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Promotion of Farmer Innovation in Ethiopia (PROFIEET) PID Training and Planning Workshop for Pastoralists and Agropastoralists 2–6 January 2006, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia Compiled by Manyazewal Ejigu February 2006 Addis Ababa PROFIEET, PID Training and Planning Workshop for Pastoralists and Agropastoralists, 2–6 Jan. 2006, Dire Dawa Introduction A Participatory Innovation Development (PID) Training and Planning Workshop was held 2– 6 January 2006 at Dire Dawa, in the Conference Hall of Dire Dawa Ethiopian Catholic Church Social and Development Coordinating Office of Harar (ECC-SDCOH). It was sponsored by PROFIEET (Promoting Farmer Innovation and Experimentation in Ethiopia) through Agri-Service Ethiopia (ASE), the non-governmental organisation (NGO) that serves as Secretariat for PROFIEET. Innovative pastoralists and agropastoralists, extension experts, researchers and other stakeholders from different regions participated in the workshop; the pastoralists and agropastoralists were the main actors. Issues addressed in the workshop included: History of agricultural research and extension Farmer innovation and PID concepts PID framework and methodology Cases of farmer innovation Setting criteria for selecting best innovation cases: o Group exercise o Committee establishment and criteria setting o Group presentations and discussion o Presentations of selected cases of innovation Planning exercise on selected innovations. This workshop report includes also notes for trainers, to give some guidance to workshop participants who might be interested in applying similar methods in their own training activities related to promoting farmer innovation and PID. 2 PROFIEET, PID Training and Planning Workshop for Pastoralists and Agropastoralists, 2–6 Jan. 2006, Dire Dawa Day 1: Monday, 2 January 2006 Opening Session: Ato Mohammedamin Oumer, Head of the Agriculture and Rural Development Bureau of Dire Dawa Provisional Administration, opened the workshop. His speech follows: Dear respected participants of the workshop, ladies and gentlemen. First of all, I would like to welcome all of you to Dire Dawa Provisional Administration. The Participatory Innovation Development Workshop which will start today in our town, Dire Dawa, has paramount importance in empowering the innovativeness of the pastoralists and agropastoralists. As indicated in the rural development policies and strategies, the pastoralists and farmers of this country have immense knowledge acquired from their ancestors. They also undertake experiments seeking solutions for their problem. Therefore, we need to look for the innovations of the pastoralists and record them properly and select the important ones which enhance their production and productivity. By developing these innovations, they could be disseminated to the pastoralists and farmers, which increases agricultural productivity and thereby sustain their livelihood. As we all know, the pastoralist production system is backward and it will be important to see their innovations and to screen and improve them by further research on the innovations presented by the pastoralists themselves. I hope, this may need to work hard but, when it is developed and used by the majority of pastoralists, it will bring change in their lives and thereby support our national development. Finally, I would like to assure you that that the Bureau will be behind you to cooperate with you to its best level. With this remark, I declare that the workshop is officially open and wish you success and a pleasant stay. Objectives of the workshop (by Ato Amanuel Assefa) Dear Pastoralists: We conducted last year the first PID seminar for one day. It is the last year‟s seminar which leads us to this workshop to bring us here together. Thus, all of you are here because the participants of the last year‟s seminar took assignments to look for pastoralist innovators, screen their innovation cases and give recognition by bringing them to this workshop. 3 PROFIEET, PID Training and Planning Workshop for Pastoralists and Agropastoralists, 2–6 Jan. 2006, Dire Dawa It was really a difficult task to organise this workshop due to limitations in communication. We were obliged to postpone it several times. Participants are from Afar, Somali, Oromia (Borana area) and Dire Dawa. Anyway, finally we succeeded to be here with you. I hereby thank all of you on behalf of the organisers and myself. PROFIEET (Promotion of Farmer Innovation and Experimentation in Ethiopia) is a national network and partner of PROLINNOVA (Promoting Local Innovation in ecologically-oriented agriculture and natural resource management) and has a primary goal of enhancing the integration of a farmer-led research and development approach, with a focus on promoting farmer innovation and local experimentation, into the endeavours of relevant government organisations (GOs), NGOs, universities, and research and development institutions, and thereby make a significant contribution towards the realising food security, sustainable rural livelihoods, poverty reduction and safeguarding the environment. A Steering Committee of GOs (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Ethiopian Science and Technology Commission, Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization, Alemaya University, Mekelle University and Debub University) and NGOs (Agri-Service Ethiopia, FARM-Africa, SOS- Sahel, Institute of Sustainable Development, Pastoral Forum Ethiopia and Sustainable Land Use Forum) oversees the activities of PROFIEET. Agri-Service Ethiopia is the home base for PROFIEET, and as a secretariat and facilitator of the multi-stakeholder national platform, it carries out, among other things, the financial administration, contractual agreements, international representation, etc. on behalf of PROFIEET. The PROFIEET programme is divided into four agro-ecological zones in Ethiopia: 1. Northern Highlands represented by Tigray and Amhara; the workshop was held at Axum; 2. The western and southwestern part of the country, where coffee is grown. We made coffee as our entry point but look for all kinds of farmer innovation; here, the workshop was conducted at Jimma and participants have started developing proposals for selected innovations; 3. Enset-based farming system which includes Southern Ethiopia; 4. This is the fourth one which represents the country's pastoralist area. Here, we would like to have more organisations to participate and search for these hidden innovations, bring them to the table and give recognition to pastoral innovation. Innovations are resources. We all have to believe this and work together to develop them. The researchers are here to backstop the innovative pastoralists in guiding and fine-tuning the innovation development process. I wish the next four days will be fruitful. Thank you! 4 PROFIEET, PID Training and Planning Workshop for Pastoralists and Agropastoralists, 2–6 Jan. 2006, Dire Dawa Introduction of participants The participants were invited to introduce themselves. They did so accordingly and mentioned the following types of innovation important to them: 1. Mechanisms for making efficient use of rainwater and groundwater, since moisture stress is becoming severe in all areas 2. The use of botanical control measures to control crop pests which lead to high crop losses 3. To mix different types of animal milk, and to clean and fumigate the containers to increase the shelf life of the