NEPAD Principles

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					     CATHOLIC CENTRE FOR JUSTICE
       DEVELOPMENT AND PEACE
               (CCJDP)




                       RESEARCH REPORT
                            TOPIC
OPTIONS FOR A SUITABLE NATIONAL NEPAD COORDINATION STRUCTURE
         AND GAP IDENTIFICATION WITHIN NEPAD PLANS



                       NOVEMBER 2005
OPTIONS FOR A SUITABLE NATIONAL NEPAD STRUCTURE AND REVIEW OF NEPAD PLANS




                                        TABLE OF CONTENTS

                            1                                   Introduction 3
                 2                          Background on NEPAD and the APRM 3
                2.1                              NEPAD: Framework and Projects 3
                           2.2                                   THE APRM 15
  3                    Lessons of NEPAD Processes and Structures in Other Countries 17
                3.1                               The Case of NEPAD in Rwanda 17
           3.2                              Case Study: the APRM Process in Ghana 19
      4                         Survey Views: National NEPAD and the APRM processes 21
                     4.1                                Responses from Ministries 21
          4.2                             Interim National NEPAD Secretariat (MFA) 22
4.3                         Civil Society Perceptions on NEPAD Framework and Structure 24
                 5                            Conclusions and Recommendations 25
      5.1                             Recommended National NEPAD/APRM Structure 25
                                              References 30
                                   Appendix A: Organisations Visited 32




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1 Introduction
It is now four years since the New Partnership for Africa‟s Development (NEPAD) was adopted by
African Heads of State and Government initiatives that are incorporated into national plans in order to
eradicate poverty and reduce the marginalisation of Africa in the „global village‟. The questions that
beg answers include: NEPAD having being hatched in Zambia what progress has Zambia made in
integrating NEPAD in its development agenda? Is the NEPAD process participatory enough? Have the
masses especially the poor people been involved in this process?

It is against such a background that the Catholic Commission for Development, Justice and Peace
decided to commission this study with a view of answering some of the above questions. The study
gives a situation analysis of the existing NEPAD policies and programmes in Zambia. It also assesses
how participative the national NEPAD structure is and compares the national structure to other
structures in countries.

Specifically the scope of the study involved:
     Assessing the extent to which all government ministries are involved in NEPAD activities
     Assessing the suitability of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as the key coordinating NEPAD
        focal point for Zambia
     Assessing the extent of participation in the NEPAD process by other non-state actors
     Looking at options for optimal processes that would allow for maximum participation from all
        stakeholders and looking at ways of harmonising NEPAD with other national processes
     Carrying out a comparative assessment on what other nations are doing and have on NEPAD
     Analysing and assessing how NEPAD can best be integrated into other national processes and
        plans , in particular the process of the National Development Plan that is currently going on

Mainly two research methods were used to deal with the above specific questions. Firstly, we held
interviews were held with key informants from within line ministries, selected civil society
organisations and the National NEPAD Focal Point which is within the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Secondly, we did an extensive literature review on NEPAD plans and processes including those from
other countries within the continent.

The report is organised as follows: Section two gives background information on NEPAD and the
APRM processes at regional and continental level; Section three gives the findings on the NEPAD and
APRM processes in Zambia highlighting weaknesses and strengths; Section four gives Lessons on
NEPAD and APRM from other countries; and Section Six gives the conclusions and
recommendations.

2 Background on NEPAD and the APRM
2.1 NEPAD: Framework and Projects
“ NEPAD is a policy framework that entrenches the right of the peoples of Africa to determine their
own development path and own strategies for integration into world economy. Through NEPAD the
Africa leaders have fundamentally changed the conventional development agenda by bringing in
Agriculture and rural development and infrastructure as top priorities to be ranked at par with human
development and governance. What NEPAD is calling for is increased access to the markets of
developed countries and increased development assistance, not one or the other but both”.

“NEPAD reflects the belief of all African Leaders that they have the responsibility, together with the
African peoples, to address the lack of development and growth on our continent, the pressing
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problems of poverty and social exclusion facing the majority of our population, and Africa‟s
increasing marginalisation from global markets for goods, services and capital.”

“The fundamental objective of NEPAD is to promote sustainable development on the African
continent, in a manner that embodies social, economic and environmental dimensions. In particular,
the main aim is to eradicate poverty by meeting the Millennium Development Goals …” 1

NEPAD Objectives
Objectives of NEPAD include:
    Eradication of poverty
    Attainment of sustainable growth and development
    The integration of Africa into the global economy
    The acceleration of the empowerment of women

NEPAD Principles

NEPAD principles and messages include: African ownership and responsibility for the continent‟s
development; the promotion and advancement of democracy, good governance, human rights and
accountable leadership; Self reliant development to reduce dependence on foreign aid; People
centeredness; advancing women; Partnerships between and among African people; Accelerating and
deepening of regional and continental economic integration; Building the competitiveness of African
countries and the continent; New partnership with the industrialised world; Linkages of NEPAD to the
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other agreed development goals and targets


NEPAD Priorities
   Peace and security ( management , prevention and resolution of conflict)
   Political governance and democracy
   Economic and Corporate governance
   Human development including health and education
   Regional infrastructure: energy, transport, water and sanitation
   ICT
   Science and Technology
   Economic integration and intra-African trade
   Market Access, agriculture and diversification of production and exports
   Capital flows

Structures for Implementing NEPAD

NEPAD is a programme of the African Union. The highest authority of NEPAD implementation
process is the Heads of State and Government Summit of the African Union. Below the Heads of State
and Government Implementation Committee (HSGIC) comes the Steering Committee comprising the
personal representatives of NEPAD Heads of State and Government. The Steering Committee
oversees projects and programme development.

Answerable to the Steering Committee is the NEPAD Secretariat. The Secretariat coordinates and
facilitates the implementation of projects and programmes approved by the Heads of State and
Government Implementation Committee (HSGIC). NEPAD Secretariat includes a civil society desk as
a one-stop focal point for civil society.


