “material evidence,” such as coins and sculptures suggesting that Agrippina was
“not especially beautiful in the normally accepted sense of the word,” while written
sources show Agrippina as attractive. Barrett concludes that this inconsistency may
“reflect an ancient stereotype that linked physical charms to moral degradation.”
Barrett‟s conclusion and overall view of her appearance that she was not the “clichéd
beauty that the sources allege” but was attractive for her “intelligence, and impeccable
lineage.”

The views that modern and ancient sources present of Agrippina are varied in their
condemnation and acclamation of her power, position, actions and appearance. The
denunciation of her immorality by Tacitus can be linked to his perspective on
feminine authority and hatred of the imperial family, while Barrett‟s view that
Agrippina‟s power is laudable reflects his removal from the Roman perspective
towards woman and the sculptures reflect the perspective that Agrippina may have
had of herself, not giving a critical portrayal. The variant perspectives of Agrippina‟s
appearance may reflect the written tendency to beautify immoral women, contrasted
with less appealing portrayal in sculpture and coins. The sources acknowledge
Agrippina‟s power and special position in Rome, but the various judgements they
make about this power and ambition are indicative of the various contexts of the
creators of these sources.


Tacitus
“This was a rigorous, almost masculine despotism. In public, Agrippina was austere
and often arrogant. Her private life was chaste – unless power was to be gained. Her
passion to acquire money was unbounded. She wanted it as a stepping stone to
supremacy.” – Tacitus

Tacitus, in The Annals of Imperial Rome, dedicates considerable space to Agrippina,
seeing her as excessively powerful, ambitious, also implying her to be beautiful.
Tacitus‟ perspective of Agrippina is biased, seeing Agrippina‟s “dictatorial, feminine
excess of ambition,” and her extreme power, as a reflection of the degeneration of
Rome that resulted from one-man rule. Writing during the reign of Domitian, Tacitus
associated the despotism of the emperor with any Emperorship, seeing the Imperial
Family as indicative of the decline in morality and separation from the Republic that
Rome was experiencing. This negativity towards the nobility, and his association of
the imperial family with loss of Republican values, led to his critical portrayal of
Agrippina. She was excessively powerful and ambitious, embodying the degradation
of the morality of the Republic. Consequently, Tacitus shows Agrippina as incredibly
ambitious, having “natural greed,” and “passion to acquire money [that] was
unbounded.” Tacitus criticises Agrippina‟s ambition as providing a “stepping stone to
supremacy,” this supremacy being something to which no woman should aspire.

Despite this bias, Tacitus did not fictionalise The Annals. Tacitus writes that he used
the “memoirs of Agrippina‟s daughter” as a source, and his facts are similar to those
of other sources. These factors both support his reliability. However, Tacitus‟
allegations of sexual and moral misconduct are stereotypical, these topoi unable to be
proved false, but their authenticity is reduced by their frequency in his writing.
Tacitus‟ view is also shown through his „damning asides‟ and derogatory comments.


98
He comments, for example, that Agrippina‟s “private life was chaste,” following this
with authorial intrusion indicating she was chaste “unless power was to be gained.”
Tacitus is critical of her promiscuity, commenting on her “illicit intercourse” and
assessing her as “immoral [and] disreputable.

Through his writing, Tacitus creates an implication of Agrippina as beautiful.
Comparing Agrippina to Domitia Lepida, Tacitus says that “in beauty…there was
little between the two women,” and Barrett argues that Domitia Lepida was indeed
striking. After describing the death of Agrippina, Tacitus writes that Nero may have
“praised her figure” although he does comment, “this is contested.” Through this
Tacitus‟ implication of Agrippina as beautiful is evident. This perspective is often
contested, as her beauty not supported by the coinage and sculpture of the time.
However, Tacitus may have employed the stereotype of linking beauty with
immorality in his description, making his portrayal erroneous. Tacitus‟ view of
Agrippina is extremely useful, and, even taken into account his biased perspective,
Tacitus provides insight into the actions and character of Agrippina.

Archaeological
The sculptures from the Temple of Aphrodisias affirm Agrippina‟s power and
highlight her special position, yet do not condemn her ambition. The sculptures show
Agrippina‟s physical appearance, which is not as beautiful as Tacitus implies. The
reliability of the view they show of Agrippina is, however, uncertain. Both reliefs are
dated to the mid-first-century AD, indicating that they were produced during
Agrippina‟s life. Agrippina is depicted at Claudius‟ right hand, taking the traditional
place of the senate, indicating her impressive influence. Likewise, Nero is shown
being crowned with a laurel wreath by Agrippina who is again taking the position of
the senate. Both reliefs depict Agrippina as a woman of imposing height with hair in
tight corkscrew curls. The sculpture shows Agrippina as similar height as her son,
and the relief of Agrippina with Claudius shows her as taller than her husband. The
sculptures show a masculine profile, with a large nose and low forehead. Agrippina is
shown in both reliefs as a symbol of prosperity and fertility, holding a sheath of wheat
with Claudius, and a cornucopia with Nero.

As the reliefs may have been sculptured during Agrippina‟s life, their reliability is
uncertain. Being contemporary, the sculptors would have been aware of what
Agrippina looked like, as well as having accurate knowledge of her influence in
society. This may have allowed them to create a reliable image, Agrippina‟s image
being similar to that of ancient coins. However, the sculptures would have been
created in a form so as not to displease the Imperial family, but instead venerate them,
and therefore may have been idealised. The sculptures do not indicate the immorality
or inappropriate behaviour ancient historians portray, and they may reflect how
Agrippina saw herself, as the sculptures would have been destroyed if they showed
her undesirably. Agrippina is shown as very tall, and although this may be a truthful,
it does give the impression that Agrippina was extremely influential, certainly being
the figure of authority over her husband and son. Likewise, the masculine features of
Agrippina may reflect her appearance, but may symbolically indicate her masculine
authority.

It is unknown whether the perspective that the sculptures show are accurate or not, but
they are nevertheless extremely useful. These sculptures may give an accurate


99
description of Agrippina‟s physical appearance, although the representation may
symbolise her position. Likewise, the view shown of her power and special position
in Rome is probably accurate, given that Seutonius and Tacitus both explore this
powerful position enjoyed by Agrippina. The reliefs are very useful, as they show
both how Agrippina was perceived by the people of Rome, represented by the
sculptors, and how she saw herself, as they would surely have been made so as to not
displease Agrippina.




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