milk, which enable it to be transported to the market; 4. To reduce deaths in cattle, sheep and goats during delivery of offspring 5. To increase fertility of female papaya by providing male flower cuttings to all female papaya plants. History of agricultural research and extension (Ato Tesfahun Fenta, PROFIEET Coordinator) Research and Development (R&D) is a scientific process by which new knowledge about a subject or a problem is discovered or organised into an applicable form. Agricultural research: to increase productivity. Extension: system to disseminate the research results to the end users. Ethiopian agricultural extension–farmers relation started in the 1950s. Agricultural research Generates various technologies. Couldn‟t meet the interests of resource-poor farmers. Focuses only on technology to be transferred. Takes attitude: we must ease constraints so that farmers can adopt the technology: “credit for implements and inputs”. Not economic for the situation of resource-poor farmer. The period of the 1980s We must understand the conditions of farmers and design technologies which fit. Figure out solutions study the system. Involve farmers as source of information about the conditions. 5 PROFIEET, PID Training and Planning Workshop for Pastoralists and Agropastoralists, 2–6 Jan. 2006, Dire Dawa Late 1980s – early 1990s Farmers indicate what they need and evaluate the possible solutions. Figure out viable solutions. Participate in planning and evaluation of research progress. Late 1990s Farmers, researchers and extensionists all contribute their specific knowledge and skills and experiment jointly. Participation "Farmer participation" is one of the most frequently used, and misused, concepts in development rhetoric in the past decade. “Farmer participation" implies an acceptance that local people can, to a large extent, identify and modify their own solutions to suit their needs. Why promote farmer participation? Strong farmer participation in agricultural development is essential if sustainability is to be achieved. Farmer participation is needed: o To link technology development with farmers' intimate knowledge of the local situation; o Because formal research and development institutes have limited capacity to develop a multitude of locally-specific technology adaptations; o So that indiscriminate use of external inputs can be "replaced" by farmers' day-to-day observation and decision-making about the use of inputs. Farmer participation is being increasingly promoted, not only in connection with LEISA (low-external-input and sustainable agriculture) development. It contributes to higher rates of adoption of technologies developed by researchers, especially in resource-poor areas with highly diverse farming systems. Without such empowerment of farmers, the benefits of development are not expected to reach the grassroots. Why do you advocate farmer participation? Is it for reasons of: Effectiveness of your work? to increase rates of adoption? to achieve sustainability of agriculture? Efficiency of your work? to reach more farmers with limited staff? to reduce costs? to increase farmers' financial contributions? 6 PROFIEET, PID Training and Planning Workshop for Pastoralists and Agropastoralists, 2–6 Jan. 2006, Dire Dawa Equity and ethics? to ensure that people, especially the poor, have a say in activities that affect their lives? Empowerment? to strengthen farmers' bargaining power against governments and private interests, so that lasting development can be achieved? Approaches to technology development Indigenous Technology Development. A great number of innovations in farming have occurred without intervention from outside. The Neolithic farmer has innovated since the earliest stages of agriculture. Transfer of Technology (ToT): Innovations are developed at research institutes and transferred through the extension service for adoption by farmers. ToT is often used to refer to this linear model of technology development. Participatory Technology / Innovation Development (PTD / PID) stresses the importance of farmers' role in agricultural innovation and change, which is complemented by formal research. Introduction The history of agricultural development we see today in the modern world is rooted in the local wisdom; it is built upon the foundation of local knowledge. It is true that today, unlike the pioneers, one can very easily access the knowledge and experiences from other parts of the world and thereby refine, fine-tune and adapt technologies to one‟s own situation by testing them through formal research. This is being done in Ethiopia for more than half a century, with relentless efforts to bring about fundamental changes in the livelihoods of rural communities towards the same taste of transformation. The dominant approach to research, extension and education for rural development still follows the pattern of “transfer-of-technology”. This is based on the assumption that knowledge is created by scientists, to be packaged and spread by extension services and adopted by local people. It is an approach that effectively hampers local creativity and innovation. Local innovation Local innovation refers to the dynamics of indigenous knowledge (IK), which is the knowledge that grows within a social group, incorporating learning from own experience over generations. 7 PROFIEET, PID Training and Planning Workshop for Pastoralists and Agropastoralists, 2–6 Jan. 2006, Dire Dawa Local innovation is the process through which individuals or groups discover or develop new and better ways of managing resources, building on and expanding the boundaries of their IK. Local innovation includes also knowledge that was gained at some time from other sources but has been completely internalised within the local ways of thinking and doing. The innovations may be not only in the technical but also in the socio-institutional sphere. Local innovation through informal experimentation has always been taking place in all parts of the world, but it is only recently that increased attention has been given to identifying and documenting the innovation process and the innovations. It is not sufficient, however, just to record and perhaps even scientifically validate local innovations. Development agents and scientists are challenged to move beyond the existing innovations that farmers have been developing with their own resources, on the basis of their own knowledge and creativity. The challenge is to develop these ideas further, in joint experimentation, in ways that integrate also relevant information and ideas coming from outside, including formal research. This means that the agenda for R&D grows out of the ways in which rural people are already trying to improve their livelihood systems. Their ideas and motivation drive it. The last two decades have shown alternative ways of achieving better food security and livelihood through more genuinely participatory R&D, e.g. Indigenous Soil and Water Conservation (ISWC) Project in many countries in Africa, including Ethiopia, and the Promoting Farmer Innovation (PFI) Project in East Africa. Why is it important to promote local innovation? No doubt, a great number of strides have been made in formal research, but obviously the achievements secured until now are far from being completely satisfying in giving poor families more secure access to food and improved livelihood. The new technologies have rarely been appropriate for poor farmers and other resource users, especially in marginal areas. Mainstream