1
 NEPAD Secretariat (2002) Towards the Implementation of the New Partnership for Africa‟s Development, Progress
Report and Initial Action Plan, June 2002
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The NEPAD Framework

    NEPAD is based on a three-pronged strategy.
     First strategy is aimed at establishing the preconditions for sustainable development. These
      preconditions include peace, democracy and political governance initiatives aimed to
      strengthen and sustain effective states, economic and corporate governance initiatives and sub-
      regional and continental approaches aimed to strengthen regional and continental cooperation.
     The second strategy involves the identification of priority sectors that could reverse the
      marginalisation of Africa and lay the basis for long-term development. Priority sectors
      included under this strategy include bridging the infrastructure gap, the human resource
      development initiative, the agriculture initiative, the environment initiative, and the education
      and science and technology platforms.
     The third and final strategy is the mobilisation of resources from within and outside the
      continent for effective implementation of policies , programmes and projects.

The NEPAD Programme of Action

The NEPAD programme of Action is a holistic, comprehensive and integrated sustainable
development initiative for the revival of Africa. Sectoral priorities include:
    Infrastructure ( ICT, Energy, Transport, water and sanitation).
    Human resource development
    Agriculture
    Culture
    Science and technology
    Mobilising resources
    Market access
    Environment

NEPAD Programmes and Projects: An Overview2

NEPAD sectors of focus include education, health, regional infrastructure, agriculture, market access,
environment, diversification of production, culture, gender, Science and Technology and Small Island
Developing States. In this paper we only focus on those sectors where detailed programmes are in
place and/or where aims are already laid out.

Infrastructure3

NEPAD is focusing on sub-regional or continental infrastructure including roads, highways, airports,
seaports, waterways and telecommunication facilities. Actions under infrastructure include:
     With the help of sector-specialised agencies, establish policy and legal frameworks to
        encourage competition and introduce new regulatory frameworks and build capacity for
        regulators to harmonise policies and regulations for trading across borders and enlarging
        markets.
     Increase investment in infrastructure and improve systems maintenance to sustain
        infrastructure.
     Facilitate training bodies and networks to develop highly skilled technicians and engineers in
        all infrastructure sectors.
     Promote community and user involvement in building, maintaining and managing
        infrastructure, especially in poor urban and rural areas.
2
  Relies heavily on NEPAD (2002) Towards the Implementation of the New Partnership for Africa‟s Development,
Progress Report and Initial Action Plan and The Open Society Foundation for South Africa 2002.
3
  For example of projects see Appendix B
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        Work with African Development Bank (ADB) and other African Development Finance bodies
         to mobilise sustainable financing.
        Promote public-private partnerships to attract private investors and focus public funding on
         the urgent needs of the poor.

Information and Communication Technologies

NEPAD aims under ICT include:
  a) To double the number of lines to 2 lines for every 100 people by 2005, with an adequate level
     of access for households.
  b) To lower the cost and improve the reliability of service
  c) To achieve e-readiness for all African countries
  d) To develop a pool of ICT-competent youths and students for Africa to draw on as trainee
     engineers, programmers and software developers
  e) To develop local content software, based especially on Africa‟s cultural legacy

Actions under ICT include:
   a) Work with regional agencies such as the African Telecommunications Union and African
       Connection to design model policy and laws for telecommunications reform and protocols and
       templates for e-readiness assessments
   b) Work with regional agencies to build the capacity to regulate ICT.
   c) Set-up a network of training and research bodies to help build high level competence in ICT
   d) Promote and accelerate existing projects to connect schools and youth centres.
   e) Work with African development finance bodies, multilateral structures and donors to establish
       financial tools for lessening risks in ICT sector.

Among the projects that are already on-going in this sub-sector is the E-schools programme.

Energy

NEPAD aims under energy include:
    a) To distribute existing energy resources more evenly throughout Africa.
    b) To develop Africa‟s plentiful solar energy resources
    c) To increase Africa‟s access to reliable and affordable commercial energy supply from 10%
       to 35 % or more by 2021.
    d) To improve the reliability and lower the cost of energy supply to productive activities to
       encourage economic growth of 6 % per year
    e) To exploit the hydropower potential of Africa‟s river basins
    f) To integrate transmission grids and gas pipelines to help the flow of energy across borders.
    g) To reform and harmonise petroleum law.

Actions include:
   a) Set up an African Forum for utility regulation and establish national regulatory bodies.
   b) Set up a task force to recommend priorities and strategies to implement regional projects,
       including hydropower generation, transmission grids and gas pipelines
   c) Set-up a task team to speed up developing energy supply to low-income housing.
   d) Broaden the biomass energy conservation programme from Southern African Development
       Community (SADC) to the rest of Africa.

Transport
Aims
   a) To reduce delays in cross-border movement of people, goods and services.
   b) To reduce waiting time in ports.
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OPTIONS FOR A SUITABLE NATIONAL NEPAD STRUCTURE AND REVIEW OF NEPAD PLANS
   c) To promote economic activity and cross-border trade through improved land transport links.
   d) To increase air passenger and freight links across Africa‟s sub-regions.

Actions
   a) Establish customs and immigration task-teams to harmonise border crossing and visa
       procedures.
   b) Set up and develop public-private partnerships (PPPs) and give concessions for constructing,
       developing and maintaining port, roads, railways and sea transport.
   c) Promote the harmonising of standards and regulations for different types of transport, and the
       increased use of transport facilities that combine different types of transport.
   d) Work with regional organisations to set-up transport development corridors.
   e) Promote PPPs in more efficient organisation of the airline industry and build capacity for air
       traffic control.

Water and Sanitation

Aims
    a) To ensure sustainable access to safe and adequate clean water supply and sanitation,
       especially for the poor.
    b) To plan and manage water resources to become part of the national and regional cooperation
       and development
    c) To systematically manage and sustain ecosystems, biodiversity and wildlife.
    d) To cooperate on shared rivers between participating countries.
    e) To effectively deal with the threat of climate change.
    f) To ensure better irrigation and rain-fed agriculture to improve agricultural production and
       access to enough healthy food.

