Stormwater Detention for Drainage, Water Quality and by axu80901


									298                                        Book reviews

        The use of computer simulation and experimentation as a method of studying flow
and transport phenomena in heterogeneous systems is emphasized in the next several
chapters. In Chapter 9, Moissis & Wheeler describe a set of calculations designed to look
at fingering instabilitiesarising from the interplay of viscosity and permeability variations
within a synthetically heterogeneous system. In Chapter 10, Cole & Foote describe the
use of multi-grid methods for the efficient solution of large scale flow problems within
heterogeneous systems. The approach is very attractive for examining problems with a
hierarchy of scales. In Chapter 11, Wheatcraft, Sharp & Tyler describe the application
of fractal concepts to describe permeability variations at various scales within a porous
medium and show some flow and transport calculations made in hypothetical fractal
media. In Chapter 15, Sudicky, Shellenberg & MacQuarrie discuss the migration of
conservative and biodegradable solutes within heterogeneous media and present several
detailed calculations showing how migration patterns are affected when biological
transformations are taken into account. In Chapter 16, Ferrand, Celia & Soil use a
percolation-based model to simulate multi-phase flows within a simple pore scale network
of channels, and use the results to characterize medium scale constitutive relationships.
        The remaining four contributed chapters deal mostly with theoretical analyses of
flow and transport in heterogeneous media. In Chapter 12, Sposito examines the ways and
conditions under which the nonlinear Richards equation (for unsaturated flow) may be
transformed (over various time and length scales) for use on a larger operational scale.
In Chapter 13, Neuman, Zhang & Levin review the use of theoretical scaling analyses
and calculational experiments to study dispersion phenomena in strongly heterogeneous
media. In Chapter 14, Ababou & Gelhar introduce the use of spectral conditioning tech-
niques and self-similar randomness as a way to analyse issues of finite domains, non-
ergodicity, and non-stationarity in stochastic models of flow and transport. Finally, in
Chapter 17, Cushman introduces a theoretical and computational approach for studying
and quantifying the links between molecular and pore scale phenomena (as in the case of
surface adsorption on clays) and discusses how this approach may be used in an analogous
way to study behavioural links between phenomena at other scales of observation.
        Overall, the individual chapters in the book are well written and flow together
smoothly. There is a reasonably comprehensive index and table of contents. The book
represents a fine collection of articles for the more advanced reader wishing to learn
about several novel research ideas being pursued today in subsurface hydrology.

                                                                                      Andrew Tompson
                 Institute of Earth Sciences Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California, USA

               Stormwater Detention for Drainage, Water
               Quality and CSO Management by Peter Stahre &.
               Ben Urbonas
               published 1990 by Prentice-Hall. 66 Wood Lane End, Hemel Hempstead,
               Hertfordshire HP2 4RG, UK; 338 + xiii pp; price £66.35; ISBN 0-13-

It is now widely acknowledged that urbanization in a watershed can have adverse conse-
quences on receiving waters. Such impacts include increases in flood volume, magnitude
and frequency, downstream bank erosion, pollutant export and loss of habitat. Histori-
cally, stormwater management efforts have primarily focussed on reducing the risk of
flooding by routing floodwater away from development areas; this simply moves the
problems downstream. Engineers, planners and developers are now straggling to redirect
and control the dynamics and designs of stormwater facilities in a more environmentally
conscious manner. Attention is thus being focussed not only on performance deficiencies
of existing drainage networks but also on the development and implementation of cost-
effective methodologies for achieving targeted levels of service. Whilst the initial
emphasis was on structural problems, this soon broadened to include flooding and is now
embracing the environmental impact of urban discharges to receiving waters. This
logical progression has allowed much research progress to be made in the identification
                                          Book reviews                                                299
of best management practices, although few textbooks have appeared outlining state-of-
the-art engineering techniques that can be used to manage the quantity and quality of
urban stormwater runoff.
        The emphasis of this book on stormwater detention, which is the basic component
of urban runoff management, is therefore very welcome and timely, particularly as it is
written from the pragmatic viewpoint of two highly regarded practitioners having
experience of urban water resources engineering in both public and private sectors. The
authors state that the book is written with practising engineers and stormwater managers
in mind and certainly the volume has much to offer the former professional group. The
emphasis is very clearly placed on North American examples and experience with
subsidiary reference to Sweden and German practice. Irrespective of this, the volume
provides a systematic and sound introduction to stormwater detention and CSO manage-
ment. The subject matter flows from fundamentals through engineering analysis and
design methodologies to applications. Following introductory chapters covering defini-
tions and concepts relating to on-site storage, infiltration and inlet control facilities,
various technical configurations are reviewed for both above and below ground storage
including on-line sewer and tunnel storage. Part 2 covers flow regulation with some
useful references to large-scale German practice and is followed in Part 3 by a review
of US procedures for estimating storage volumes. Part 4 is concerned with approaches
for water quality control for flood storage basins.
        The final section is certainly the most disappointing given both the current
concern with and scale of bioengineering research for the identification and implemen-
tation of design criteria to achieve integrated water quality, ecological and recreational
enhancement of urban stormwater storage facilities. Apart from this major reservation
and minor irritants such as the ad-hoc mixture of imperial and metric units, the volume
is well written and fulfils its function as a primer in engineering techniques for urban
stormwater management. However, the state-of-the-art is far ahead of the state-of-the-
practice and engineers, planners and developers are using, or are benefitting from the
use of, only a small fraction of what is known or what is required to achieve sustainable,
multipurpose flood control/water quality enhancement/ecological and recreational oppor-
tunities. This book provides a useful step towards closing the gap between what we know
how to do and what we do.

                                                                                             J. B. Ellis
                                                  Urban Pollution Research Centre, Middlesex Polytechnic, UK

              Screening of Hydrologies! Data: Tests for
              Stationarlty and Relative Consistency by
              E. R. Dahmen & M. J. Hall
              published 1990 as ILRI Publication no. 49 by International Institute for
              Land Reclamation and Improvement/ILRI, PO Box 45, 6700 AA
              Wageningen, The Netherlands; 5 8 pp + floppy disks in pocket; price Dfl34,
              US$19; ISBN 90-70754-231

The product under review comprises a booklet on methods of screening hydrological data
incorporating a 5 !4 " diskette containing a menu-driven program implementation and 27
example data sets. The 58-page booklet provides practical advice on data screening and
a justification for the methods used. The description of statistical methods uses odd
notation with formulae presented as a mix of computer (for example, * for multiply) and
mathematical symbolism. Use of the same symbols for sample statistics and population
values can be confusing. There are also mistakes: for example, equation (4.1) omits the
square in the denominator. A strength of the presentation is the practical approach it
adopts, illustrated through many worked examples. However, "rules of thumb", such as
10 being the accepted minimum number of stations to test for relative consistency, are
hard to condone from a scientific standpoint.
        The methods presented are implemented as a simple PC program. This analyses
single-site annual time series by plotting of the series and its cumulative departures from

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