rural development efforts were focused on technical interventions aimed mainly at controlling or manipulating nature through the use of external inputs, This type of approach is not suited for the highly diverse environments in which most small-scale farmers live. 8 PROFIEET, PID Training and Planning Workshop for Pastoralists and Agropastoralists, 2–6 Jan. 2006, Dire Dawa In marginal and highly diverse settings, the key ingredients for sustainable resource management are not external inputs but rather labour, knowledge and local management capacities that enable people to manipulate skilfully the local resources. Identifying local innovations is a first step toward changing the way formal researchers and development workers regard farmers and interact with them. The purpose is not primarily to be able to disseminate local innovations in a ToT mode of extension - picking out what scientists consider to be the "best" solutions that are most widely applicable. Documentation and wider sharing of local innovations can provide ideas and inspiration for others to do their own experimentation and to adapt new ideas to other settings. Through participatory action learning, resource users and supporting agencies can develop the local innovations and complementary techniques further. Who are innovative farmers? Innovative farmers refer to those farmers who have tried or are trying out new but value- adding agricultural or natural resource management practices using their own wisdom. They are not like the model farmers who are intentionally trained by extension workers on specific and pre-determined technologies. Innovative farmers, in most cases, act on indigenous or outsiders‟ knowledge through conducting informal experiments and making the knowledge more usable or better fitting to their own realities. Therefore, innovative farmers are not only those dealing with IK; the term also refers to those who are keen to work on outsider‟s knowledge (scientific knowledge bodies). Local innovation: entry point to Participatory Innovation Development (PID) (by Ato Amanuel Assefa) Local innovations offer entry points for linking IK and formal scientific knowledge in community-led participatory R&D. Participatory Innovation Development (PID) is a more comprehensive term than Participatory Technology Development (PTD), an approach that has been promoted for many years by NGOs and has become increasingly widespread, also within international and national research centres. Basically, the activities involved in PTD are: Getting started (getting to know each other); Joint analysis of the situation – the problems and opportunities; 9 PROFIEET, PID Training and Planning Workshop for Pastoralists and Agropastoralists, 2–6 Jan. 2006, Dire Dawa Looking for things to try to improve the local situation; Trying them out in community-led participatory experimentation; Jointly analysing and sharing the results; and Strengthening the process, often through improving local organisation and linkages with other actors in R&D, so that the PTD process will continue. PID tends to start at the point of “Looking for things to try” – looking not only for what science can offer but also for what local innovative farmers can offer. It encompasses innovations of not only a technical but also a socio-institutional nature. What is understood by “farmer innovation”? It is often not easy to identify and clarify farmer innovations or innovators, as the concept of innovation is understood and perceived quite differently by different observers (formal researchers, extensionists, policymakers, fellow farmers etc). The major source of misunderstanding and confusion is the fact that some people understand “innovation” as “invention” or discovery of brand new techniques or tools. Such a perception develops precisely as a result of the conventional knowledge and background that most of us have about scientific innovation. The following equation may help to explain farmer innovation in a very comprehensive way. It should not, however, be considered as a model that exclusively explains what farmer innovation is. Farmer Innovation (FI) = Farmers Wisdom (FW) +[-] Indigenous Knowledge (IK) +[-] Scientific Knowledge (SK) + Value Addition (VA) FI= FW+[-]IK+[-]SK+VA The mathematical sign +[-] indicates that farmers are making changes on the IK or SK and these changes could be explained in terms of eliminating some ideas/practices or putting new elements to the body of knowledge under consideration. Value addition is indeed the emergent property of the innovation process. In this process, completely new values could be “made” or added to the pre-existing ones. This may depend on the type and complexity of the innovation. Objectives of the module (for trainers) Participants will be able to distinguish the concept of “farmer innovators” as defined by Rogers in the theory of diffusion and the new conception of the term, which is frequently used in PID. 10 PROFIEET, PID Training and Planning Workshop for Pastoralists and Agropastoralists, 2–6 Jan. 2006, Dire Dawa Situations in which to use the module (for trainers) This module should be considered as a turning point to the new school of thought. The facilitator has to be convinced that the participants have already begun to appreciate the pitfalls of the conventional approach to research and extension. Procedure (for trainers) Stimulate discussions to help participants describe what they know about terms like adoption, innovation, diffusion etc. Make presentations on the basis of the given reading materials. Make groups and ask them to distinguish the features of farmer innovators and non- innovators. Ask the groups also to give some examples of farmer innovations from own experience. Identifying local innovators and experimenters Local innovators/experimenters can be identified by: Observation: Walk slowly through the area where you work and take a close look at the farmhouses and fields: where do you see unusual things, variations in the common pattern of farming and living? Chain interviews: Ask some key informants to mention names of persons (better-off, average and poor; male and female) who are very creative and like to try out new things; visit these farmers, interview them about their experiments and ask the names of other "experimenters" they know. Stepwise selection: For a certain crop or animal or activity, first ask farmers or key informants for the names of farmers whom they consider to be the local "experts": persons who have long-term experience and above-average knowledge and skills in that field. In many cases, these experts will be women, especially (but not only) when food crops, small animals, food processing and storage are concerned. Interview those persons considered to be most creative and innovative. Differentiation can also be made between farmers who experiment mainly with introduced technologies and those who experiment mainly with local technologies. Reconstructing innovations: Ask a group of farmers to list one or more agricultural innovations that have been developed in the last ten years and are relevant for most of the 11 PROFIEET, PID Training and Planning Workshop for Pastoralists and Agropastoralists, 2–6 Jan. 2006, Dire Dawa families in the area. Ask them to identify the farmers who played an important role in introducing, adapting or developing these innovations (Veldhuizen et al 1997, pp147–148). Basics about PID What is Participatory Innovation Development (PID)? Combining local and scientiﬁc knowledge