Actions
   a) Speed up work on multipurpose water projects
   b) Set up a task team to plan to respond to the negative impact on climate change in Africa
   c) Work with the Global Environmental and Sanitation Initiative to promote sanitary waste
       disposal methods and projects.
   d) Support the UN Habitat programme on water conservation in African cities


Reducing poverty
Aims
   a) To take the lead by prioritising reducing poverty in NEPAD‟s programmes, and in national macro-
       economic and Sectoral policies.
   b) To focus specifically on reducing poverty among women.
   c) To ensure empowerment of the poor in strategies to reduce poverty.
   d) To support existing multilateral efforts to reduce poverty, e.g.: The Comprehensive Development
       Framework of the World Bank.
   e) The Poverty Reduction Strategy approach linked to the debt relief plan for Highly Indebted Poor
       Countries (HIPCs).
Actions
   a) Ensure that countries assess their poverty reduction impact in country plans prepared for NEPAD‟s
       programme of action, before and after their implementation.
   b) Work with the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the African Development
       Bank and UN agencies to speed up adopting and implementing the Comprehensive Development
       Framework, the Poverty Reduction Strategy and other similar plans.
   c) Set up a gender task team to ensure that NEPAD‟s poverty reduction strategies deal with the
       specific issues faced by poor women.

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  d) Set up a task team to speed up adopting participatory and decentralized procedures for providing
     infrastructure and social services.

Bridging the education gap
Aims
   a) To work with donors and multilateral organisations to reach the International Development Goal
      (IDG) of universal primary education by 2015.
   b) To work to improve curriculum development, educational quality and access to ICT.
   c) To expand access to secondary education and make it more relevant to Africa‟s development.
   d) To promote networks of specialised research and higher education institutions.
Actions
   a) Review current efforts jointly with the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
      (UNESCO) and other major international donors.
   b) Review what African countries spend on education, and lead the development of standards for
      government spending on education.
   c) Set up a task force to speed up introducing ICT in primary schools.
   d) Set up a task force to review and make proposals on the research capacity needed in each region of
      Africa.

NEPAD has identified the following specific programmes for special focus.
 Education for all (EFA);
 Development and implementation of School Feeding Programmes in collaboration with the World
   Food Programme (Zambia is active on this programme);
 Increasing participation in secondary education. The programme will include improvement of quality
   and relevance of the curricula;
 Improving co-operation in the production of text books and improvement of the content of education;
 Establishment of regional centres of excellence to provide essential research and high level person
   power;

Reversing the brain drain
Aims
   a) To reverse the brain drain and turn it into a „brain gain‟ for Africa.
   b) To build and keep in Africa vital human capacities for Africa‟s development.
   c) To develop strategies for using the scientific and technological knowledge and skills of Africans
       living abroad for the development of Africa.
Actions
   a) Create the necessary political, social and economic conditions in Africa that would help to stop the
       brain drain and attract much-needed investment.
   b) Set up a reliable database on the brain drain to: Determine the size of the problem; Promote
       networking and co-operation between experts in each; African country and those abroad.
   c) Develop scientific and technical networks to: Channel the return of scientific knowledge to home
       countries; Facilitate co-operation between those abroad and at home.
   d) Ensure that the expertise of Africans living in developed countries is used to carry out some of
       NEPAD‟s projects.
Health
Aims
   a) To strengthen programmes for containing communicable diseases to ensure that they reach the
      standard for reducing the number of people affected by the disease.
   b) To have a secure health system that meets needs and controls diseases effectively.
   c) To ensure the necessary support capacity for the sustainable development of an effective health
      care delivery system.
   d) To empower the people of Africa to improve their own health and to achieve health literacy.
   e) To successfully reduce the number of people affected by diseases among the poorest people in
      Africa.
   f) To encourage co-operation between medical doctors and traditional healers.
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Actions
   a) Strengthen Africa‟s efforts in getting affordable drugs, for example through international drug
       companies.
   b) Explore alternative delivery systems for essential drugs and supplies.
   c) Mobilise the resources needed to build effective disease interventions and secure health systems.
   d) Lead the campaign for increased international financial support for the struggle to deal with HIV,
       AIDS and all communicable diseases.
   e) Join forces with donors and international bodies, such as the World Health Organisation (WHO),
       to ensure that support for Africa is increased by at least US$10 billion a year.
   f) Encourage African countries to give more priority to health in their budgets, and to phase in
       increases in health spending.
   g) Jointly mobilise resources for building capacity to enable all African countries to improve their
       health infrastructure and management.

NEPAD has co-ordinated the preparation of a comprehensive programme that covers the following:
 Strengthening disease control, through increased support for international campaigns, such as
   Partnership against Aids in Africa, Stop TB, and Roll Back Malaria programme;
 Integrated Management of infant and child illnesses, making pregnancy safer programme and
   programmes against non-communicable diseases;
 Securing health systems, through national reviews to determine health priorities and prepare country-
   specific plans;
 Building capacity through Centres of Excellence in Africa;
 Redressing the 10:90 gap in health research through the introduction and use of modern information
   technology;
 Detailed plans to tailor these programmes to country and regional situations need to be developed.
   Massively increased funding - $300 per capita per annum – is required and NEPAD will work to
   develop a range of partnerships – amongst African countries and with the international community.

The Environment Initiative
A key aim of the Environment Initiative is to fight poverty and contribute to social and economic
development in Africa. Efforts in other parts of the world show that steps taken to achieve a healthy
environment also contribute much to employment, social and economic empowerment, and reducing
poverty.

Priority environmental actions
   a) Combating desertification: We need to rehabilitate degraded land and deal with the factors that
       caused the land to be damaged. Initial steps can include public works programmes that will also
       help social development needs. These initial actions can be models for other future actions.
   b) Wetland conservation: We need to implement African best practices on wetland conservation,
       where private sector investment can lead to social and ecological benefits.
   a) Invasive alien species: We need partnerships to prevent and control invasive alien species.
   b) These can be major labour-intensive efforts that preserve ecosystems and promote economic well-
       being.
   c) Coastal management: We need to protect and use coastal resources most effectively. Wise use of
       best practices can lead to a broader programme.
   d) Global warming: We will start by monitoring and regulating the impact of climate change. Labour-
       intensive efforts are vital in fire management projects.

   e) Cross-border conservation areas: We need to build on current efforts to set up partnerships across
      countries to boost conservation and tourism, and create jobs.
   h) Environmental governance: To help implement all these themes, we need to build capacity in areas
      such as management, legal, planning and training skills.
   i) Financing: NEPAD needs a carefully structured and fair financing system to fund these efforts.


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Science and technology
Aims
   a) To promote cross-border co-operation by using knowledge currently available in Africa.
   b) To develop and adapt capacity to collect and analyse information to produce and export.
   c) To generate a core of technological expertise in targeted areas with high growth potential,
      especially in biotechnology and natural sciences.
   d) To integrate and adapt existing technologies to diversify manufacturing.