in experimentation PID is based on the notion that, for rural development, the local informal knowledge of villagers is equally important as any scientiﬁcally generated, formal knowledge. The challenge in PID is to arrange for creative interaction between the knowledge, experiences and skills of villagers with those of scientiﬁcally-trained researchers and of extensionists. The emphasis then is on conducting practical experiments together in villages. New things and ways “work” when they are practical and applicable for the concerned farmers without major outside support. Means of production must be available and affordable, and markets accessible. Processes and organisation must be manageable with the locally available capacity. Roles in PID Farmers are continuously experimenting, trying out new things and seeing how they work out, and adapting their farming practices. Searching for useful innovations is nothing new to them. In PID, development workers participate in experimentation undertaken by villagers, and not, as it is still often the case, that farmers participate in scientists„ research. The PID triangle illustrates how villagers, researchers and extensionists all contribute their own speciﬁc knowledge, experience and skills, in order to develop new things that really work under local conditions. Outcomes of PID: innovations and competence for self-reliant local action and experimentation PID activities are likely to have twofold results: First, of course, useful new techniques and ways of doing things, which contribute to improved livelihoods of rural people, in particular of disadvantaged groups, should emerge. 12 PROFIEET, PID Training and Planning Workshop for Pastoralists and Agropastoralists, 2–6 Jan. 2006, Dire Dawa Secondly, and of no less importance, PID activities foster a spirit of experimentation and exploration among the involved people, and improve their natural experimental skills. The villagers‟ competence to identify needs, opportunities and development strategies for themselves is strengthened, and local control over, and equal participation in, the development process is enhanced. Farmers take control of and own the innovation processes. What new things and ways? Although PID often deals with experimentation on agricultural practices, “new things and ways that work” are by far not limited to what is usually called “technology”. Many problems of, and opportunities for, farming families are not technological ones. New things and ways being explored in PID may include: new crops, varieties, tools and machines, inputs etc new cultivation and land management practices (e.g. maize planting on ridges, erosion- control structures, enrichment planting in forests) new ways of interaction between different people and institutions (e.g. designing rules for communal grazing, joint forest management) new combinations of existing materials and practices new ways of organising work new ways of marketing (e.g. joint marketing to a distant urban market with better prices, bulking of produce) new ways of accessing means of production (e.g. how to organise joint fertiliser purchases, how to manage a village credit fund, how to establish a village or local private nursery) new processing methods (e.g. fruit processing) new sources of information etc and ways of accessing them. This list of areas where new ways can be found with PID indicates also that the use of PID is not limited to agricultural extension, but is equally useful to forestry and livestock extensionists, and probably also to many other people with extension-like tasks (LBL 2004). Different settings for PID Different players, with differing scope and objectives, may lead PID activities. Roughly, the following settings can be distinguished. They will give you an illustration of how diverse the concepts of PID are: 13 PROFIEET, PID Training and Planning Workshop for Pastoralists and Agropastoralists, 2–6 Jan. 2006, Dire Dawa PID in community development: The whole community is involved. Activities begin with a PRA as situation analysis and needs/opportunity assessment. PID experiments are just one component of a participatory learning and action process. Possible experiments are prioritised and those to be implemented selected by the whole community. They thus will focus on opportunities and problems of the whole village. In this way, PID becomes part of community development programmes as they are often implemented by NGOs. PID as a component of participatory extension work: Interested (groups of) farmers rather than a whole village community are involved. Experiments are designed to ﬁnd locally adapted solutions to speciﬁc problems and to explore how to exploit new opportunities, which are useful to particular individuals and groups (e.g. testing new packing materials for apple growers), or a new way to earn some income for the poorest and most vulnerable groups. In this way, PID can be used by any organisation with extension activities that works with a participatory approach, as one method among others. With this approach, PID activities will usually be initiated and led by extension; farmers then may initiate individual experiments. Research-led PID: Researchers may use PID as one research methodology in a range of methodologies, as it may be the most promising method for many adaptive research questions. Thus, they may initiate PID activities with selected farmers or a whole community. Preferably, they would cooperate in this with the local extensionists. Innovative farmers and their innovations as a starting point for PID: The starting-up of PID activities is preceded by the identiﬁcation of villagers who have developed useful innovations. By making such local innovations known, respect and acknowledgement of local knowledge and innovation capacity among researchers and extensionists, but also among farmers themselves, is promoted, as serves as a basis for starting up PID. Ato Shimola Wolde (from Afar) He explained about his experience with sorghum chaffer (sorghum pest).The pastoralist was able to observe plenty of the pests on banana fruit and he concluded that they are attracted by banana. He mixed insecticide with a ripe banana and put it on a tree and killed many beetles. Finally it became a major control measure in the country: using banana and other bait material. He added that, by putting fine powder of soil into the tunnels of sorghum or maize stalks, it is possible to control stalk borer. 14 PROFIEET, PID Training and Planning Workshop for Pastoralists and Agropastoralists, 2–6 Jan. 2006, Dire Dawa Day 2: Monday, 3 January 2006 COMPONENT 4: EXPLANATION OF PID PROCESS AND METHODS (Dr Tesfaye Beshah, Lecturer, Alemaya University) PID framework and methodology Objectives of the module (for trainers) To enhance participants' understanding of the PID approach as a nonlinear, interactive process, consisting of various possible combinations of activities rather than a series of predetermined steps. To make participants aware of the different groups of activities within a PID approach and their contribution to the PID process as a whole. Processes (for trainers) Presentation of steps in PID Small group activity to be followed by discussion in the plenary. Setting / approach (for trainers) Essentially, a small-group activity followed by a plenary discussion to draw joint conclusions. Intended learning effects (for trainers) Exercising the steps in PID Understanding of the necessity of stakeholder involvement. PID methodology Like for other participatory approaches, e.g. Participatory Technology Development (PTD), Participatory Learning and Action (PLA), Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), there is no clearly deﬁned and delimited methodology for PID. PID is a toolbox under development in many places, combining tools mainly from the PRA/PLA box and the adaptive research toolbox. The PRA/PLA tools ﬁnd their application chieﬂy in the process of opportunity and problem identiﬁcation, prioritisation and selection of trials, whereas formulating experiment hypotheses and designing trials are common tasks in research. 15 PROFIEET, PID Training and Planning Workshop for Pastoralists and Agropastoralists, 2–6 Jan. 2006, Dire Dawa Possibly the element most speciﬁc to PID is the process of ﬁnding ideas on possible new ways and developing these ideas further into experiments. Steps in PID The initiation of PID activities typically comprises a sequence of steps, from launching PID to evaluation of results. It involves also dissemination of the first results and “sustaining PID” after dissemination so that farmer-led experimentation continues. Step 1: Launching PID An individual farmer, a family or a village asks for collaboration, or PID ﬁeldworkers look for communities who are interested in collaboration to ﬁnd new things and ways that work, or PID ﬁeldworkers look for innovative farmers as a starting point. Of course, the details of the launching process vary depending on who initiates the PID and the relationship between the initiators and the cooperating villagers. The concept of PID is introduced to the community, villagers or farmers, and organisational matters are discussed and agreed. Information about the socio-cultural and agro-ecological situation of the respective farmers, families or community may be reviewed, or, if none exists, may be gathered (e.g. through PLA methods). Discussion on previous innovations – technical, economic, social – that appeared in an area, their origins, their spread, etc, can be helpful to sensitise people for the meaning of innovation and related processes. Step 2: Identifying experiments Farmers, researchers and extensionists jointly gather ideas on possible experiments. These ideas are screened systematically, critically reviewed, and the most promising ones selected for implementation. The documentation should begin already while identifying and planning the experiments and include documentation of the ideas as well as the whole experiment design and plans. Step 3: Planning experiments Then, concrete experiments are designed. The experiment design includes the reasons for conducting an experiment, clear testing hypothesis or questions, data to be recorded, criteria for evaluation of the experiment, and a layout. It may also include visits to other 16 PROFIEET, PID Training and Planning Workshop for Pastoralists and Agropastoralists, 2–6 Jan. 2006, Dire Dawa places where similar things are already implemented, or where otherwise relevant know- how can be gathered. Often, it is necessary to gather available information regarding the planned innovation from various sources and integrate it into the experiment design. The experiments should be designed in a way that farmers can manage and evaluate themselves, with just support of PID ﬁeldworkers. Finally, an activity plan including a time schedule, material required and responsibilities is drawn up, and the monitoring and documentation system designed. Step 4: Implementing and documenting experiments The experiments are started according to the plans made. It is important that plans are adjusted whenever thought necessary. This step includes capacity building for experimenters to implement and monitor experiments. The procedure and the results of the experimentation phase must be recorded and documented. This includes all activities and observations and suggestions made during the monitoring of the experiments. Step 5: Analysing and evaluating results Evaluations during and at the end of experimentation are the basis for deciding whether the results are useful in the local situation and whether technical guidelines can be deduced for their broader application. Step 6: Disseminating results There are as many different possibilities of sharing the results of experiments with others, as there are dissemination methods. Dissemination based on farmer-to-farmer exchange are most promising, for example, by means of establishing a PID network in the community or region, innovators as resource persons in trainings, exchange visits, ﬁeld days and agricultural fairs etc. Another possibility for disseminating the results is to elaborate technical booklets, make audiovisuals, publish in newsletters etc. Sustaining PID Once an experiment cycle is completed, the challenge is to sustain PID. This means to anchor PID with all involved people and organisations, and integrate it into their way of 17 PROFIEET, PID Training and Planning Workshop for Pastoralists and Agropastoralists, 2–6 Jan. 2006, Dire Dawa working, so that PID activities continue and experimentation becomes a habit. Among the factors which contribute to sustaining PID are: Farmers‟ capacity to carry out experiments on their own. The capacity and interest of researchers and extensionists to support farmers‟ experimentation during their regular work. Community organisations or networks of experimenters. Continuity of training and coaching for ﬁeldworkers. Evaluation and documentation of methods and processes of experimentation. Purposes and instruction for the group work Exercise the steps in PID Gain understanding of the necessity of stakeholders involvement Getting organised: select a rapporteur and chairperson, Group discussion Procedure (described to participants) List important phases in a PTD process according to your own opinion or experience: what needs to be done first? what next? and so on For each phase identified, describe briefly: a) why it is done (the objectives) b) how it is done (the methods) c) the roles of farmers vs. "outsiders" (PID facilitators); Each group prepares a visual report using the small cards: those with one colour for the phases, with another colour for the objectives, and so on. (For trainers) Invite the groups, in turn, to present the results of their discussion, allowing only questions of clarification after each presentation. Facilitate a plenary discussion of all the groups' results by posing general questions such as "What important differences occur?" and more specific questions such as "Why did one group not include ___ whereas another group did?" It should be stressed that the phases of PID can be presented in several different ways, and that the process can take a zigzag path with many repetitions. The discussion may (but does not have to) lead to agreement among the participants on a common framework to be used during the rest of the training. Finally, show participants the PID framework and ask if it reveals any issues overlooked in the discussion up to now. 18 PROFIEET, PID Training and Planning Workshop for Pastoralists and Agropastoralists, 2–6 Jan. 2006, Dire Dawa Group presentations Three groups formed and each group identified problems and possible solutions. The results of the group work are presented below. Group One Major problems in the area: Moisture stress Animal disease Animal feed shortage Animal disease is number one among these problems. Suggested solutions by the group: Using medicinal herbs Burning dead animals before contamination Producing vaccine or taking