Actions
   a) Co-operate regionally on product standards development and distribution, and on geographic
       information systems.
   b) Develop Internet and other networks between existing centres for cross border staff exchanges and
       training programmes, and set up schemes to help displaced African scientists and researchers.
   c) Work with UNESCO, the Food and Agriculture Organisation and other international bodies to use
       biotechnology to develop Africa‟s rich biodiversity and indigenous knowledge by improving
       agricultural productivity and developing medicines.
   d) Expand geosciences research to improve the use of Africa‟s mineral wealth.
   e) Set up and develop skills-based product engineering and quality control to support diversifying
       manufacturing.
Debt relief
Aims
Currently, debt relief is based on debt sustainability, where debt service payments are a big part of the
resource gap between developed and developing countries. NEPAD wants to adapt the concept of debt
relief:
     a) As a long-term aim, to link debt relief with achieving poverty reduction targets.
     b) As a short- and medium-term aim, to have debt service limits fixed as a percentage of fiscal
        revenue, with different levels for countries getting development assistance. Africa needs to ensure
        that it receives the full commitment of debt relief and overseas development assistance.
Actions
     a) NEPAD‟s Heads of State Forum will negotiate an agreement with the international community to
        provide further debt relief to countries participating in NEPAD: Before getting help through
        NEPAD, countries will work through existing debt relief structures (e.g. the Paris Club, Highly
        Indebted
     a) Poor Countries – HIPCs ); Countries will need to participate in the Economic Governance
        Initiative, and have agreed poverty reduction and debt strategies to be able to absorb extra
        resources.
     b) NEPAD leaders will set up a forum for African countries to share strategies and mobilise for
        improving debt relief strategies (e.g. reforming the HIPC process).
Private capital flows
Aim
NEPAD aims to increase private capital flows to Africa as an essential part of a long-term approach to
reduce the resource gap.
Priorities
    a) Change the way investors see Africa: Many investors see Africa as „high risk‟. Key parts of
        NEPAD will help to gradually lower these risks, for example: Our initiatives on peace and
        security, political and economic governance, infrastructure and poverty reduction; Plans for short-
        term steps to lower risks, such as credit guarantee schemes and strong regulatory frameworks.
    b) Build capacity: NEPAD plans to implement a public-private partnership (PPP) capacity building
    a) Programme through the African Development Bank and other regional bodies. This will assist
        governments to properly regulate contracts for infrastructure and social services.
    b) Improve financial markets: We will use a Financial Market Integration Force to promote the
        spread of financial markets within countries and across borders. At first, this will focus on laws
        and regulations for the financial system.
Actions

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  a) Set up a task team to audit laws and regulations on investment, with a special focus on effectively
     reducing risk in Africa.
  b) Carry out a needs assessment of financial tools to lower risks when doing business in Africa, and a
     feasibility study on creating these, if needed.
  c) Set up a project to improve the capacity of countries to implement PPPs.
  d) Set up a Financial Market Integration Force to speed up integrating financial markets by creating:
     A standard international framework for laws and regulations; a single African trading platform.
  e) Take steps to arrange for: Additional ODA - this will help the least developed countries to
  a) achieve IDGs, especially for primary education, health and eliminating poverty; Additional debt
     reduction - many countries receiving HIPC debt relief still carry high debt burdens, and some
     countries not receiving HIPC relief also need debt relief to free resources for reducing poverty.

The Market Access Initiative
Aim: diversifying production
To urgently broaden production, using Africa‟s natural resource base as a starting point.

Actions: diversifying production
   a) Increase the value added in agro-processing and mineral beneficiation.
   b) Develop a broader capital goods sector by diversifying economically through links with other
       sectors.
   c) Support private enterprise – small businesses in the informal sector, and small and medium
       businesses in the manufacturing sector.
   d) As governments, remove obstacles to business activity and encourage creative African business
       talent.

Agriculture
Aims
   a) To improve productivity in agriculture, especially for women and small scale farmers.
   b) To ensure food security for all people, including more access to enough food and nutrition by poor
      people.
   c) To promote steps to stop the degrading of natural resources and to encourage environmentally
      sustainable production methods.
   d) To integrate the rural poor into the market economy, and give them better access to export
      markets.
   e) To develop Africa so that it exports more agricultural products than it imports.
   f) To become a strategic source of developing agricultural science and technology.

Actions on agriculture in Africa
   a) Increase secure water supply for agriculture by creating small-scale irrigation facilities, improving
       local water management, and more international exchange of information and skills.
   b) Promote necessary land reform and improve land tenure security (under traditional and modern
       forms of tenure).
   c) Encourage regional, sub-regional, national and household food security by developing and
       managing increased production, transport, storage and marketing of food crops, livestock and
       fisheries. We need to focus on the poor and to develop early warning systems to monitor droughts
       and crop production.
   d) Improve agricultural credit and financing schemes, including access to credit for women and
       small-scale farmers.
   e) Transfer resources from urban to rural activities to reduce Africa‟s emphasis on urban spending.
Actions on agriculture at international level
   a) Develop new partnerships to respond to donors not wanting to support individual, high-profile
       agricultural projects.


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  b) Request help from developing countries to assist Africa in carrying out and developing capacity in
     agricultural research and development.
  c) Promote access to international markets by improving the quality of African produce and
     agricultural products, especially processed products, to meet international standards.
  d) Support African networking with foreign partners on agricultural technology, extension services
     and rural infrastructure.
  e) Support investment in research on high-yield crops, and on durable preservation and storage
     methods.
  f) Provide support to build national and regional capacity to negotiate on multilateral trade (e.g. on
     food sanitation).

Four specific programme areas have been prioritised; they are the follows:
 Extending the area under sustainable land management and reliable water control systems, where the
    target is to expand the area under irrigation by 50% to about 15 million hectares and to implement soil
    fertility programmes in this land as well as 5 million hectares of rain-fed land.
 Increasing food supply and reducing hunger through accelerated domestic production of rice, rather
    than reliance on imports, enabling a 50% reduction in imports to 4.7m tons.
 Improving rural infrastructure and market access through rural access roads.
 Increasing agricultural productivity and sustainability by doubling current level of annual spending on
    agriculture research and extension over ten years across Africa

Mining
Aims
   a) To improve the quality of information on mineral resources.
   b) To create a regulatory framework that is suitable for the development of the mining sector.
   c) To develop best practices that will ensure efficient mining of high quality natural resources and
       minerals.
Actions
   a) Harmonise policies and regulations to ensure that mining follows minimum standards.
   b) Combine commitments to reduce possible investment risks in Africa.
   c) Share information sources on business opportunities for investments.
   d) Improve co-operation to share knowledge and add value to natural resources.
   e) Enforce principles of adding value (beneficiation) for investments in the African mining sector.
   f) Co-operate with existing schools to set up an African School of Mining to develop education,
       skills and training at all levels.
Manufacturing
Aims
   a) To increase production, competitiveness and diversification in the domestic private sector,
       especially in agro-industry, mining and manufacturing.
   b) To set up organisations to deal with national standards in African countries.
   c) To harmonise technical regulatory frameworks used by African countries.
Actions: manufacturing in Africa
   a) Develop new industries or upgrade existing industries, including agro-based industries, and energy
       and mineral resource-based industries.
   b) Become members of relevant international standards organisations. Active membership will:
       Give Africa a stronger voice in these bodies; Enable African industry to help develop international
       standards; Allow international standards to be used by national associations.
   c) Set up national measurement bodies to ensure that countries fit in with the international metrology
       system.
   d) Ensure that testing laboratories and certification bodies are set up to support the relevant national
       technical regulations.
   e) Set up an accreditation infrastructure that is internationally acceptable, such as the International
       Standards Organisation system. This can be done nationally, where industry is strong, or
       regionally. Funding should be made available for membership of international structures (e.g. the
       International Accreditation Forum).
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   f) Try to arrange recognition of test and certification results with Africa‟s major trading partners.
       This is usually only possible when frameworks for things like standards, technical regulations and
       accreditation meet international standards.
Actions: manufacturing at international level
   a) Facilitate partnerships by developing structures such as joint business councils for sharing
       information, joint ventures and subcontracting.
   b) Help strengthen African training bodies for industrial development, especially by promoting
       networking with international partners.
   c) Promote the transfer of new and appropriate technologies to African countries.
   d) Develop and accept a best practice framework for technical regulations that suites the needs of
       African countries and meets the standards of the WTO Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade.
   e) Set up standards bodies that will give industry and government information on international,
       regional and national standards, and thus access to markets. These bodies should link with
       international, regional and national standards information centres.
   f) Ensure the development of suitable regional and national standards by setting up technical
       committee structures that represent stakeholders of countries and are managed in line with
       international standards.

Tourism
Aims
   a) To identify key national and sub regional projects (called „anchor projects‟) that will bring benefits
       like employment, and help to promote economic integration between African regions.
   b) To develop a regional marketing strategy.
   c) To develop research capacity in tourism.
   d) To promote partnerships, e.g. in sub regional bodies such as: The Economic Community of West
       African States (ECOWAS); The Regional Tourism Organisation of West African States
       (RETOSA)
Actions
   a) Develop co-operative partnerships to share knowledge and involve more countries in tourist-
       related activities.
   b) Build community capacity to be actively involved in sustainable tourism projects.
   c) Prioritise consumer safety and security issues.
   d) Market African tourism products, especially in adventure tourism, ecotourism and cultural tourism.
   e) Increase African regional co-ordination of tourism to expand and diversify products.
   f) Develop specialised consumer-targeted marketing campaigns to benefit from the strong
       interregional demand for tourism activities.

Services
Aims: promoting the private sector
   a) To ensure a user-friendly environment for private sector activities, especially domestic
       entrepreneurs.
   b) To promote foreign direct investment and trade, emphasising exports.
   c) To develop micro-, small and medium enterprises, including the informal sector.
Actions: promoting the private sector in Africa
   a) Support buying new technology, improving production, and training and skills development to
       increase the entrepreneurial, managerial and technical capacities of the private sector.
   b) Strengthen chambers of commerce, trade and professional organisations, and their regional
       networks.
   c) Organise government-private sector talks to develop a shared vision for economic development
       and to allow a free environment for private sector development.
   d) Strengthen micro-, small and medium-scale industries through technical support by technical
       bodies and civil society.
   e) Improve access to capital by strengthening micro financing schemes, especially for women
       entrepreneurs.
Actions: promoting the private sector at international level
                                                    13
OPTIONS FOR A SUITABLE NATIONAL NEPAD STRUCTURE AND REVIEW OF NEPAD PLANS
  a) Promote entrepreneurial development programmes for training managers of African firms.
  b) Give technical assistance to develop a regulatory environment that: Promotes small, medium and
     micro-enterprises; Sets up micro financing schemes for the African private sector.

Promoting African exports
Aims: promoting African exports
    a) To improve procedures for customs and rebates.
    b) To overcome international trade barriers by improving trade.
    c) To increase trade within African regions by promoting cross-border co-operation between African
       businesses.
    d) To counter Africa‟s negative image by marketing the continent and resolving conflicts.
    e) To deal with skills shortages by incentives and training within businesses.
Actions: promoting African exports in Africa
    a) Promote trade within Africa to find African sources for imports from the rest of the world.
    b) Create marketing tools and bodies to develop marketing strategies for African products.
    c) Publicise African export and import companies and products through trade fairs.
    d) Reduce the cost of business transactions and operations.
    e) Promote and improve regional trade agreements, and encourage interregional trade by harmonising
       rules, tariffs and product standards.
    f) Reduce export taxes.
Actions: promoting African exports at international level
    a) Negotiate agreements and tools to allow African products to access world markets.
    b) Encourage foreign direct investment.
    c) Assist in building capacity in the private sector, and in government and the sub region to:
       Implement rules and regulations of the WTO; Identify and use new trading opportunities in the
       developing multilateral trading system.
    d) Ensure that Africa participates actively in the world trading system, run under the WTO since
       1995.
    e) Ensure that any new multilateral trade negotiations cover Africa‟s needs and interests in future
       WTO rules.
Strategic action to assist Africa
NEPAD calls upon African leaders to identify strategic ways of strengthening trade to aid Africa‟s
recovery, together with the international community, for example to:
    a) Identify key areas in export production where there are weaknesses with supplies.
    b) Diversify production and exports to move to higher value-added production, especially in areas
       where Africa has a competitive advantage.
    c) Assess lifting restrictions in manufacturing, where there is lots of access in low value-added
       sectors and limited access in high value-added activities (with much economic and growth
       potential).
    d) Intensify and deepen efforts to integrate and increase trade in Africa through: A voluntary
       preferential trade system for trade within Africa; Harmonising domestic and regional trade and
       industrial policy aims to boost sustainable regional economic trade.
Action on preferential treatment
NEPAD calls upon African leaders to:
    a) Secure and stabilise preferential treatment by key developed country partners, e.g. through the
       General System of Preferences and the „Everything but Arms‟ initiative.
    b) Ensure that changes through multilateral talks do not take away preferential gains in existing
       agreements.
    c) Identify and correct weaknesses in the way preferential treatment is designed and used.