serum from the dead animal and give it to live animal through the nose Different options could be used depending on the types of disease. Responsibilities of the pastoralist: Isolating the infected animals from the healthy ones Report the case to veterinarians or take the animal to them Responsibilities of researchers: Screen effective drugs Conduct their research with the communities at grassroots level Objective: to protect the animals from death. Group Two Types of activities: Create awareness in the community, discuss with them and take the idea to assisting institutions Exchange ideas with stakeholders for continuity and sustainability of the programme Conduct the situation analysis of the area. 19 PROFIEET, PID Training and Planning Workshop for Pastoralists and Agropastoralists, 2–6 Jan. 2006, Dire Dawa Objective: Gathering new ideas from the community Methodology: Planning projects in areas important for the communities The researcher and the pastoralist work in integration to come up with solutions to alleviate problems of the area. Develop the pastoralist innovations and disseminate them Conduct experience-sharing with neighbouring communities. Group Three The group identified seven problems and selected three out of them. These are: Pest problem, example: termites Animal disease Moisture stress and erosion. Objective: Using the local knowledge and local material to control crop pests Identify soil and water conservation techniques that are suitable for the area Methodology: Search and identify traditional pest-control measures in the area Carry out the identified soil and water conservation techniques in the problem area. Cases of farmers’ innovations (by Ato Tesfahun Fanta, PROFIEET coordinator) 1. Ato Endeliven, a farmer from Enebse Sar Mider A group of farmers undertook an experiment to solve a problem in growing haricot bean. They made a survey and identified haricot-bean pest as the major one. The local name of the pest is tegadai, which literally means “guerrilla fighter”. The farmers give it this name because they have observed that the pest is tricky, that it hides itself when somebody is coming closer. A paired treatment trial, i.e. protected and unprotected plots, was laid for the experiment. The treatments included the use of: 1. Hot pepper (powder), wood ash and gasoline – result: not satisfactory 2. Chiret, azohareg and wagaw idel (all local herbs) – result: relatively good 3. Lemon, kinbo (local herb) and antirfa (local herb) – result: best one. 20 PROFIEET, PID Training and Planning Workshop for Pastoralists and Agropastoralists, 2–6 Jan. 2006, Dire Dawa Farmer Endeliven indicated that the productivity of haricot bean increased significantly as a result of effective management of tegadai, i.e. flea beetles, using the herbal sprays. Problems encountered during the research included: Low persistency Irritation of the skin Lack of spraying equipment and gloves. In general, the farmer was very confident and proud of the group‟s achievements. 2. Ato Behaylu, farmer innovator in Amaro The farmer, Ato Behaylu, has conducted research on bacterial wilt (atewleg in Amharic), a major problem in growing enset (false banana), which is a staple food crop in his area. His ancestors used to plant cactus (qulqal) around the enset plants and he was very curious to know why they were doing it. He decided to test the extracts (milky thick liquid) of qulqal for the control of enset bacterial wilt. He used three methods of applying the qulqal extract. All methods were found to be effective in controlling the disease. 3. Farmer innovators in Kembata and Hadiya A day-old chicken brooding technology was disseminated to farmers in Kembata and Hadiya zones. The technology package used a small bowl for watering points for the day-old chickens. One of the major causes for chicken mortality was that they were soaked while competing to drink water. Farmers solved the problem by using the grooved mid-rib of the enset leaf. The chick mortality due to the problem was greatly reduced. 21 PROFIEET, PID Training and Planning Workshop for Pastoralists and Agropastoralists, 2–6 Jan. 2006, Dire Dawa Day 3: Monday, 4 January 2006 Planning framework for supporting pastoralist innovation (Ato Amanuel Assefa) Introduction: What the project is all about Objectives of the project Actors involved Backstopping support Coordination of the project Differentiation of innovation-related projects: The type of innovation to be considered in the PID exercise The type of innovation to shared with others using farmer-to-farmer extension approach The context: Brief description of the socio-economic condition of the people The social status of the innovative pastoralist, e.g. rich/medium/poor, village chief, member of kebele (village area) council, other known functions The experiment: The level of achievement of the innovation The gaps identified (problem/gap analysis) What to try out Methodology: Where to try the experiment For how long What type of data to be collected Who should collect the data How to collect the data (use of simple formats or other methods) How to analyse the information (village-level meetings, workshops etc) How to report the information Roles of different actors: The role and function of the innovator pastoralist(s) Role and function of host institution 22 PROFIEET, PID Training and Planning Workshop for Pastoralists and Agropastoralists, 2–6 Jan. 2006, Dire Dawa Role and function of the regional coordinators Role and function of PROFIEET Secretariat Role and function of PROFIEET Steering Committee Work schedule: When to do what Who should do what Where to do what Budget: Own contribution (pastoralists‟ contribution in terms of time, materials etc) Contribution of host institution and coordination agencies Donor contribution Committee for evaluating innovations The evaluating committee was assigned as follows: Ato Beneberu Assefa, Melka Werer Research Centre, Research Officer Ato Sara Dehara, Borana, Action for Development, Officer Ato Masresha Yimer, Dira Dawa Bureau of Agriculture (BoA), Team Leader Ato Musa Somali, Jijiga Research Centre, Officer in Charge Ato Manyazewal Ejigu, Dira Dawa BoA, Expert The committee set criteria for evaluating and selecting three cases for further experimentation and development and dissemination. The criteria for evaluation of the pastoralist and agro-pastoralist innovations and the relative weights given to them were: 1. Importance of innovation in relation to time, cost and labour it requires to perform 40% 2. The ease of the innovation to implement and its adaptability by others 30% 3. Its acceptance by the community 15% 4. Its applicability in different areas 10% 5. Its effect on the environment 5% Each of the ten pastoral / agropastoral innovators then presented their innovations. 1. My name is Oumer Ahemed Dage 23 PROFIEET, PID Training and Planning Workshop for Pastoralists and Agropastoralists, 2–6 Jan. 2006, Dire Dawa I come from Jijiga Hare Kebele. I work with Jijiga Research Centre. My innovations are: When my animals eat polyethylene bags (festal) and become sick, I give them edible oil and the festal will come out with their faeces. The rate of giving the oil is one litre per animal for cattle and a half litre for goats and sheep. When animals are bitten by a rabies-infected dog or fox, I give liquid of the "kolafon" (local name) plant root after boiling it with water. During delivery of a cow when the placenta (afterbirth) remains inside, the plant named hayremet is cooked in water and then given to the cow; then the placenta will came out safely. Before exercising this innovation, many cows died because of the problem. Now many people in my village use my innovation and are successful in solving the problem. 2. My name is Bule Meliso I come from Oromia Region, Borana Zone, Tile Kebele and Jeldesa Melso Village. The area is drought prone. My innovation is changing the wrong position of the foetus so that the cow can deliver safely. By changing from the wrong to the right position of the calf, the deaths of many animals were avoided. It works for cattle, sheep and goats. In earlier times, when our ancestors faced this problem, they killed the foetus and took it out part by part and could thus save the mother. Depending on this idea, I just tried to put my hand into the uterus and change the wrong position of the foetus to the right position and I became successful. I have been doing this since three years. It is also well used by the other people in our village. 3. My name is W/o Meliha Amiya Haji I come from Dire Dawa Provisional Administration, Ayalegungun Kebele, Agemtibelina Village. We are supported by Ethiopian Catholic Church Social and Development Co- ordinating Office of Harar (ECC-SDCOH). My innovation is mixing cattle milk, camel milk and goat milk together in clean containers smoked with local plants. Methodology: The milk containers are washed with boiling water. Plants known by their local names as "tedecha", "chachale" and "ajersa" (Olea africana) are used to fumigate the milk containers. Different members of the women‟s group separately bring goat, cow and camel milk and it is mixed together. Then the milk can stay at room temperature for more than 36 hours without spoilage. This innovation has been used for more than ten years, and we gained a lot of experience with it in this area. 24 PROFIEET, PID Training and Planning Workshop for Pastoralists and Agropastoralists, 2–6 Jan. 2006, Dire Dawa 4. Mohammed Ebrahim Dawe about "My friend papaya" I come from Dire Dawa Provisional Administration, Kebele Ayalegungun, Agemtibelina village. Our area is dry but suitable for growing vegetables and fruits and for animal husbandry. However, there is no water body in the area. We dug a shallow well in the village‟s farming area through the participation of all the community and use the water for papaya and vegetable production. In the papaya, there was a fertility problem and we observed that it was from having too few male papaya plants. Therefore, I developed my innovation to increase the fertility of the papaya plant. The methodology was by taking the male flower parts from anywhere and putting this on the female papaya plant. With this I found full fertility of the plant and a lot of fruits produced in one plant. At the time of visit, 96 fruits were observed in one female plant. 5. My name is Ahemed Ali Bilal I came from Dire Dawa Provisional Administration, Hulahulul Kebele. My innovation is, by digging two shallow wells, I produce different vegetables and fruits that are new to the area. Since the area is drought-prone, I dug two wells in the dry bed of the river that passes near to my farm. Using this water, I started growing different vegetables and fruits. In my area, it is difficult to produce crops rain-fed. By using water from shallow wells, it is possible to have food security. For me and my family, this innovation became a good income-generating scheme. In addition, it is simple and could be practised by most farmers in my area and other similar places. It is a very important technology for our village and other similar areas. 6. My name is Yassin Abdi Ebrahim I come from Dire Dawa Provisional Administration, Chirimite Kebele located 90 km east of her. It is a dry kola area. My innovation is, by constructing a water pond and diverting floodwater, I produce cereals two times a year and vegetables year-round. Our livelihood depended on animal husbandry but, because of drought, we lost our animals and had to do sedentary farming. Therefore, I started to seek other options for this. After looking at the slope of the area, I prepared a canal in the earth leading towards my farm. I do this each time before the rain came. I plough the dry land and prepare for planting. When the rain comes any time of the day or the night, I divert the flood into my farm and obtain a very good result. In the construction of the pond, I was assisted by the agricultural office of Dire Dawa. It was the first pond in the area. Now, following my practice, others started to construct ponds and divert floodwater and they are also successful. 25 PROFIEET, PID Training and Planning Workshop for Pastoralists and Agropastoralists, 2–6 Jan. 2006, Dire Dawa 7. My name is Mulu Sora I come from Region 4, Borana Zone, Arero Woreda, Harodimtu Kebele, Mulu Sora Ala Village. The area is drought-prone. The people depend mainly on animal husbandry. Our innovation is that we have alleviated the water stress during summer by constructing 16 shallow wells. We have prepared them below for sustainability. Previously, a limited number of shallow wells were constructed by individuals, assisted by their relatives. The relatives contribute cattle for the construction of the well to cover the cost and the well is named after the individual. Formerly, in the dry season, the wells went dry and the people had to go far to other areas to seek water for their animals. But now, from the 16 shallow wells we constructed, they can get for water the whole year through and do not go anywhere else. In this way, the people have got relief from going far because of water stress. The difference here is that, formerly, an individual with his relatives constructed 2–3 shallow wells but this time the 16 shallow wells were constructed through the participation of all the community in the village. All the 16 wells were completed and are being used by all people in the area. Following our success, neighbouring villages also started constructing eight wells and we are supporting them. The wells are constructed near the existing wells. All the people contribute money to cover the construction cost and the food and tea prepared for the workers. The impact of this innovation in the area was observed, as if avoided movement of people in any time of the year on account of shortage of water for animals. In addition, we follow up so as not to be damaged by flood or other things. I am responsible in the management and implementation of the regulations. 8. My name is Jemal Osman Yuya I come from Dire Dawa Provisional Administration, Ayalegungun Kebele, Agemtibelina Village. We are supported by ECC-SDCOH. The area has different soil and water conservation techniques. The hills are covered by grasses. My innovation is controlling pests and termites. I use the following mixture: One kg salt Plant leaf locally called "luko" Neem tree leaves "Kerora" tree leaves. These materials were collected separately and made into powder, which is mixed and dissolved in water and applied to the infected plant by pouring the solution on the plant. It may need three applications to control some types of pests. I also use salt to protect planting seeds from storage pests and it has successfully protected the seed. By using these 26 PROFIEET, PID Training and Planning Workshop for Pastoralists and Agropastoralists, 2–6 Jan. 2006, Dire Dawa innovations, the productivity of my farm has increased and the livelihood of my family improved. Other people in the area have started to use these technologies. 