Resource Mobilisation

Regarding resource mobilisation, NEPAD suggests a number of measures including:
  i.   Improving domestic savings by doubling the domestic savings ratio by 2010.


                                                  14
OPTIONS FOR A SUITABLE NATIONAL NEPAD STRUCTURE AND REVIEW OF NEPAD PLANS
     ii.   Improving the quality of public resource management by emphasizing transparency and
           accountability in public expenditure management. This calls for effective and efficient tax
           management, enhanced fiscal discipline and expenditure prioritisation towards poverty and
           growth in order to get value for money.
    iii.   Enhancing capital flows by calling for increased external debt relief, increased overseas
           development assistance (ODA) (the UN calls for doubling of aid by 2015 and this is supported
           by the Commission for Africa Report), and increasing of Foreign Direct Investments (FDIs)
           through creation of a conduce environment for both the domestic and foreign private
           investors.
    iv.    NEPAD to work towards recovering of rooted money, especially that which is kept in foreign
           banks.

2.2 THE APRM
The APRM is the voluntary compliance and mutual learning mechanism of NEPAD available to all
member states of the AU who wish to submit themselves to the review process. It is voluntarily
acceded to by Member States of the African Union as an African self-monitoring mechanism. “The
purpose of the APRM is to foster the adoption of policies, standards and practices that lead to political
stability, high economic growth, sustainable development and accelerated sub-regional and
continental economic integration through sharing of experiences and reinforcement of successful and
best practises including identifying deficiencies and assessing the needs for capacity building”. 4

The main basis of the APRM is that it is non-coercive and is expected to lead to a gradual convergence
of policy and practice in participating countries. Therefore countries voluntarily accede to the process
in the hope of building a positive image for private investments and attracting more external financing.

Areas of focus for review include democracy and political governance, economic governance and
management, corporate governance, and socio-economic development.

THE APRM Process

The APRM consists of a series of country reviews, directed and integrity-assured by a Seven-Person
Panel of Eminent Persons, coordinated by a country review team consisting of at least one member
from the Panel of Eminent Persons and one technical specialist for each of the four governance areas
under review.

Periodicity and Types of Peer Review

At the point of formally acceding the peer review process, each State is supposed to clearly define a
time-bound Programme of Action for implementing the Declaration on Democracy, Political,
Economic and Corporate Governance. There are supposed to be four types of reviews:
    1. The first country review is the base review that is carried out within eighteen months of a
       country becoming a member of the APRM process.
    2. Then there is supposed to be periodic reviews that take place every two to four years
    3. In addition, a member country can , for its own reasons ask for a review that is not part of the
       periodically mandated reviews
    4. Early signs of political or economic crisis in a member country would also be sufficient cause
       for instituting a review.




4
    From APRM Base document by the APR Secretariat
                                                     15
OPTIONS FOR A SUITABLE NATIONAL NEPAD STRUCTURE AND REVIEW OF NEPAD PLANS
Stages of the Review Process

Stage one: Preparation of Background information by member country

Preparation for the initial base review requires the completion of a desk-based background paper on
the country by the APRM secretariat and the completion of a Country Self-Assessment (CSA) and
Preliminary Programme of Action (PPoA) by the country concerned

The most important point at least in principle is that the CSA document requires each country that it
“carefully assesses its own situation through a broad participatory process led by the government that
results in a programme of action with time-bound objective to guide all stakeholders in the actions
required by government; the private sector and civil society to achieve the country‟s vision.”5


Stage Two: Visit and Consultation by the APR Review Team

The review team visits the country concerned and carries out the widest possible range of
consultations with the government, officials, political parties, parliamentarians and representatives of
civil society organisations (including the media, academia, trade unions, business, and professional
bodies).

Stage Three: Preparation of the Review Team’s Report

The report is prepared by the APRM Secretariat and the information provided in-country by official
and unofficial sources during the wide-ranging consultations and interactions with all stakeholders. On
the basis of the CSA, the PPoA and the Secretariat‟s background paper, the secretariat will draw up an
Issues Paper, which will guide the actual country review process.

The Country Review Team compiles a draft Country Report which should:
     Take into account the applicable political, economic and corporate governance and socio-
       economic development commitments made in the PPoA
     Identify any remaining weaknesses
     Recommend further actions that should be included

Stage Four

The draft report is first to be discussed with the government concerned to verify the accuracy of the
information and to give government an opportunity to respond formally to the report. Then the report
is sent to the APR Secretariat for „consideration and formulation of actions deemed necessary in
accordance with the mandate of the APRM by the participating Heads of State and Government.

Stage Five

Six months after the report has been considered by the participating Heads of State and Government,
the report is formally tabled at key regional and sub-regional structures such as the Economic
Commission, Pan-African Parliament, The African Commission on Human and People‟s Rights, and
the Economic, Social and Cultural Council (ECOSOCC) of the African Union.

The peer review process per country should take not more than six months.