9. My name is Aliye Mohammed Dawe I come from Dire Dawa Provisional Administration, Ayalegungun Kebele, Agemtibelina Village. It is an agropastoral area. We are supported by ECC-SDCOH. My innovation is control of animal lice. In the area, lice are a great problem. The innovation was worked out by trial and error. I have been doing it for two years. I grind "chica" tree leaves and dissolve the powder in water in a "kore" (local wooden container). About 3 kg leaf powder is suspended in 3–5 litres of water. The suspension is made by mixing with the bare hand. It does not harm the skin. The suspension is applied by hand on the infected animal. The treatment is made in the morning before the animals go to graze and again when they come back home in the evening. With this treatment, the pest can be controlled in two weeks‟ time without high expense, the animal will be saved from death and the treatment is very acceptable by the community. It also does not need much labour and skill. The people around me have seen its effect but have not yet practised this innovation; however, they will use it in the near future. 10. My name is Ali Arif Mohammed I come from Region Two (Afar) in the northeastern part of the country. The region has five zones and 29 weredas. The climate is hot and dry and most of the people are pastoralists. In a few areas, sedentary agriculture is being practised. The Afar region is well known in its natural resources and its fertile and suitable arable land where irrigation technologies are very applicable. Besides animal husbandry, crops such as cotton, sesame, maize and onions are produced on a large scale in the region. My innovation is the treatment of goat's eye disease. I have been doing this for more than 12 years. The treatment is effective and is spreading widely. The root of the plant locally known as "aloyayto" is taken and chopped and the liquid is extracted. I put three drops of the liquid into the infected eye of the goat and it will recover from its eye problem. This treatment is done for three consecutive days and then it will be stopped. This technology is not costly and reduces the expenditure made for the modern treatment. It is well accepted by the people who keep livestock and much appreciated also by the veterinarians in the area. 27 PROFIEET, PID Training and Planning Workshop for Pastoralists and Agropastoralists, 2–6 Jan. 2006, Dire Dawa Day 4: Thursday, 5 January 2006 Field visit All the participants visited Ayalegungun which is located 40 km east of Dire Dawa and where four innovator participants came from. When the group arrived at Ayalegungun, the Kebele Administration Chairperson, Ato Osman Ahemed Gedi, welcomed the visitors. He briefed the participants about the village and indicated that the area is degraded and low in its fertility. By organising the community for participation, they have done a lot of development work. Some of the soil and water conservation work was visited. To overcome water shortage in their village, the people dug a shallow well and cultivate fruits and vegetables using the water from the well. The innovators in Meliha's group were waiting for the visitors. They showed in practice how they mix the milk of different animals. The group members had carried the milk in their own containers and it was then measured and put into a bigger container. After all the members have put in their portion, it was given to the lady who is managing the milk marketing that day, as per their schedule. The group mentioned that all of them benefited from the innovation. Before this innovation, the milk could not be transported to the market without spoilage, because there is no transport access and it takes seven hours to get to the market. “After we made this innovation, we know how long the milk could stay safely and we tell our clients, as well. The milk can be used also the next day, until we bring it to them for the agreed date. The people who use the milk know that it is a mixture, and they like it very much. They use it for children and adults.” The group mentioned that they have problems of road access and no transport and also that they do not have large container to transport their collected milk. The workshop participants appreciated the commitments of the women group members and suggested that the innovation needs further research. 28 PROFIEET, PID Training and Planning Workshop for Pastoralists and Agropastoralists, 2–6 Jan. 2006, Dire Dawa Conclusions and way forward After the presentations of the pastoralists‟ innovations, the selection committee gave points to the different innovations, based on the agreed criteria. Evaluation of innovations of pastoralists from different regions No. Innovator‟s name Points from evaluators for each innovation Total Average 1 2 3 4 1 Aliye Mohammed 63 80 75 50 268 67 2 Jemal Osman 78 90 85 58 311 78 3 Meliha Amiya 82 88 88 75 333 83(2) 4 Ahemed Ali Bilal 96 68 95 82 341 85(3) 5 Mohammed Ebrahim 82 83 95 70 330 83(3) 6 Ali Arif Mohammed 54 72 56 61 243 61 7 Mulu Sora 85 80 97 63 325 81 8 Bule Meliso 98 95 98 55 346 86 9 Yassin Abdi Ebrahim 95 79 85 79 338 84 10 Oumer Ahemed Dage 99 87 100 66 352 88(1) They declared the three innovations which were given priority for a PID grant for further exploration and development: Mixing the milk from camels, goats and cows to avoid curding Pollen transfer of papaya by hand Expulsion of retained placenta in cows. It was also agreed that the PROFIEET Secretariat would try to collaborate with the Ethiopian Pastoralist Forum (PFE) so that they can support some more innovations. For the PID grant, three independent proposals will be developed by the respective backstopping institutions. The fund will be disbursed after approval by PROFIEET Secretariat. The regional chapter of PROFIEET has taken the responsibility to follow up and monitor the development of the proposals in due time and their implementation. A closing remark was made by Ato Bule Meliso, one of the innovative pastoralists from Borana. He expressed his appreciation to the organisers of the workshop on behalf of the participants. He indicated that it has inspired them all to develop their innovations further, even without the support of the research community. 29 PROFIEET, PID Training and Planning Workshop for Pastoralists and Agropastoralists, 2–6 Jan. 2006, Dire Dawa Annex 1: Lists of participants in PID Training and Planning Workshop for Pastoralists and Agropastoralists, 2–6 January 2006, Dire Dawa (D.D.), Ethiopia No. Participant’s name Organisation/Place Occupation 1 Zenebe Tsegaw ECC-SDCOH Officer 2 Derje Zewdu ECC-SDCOH Officer 3 Jemaneh Tiruneh ECC-SDCOH Field Assistant 4 Jemal Osman D.D. Ayalegungun Agropastoralist 5 Mohammed Ebrahim D.D. Ayalegungun Agropastoralist 6 Meliya Amiya D.D. Ayalegungun Agropastoralist 7 Aliye Mohammed D.D. Ayalegungun Agropastoralist 8 Mussa Mohammed Jijiga Research Centre Officer in charge 9 Mohammed Abdela Gode Research Centre Research Officer 10 Oumer Ahemed Dage Jijiga Pastoralist 11 Beneberu Assefa Melka Werer Research Research Officer Centre 12 Shimola Zewdu Melka Werer BoA Expert 13 Ali Arif Mohammmed Melka Werer Pastoralist 14 Molu Sora Borana Pastoralist 15 Bule Meliso Borana Pastoralist 16 Sora Dahra Action for Development Regional officer 17 Yassin Abdi Ebrahim D.D. Chirimiti Pastoralist 18 Ahemed Ali Bilal D.D. Hulahulul Agropastoralist 19 Masresha Yimer D.D. BoA Team Leader 20 Manyazewal Ejigu D.D. BoA Expert 30
"PROMOTING FARMER INNOVATION AND EXPERIMENTATION IN ETHIOPIA "