5
    From Verwey
                                                  16
OPTIONS FOR A SUITABLE NATIONAL NEPAD STRUCTURE AND REVIEW OF NEPAD PLANS
Points of Engagement for Civil Society in the APRM Process

It is clear that the APRM process has a chance of once again bringing government closer to civil
society. With the Zambian government having acceded to the APRM, what remains is for civil society
to participate at various levels first in trying to make the process participative enough and secondly,
ensuring that the views of the marginalized, whom civil society represents, are incorporated and most
important that all that is done is to the benefit of the poor people. Below are some of the points of
engagement:
      Although the APR Secretariat emphasizes to include civil society in its national review
        processes and is willing to share information, there is still a danger for government to set up a
        national structure that is politically biased and less accommodating to civil society
        participation. It is therefore important for civil society to be vigilant to advocate and lobby for
        an independent national structure that will allow for civil society and other stakeholders
        representation.
      Civil society should educate and sensitise its constituents and the public on the APRM and
        NEPAD
      Civil society should prepare informed positions to contribute in the process of coming up with
        a CSA.
      Civil society must act as a watchdog b monitoring and evaluating the process of NEPAD
        implementation and use the APRM review report as a basis for further advocacy for
        government to correct weaknesses and strengthen its position in certain areas.
      Civil society should not wait for government or national focal point in order for it to receive
        information. There is need for civil society to be in touch with the APR Secretariat or the
        NEPAD Secretariat to ask for information either through the internet of phone. Most of the
        information is public and readily available on the internet.
      Civil society should act as pressure groups at regional level in order to facilitate economic
        integration at various levels
      The process of learning from others should be continuous therefore civil society must create a
        data base on best practises on APRM and NEPAD so that it can keep track of what is
        happening.


3 Lessons of NEPAD Processes and Structures in Other
  Countries
3.1 The Case of NEPAD in Rwanda6
Rwanda is one of the original 15 countries on the continent that are on the NEPAD Heads of State and
Government Implementation Committee (HSGIC). Rwanda established a National Steering
Committee to coordinate the country‟s participation in NEPAD. The Steering Committee comprises of
fourteen members representing different NEPAD stakeholders namely, government institutions, the
private sector, and the civil society. Other functions of the Committee include popularising, consulting
and disseminating NEPAD and its programmes in Rwanda.

Below the Committee is a National NEPAD Secretariat, housed in the Office of the President. It main
role is to undertake the day-to-day activities that are called for the Steering Committee.




6
    Sector borrows heavily from Rwanda NEPAD Magazine, Issue No 001, May-July 2004
                                                       17
OPTIONS FOR A SUITABLE NATIONAL NEPAD STRUCTURE AND REVIEW OF NEPAD PLANS


                           Figure 1: Rwanda NEPAD Country Structure




                                            H.E. the
                                         President of the
                                           Republic of
                                            Rwanda



             APR National                                                NEPAD
             Commission                                                  National
                                                                         Steering
                                                                        Committee




                                     NEPAD/APR
                                  National Secretariat




APRM National Commission

As provided for in the guidelines for countries to prepare for and to participate in the African Peer
Review Mechanism (APRM), the National focal Point should be open, inclusive, participatory and
transparent. In Rwanda, the APRM National Commission is the facilitator in the entire APRM
process. Its representation is indeed broad, comprising ministers and senior government officials (14
in total), 2 local government representatives, 4 parliamentary representatives, 2 representatives from
the judiciary, 11 representatives from civil society and 7 private sector representatives. Also included
are representatives of the Central Bank, electoral commission, tender board auditor general and the
reconciliation commission.

NEPAD National Steering Committee

Established in 2003, the National NEPAD Steering Committee (NNSC) coordinates Rwanda‟s
participation in NEPAD. It is chaired by the Personal Representative of the President on the Steering
Committee, who is also Secretary General (Permanent Secretary Level in case of Zambia) in the
Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning, a key Ministry that is vital for the implementation of

                                                  18
OPTIONS FOR A SUITABLE NATIONAL NEPAD STRUCTURE AND REVIEW OF NEPAD PLANS
NEPAD programmes. The Steering Committee consists of eighteen representatives from government,
private sector, civil society (1), private sector (1) and NEPAD Secretariat.

Rwanda NEPAD Secretariat

Established to coordinate Rwanda‟s participation in NEPAD and guided by the National Steering
Committee, the Secretariat is headed by a full-time Executive Secretary who is assisted by 3 full-time
staff and recruitment for more staff is underway. Main responsibilities of the Secretariat include:

          To act as an agent for NEPAD activities which include coordination and sharing of
           information, experience and good practices, by organising regular coordinating meetings,
           developing too kits and disseminating information for advocacy of programmes adopted under
           NEPAD framework.
          On a continuous basis, liase with other NEPAD secretariats at regional level and continental
           level in order to keep abreast with developments, i.e. building networks and facilitating the
           exchange of information between the NEPAD Secretariat and Stakeholders.
          To be in full charge of the preparation and coordination of NEPAD meetings and forums.
          To strengthen and expand advocacy for NEPAD/APRM at national level and promote broader
           stakeholder involvement with a view to spreading awareness and reducing the information gap
           in relation to APRM activities.
          To channel consultations towards the implementation of APRM in Rwanda and preparation of
           a “Country Status Report and Way Forward” and “Self Assessment” as stipulated in the MOU
           and Programme of Action.
          To maintain a wide database of information on political and economic developments in
           Rwanda
          Preparing background documents for the Peer Review Team visits including proposing
           performance indicators Rwanda and tracking her performance.
          To identify and present national legal provisions, codes and standards, practices and
           procedures and explain their rationale in Streamlining good governance
          Make an annual progress report to the APR Secretariat on the Implementation of the
           programme of action after the country review process
          To report on a regular basis to the NEPAD National Steering Committee on the Progress of
           NEPAD programmes implementation.


In its bid to popularise NEPAD and APRM, Rwanda is producing a quarterly bulleting that will
inform people on progress made and also the Secretariat has a website.

3.2 Case Study: the APRM Process in Ghana7

Ghana is one of the countries that are quite advanced in the APRM process (almost coming to the final
stages). The Ghanaian review process has been already held by many commentators as having broad
participation with minimal government interference.

The APR national structures include:

          An independent APRM Governing Council (NAPRM-GC)
          National APR Secretariat to provide support to the Governing Council



7
    Uses the Commiunique 24th to 29th May 2004, The African Peer Review Support Mission to Ghana
                                                          19
OPTIONS FOR A SUITABLE NATIONAL NEPAD STRUCTURE AND REVIEW OF NEPAD PLANS
In the process, Ghana commissioned four independent non-governmental technical advisory bodies to
assist with the assessment process in the respective four thematic areas of democracy and political
governance, macro-economic management, corporate governance and socio-economic development.
In addition, the GC embarked on a nationwide sensitisation campaign and involved all stakeholders in
the self assessment process. Just in the initial phase before conducting a self assessment a national
stakeholders meeting was held to assure citizens that the process will be credible and with no political
interference and draw the plan of action.

The GC involved the following research oriented organisations to conduct the country‟s self
assessments:
     Centre for Democratic Development, for Democracy and Good Political Governance
     Centre for Policy Economic Analysis for Economic Governance and Management
     Private Enterprise Foundation for corporate governance and management
     Institute for Statistical, Social and Economic Research for Socio-economic Development

Key issues in the process of dialogue included

The process to be all inclusive

Good communication between the national GC and the APR Secretariat

Orienting questions to the local situations in the consultations

The National APRM Governing Council organised a three-day National Stakeholders‟ Workshop to
further discuss the methodology and tools and processes of the APRM. It brought together national
stakeholders and the lead national technical teams designated by the National APRM Governing
Council in the four thematic areas and the Support Mission Team.

How can civil society participate effectively in both the regional and national NEPAD Initiatives

The analysis above has clearly shown that there is room for civil society to participate in NEPAD at
both the regional and national levels. It is important that civil society engages itself with the process at
national level. Capacity of civil society to engage is question largely because of lack of information
and the lack of resources. However, even with the current levels of resources, there is need to for civil
society to start engaging in the process. Levels of engagement include at line ministry levels where
different NEPAD projects. At the local secretariat level, civil society must demand representation at
least in any „working groups‟ or non-steering committee that may be put in place. But this structure is
not yet in place implying that civil society must start demanding for the establishment of NEPAD
focal points in line ministries, the establishing of a broad participative steering committee at national
level and that Ministry of Finance takes the lead role of secretariat of NEPAD.

At regional level, civil society must make every effort to up-date itself by using the NEPAD website
and also websites of research groups that have focused on NEPAD and the APRM. Civil society must
take advantage of the Civil Society Desk at the NEPAD secretariat in order to enhance capacity and
information.




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OPTIONS FOR A SUITABLE NATIONAL NEPAD STRUCTURE AND REVIEW OF NEPAD PLANS
4 Survey Views: National NEPAD and the APRM processes

4.1 Responses from Ministries

Most of the key ministries such as Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Ministry of Finance and
National Planning , Ministry of Transport Works and Supply and Ministry of Education have been
active on NEPAD especially in the activities (sensitisation meetings) organised by the national focal
point, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. However, the level of engagement by ministries in NEPAD varies.
Some ministries are very active while others are largely confined in participating only in national
programmes, particularly the sensitisation workshops organised by the national focal point. For
example, the MACO has organised four NEPAD sensitisation workshops for stakeholders in the
agriculture sector and also prepared four projects under the CAADP/NEPAD programme. The
Ministry of Education has also considered how regional NEPAD initiatives can help transform the
national bursaries schemes.

Most key ministries view NEPAD as an important mechanism or framework through which the
country can solicit extra financing for projects. This becomes enough reason for ministries to be
meaningfully engaged in the process and incorporate regional initiatives and projects in there national
plans.

Focal Persons

Although most ministries have designated official to attend to NEPAD issues, there is no publicity to
the non-government players on who the desk officers are and in most cases these offers are already
overloaded with other tasks making it difficult to meet them. This aspect, however, may vary from
ministry to ministry. For a ministry like MACO, its desk official may have had good interaction with
stakeholders because the ministry has been actively organising its own specialised sensitisation
meetings for stakeholders.

Besides information on what each ministry is undertaking and plans to undertake under NEPAD is still
not easily available implying the individual ministries do not have such information or if they have
they are reluctant to share with other stakeholders.

Ministry NEPAD Coordination

Although ministries rank their relationship with the MOFA on NEPAD from good to very well, most
of them feel that MOFA is not suited to be the coordinating ministry for such an initiative. The
coordination among ministries has been good only at the top levels (mostly minister and Permanent
Secretaries levels) but has failed to filter down to the lower levels where much of the work is supposed
to be done. Apart from the sensitisation meetings, MOFA has not organised any inter-ministerial
meetings to discuss strategies and plans. As a result, the coming together of ministries has been
infrequent at best twice per year during sensitisation meetings.

Most favoured ministry to deal with NEPAD according to the interviews is Ministry of Finance and
National Planning and to a lesser extent Ministry of Commerce, Trade and Industry or Cabinet Office.
MFNP is preferred because of its role in coordinating various national policy processes among them
the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper formulation and implementation and now the National
Development Plan (NDP). Besides, the MFNP has already in place formal consultative structures, the
Sector Advisory Groups (SAGs). SAGs have broad representation including representation from the
private sector, ministries, civil society and the cooperating partners.


                                                  21
OPTIONS FOR A SUITABLE NATIONAL NEPAD STRUCTURE AND REVIEW OF NEPAD PLANS
Another reason for preferring MFNP to MOFA is that there is need to integrate regional plans likely to
be contained in NEPAD into the national plans. The national plans are coordinated by MFNP and so it
would be important to converge the two processes under one coordinating ministry.

Some of the constraints faced by various ministries in the coordination of NEPAD by MOFA include:

           Weak information flow from the ministries to MOFA and vice versa
           Fragmented policy framework on the regional level. This is because individual ministries
            such as MOE and MACO have been engaged in projects but these have lacked national
            coordination largely due to the absence of a national NEPAD action plan
           There has been lack of access to finance to implement regional development initiatives
           Red tape due to bureaucratic structures has hampered the ability of individual ministries to
            access and participating in already running regional projects
           Poor coordination among line ministries
            Weak liaison of ministries with MOFA has lead to the country failing to take advantage of
            most NEPAD initiatives
           lack of a strategic plan to implement NEPAD initiatives
           Lack of reports from other countries on NEPAD in order for Zambia to learn some best
            practises.
           There is poor communication between individual ministries and the NEPAD secretariat in
            South Africa.

MOFA

National Focal Point

Structure

NEPAD Inter-Ministerial Committee

The Committee is chaired by the Minister of Foreign Affairs. Its members include ministers from the
following ministries:
        Commerce Trade and Industry
        Finance and National Planning
        Energy and Water Development
        Agriculture and Cooperatives
        Local Government and Housing
        Education
        Sport, Youth and Child Development
        Justice
Also included in the committee is the Special Assistant (on economic issues) to the President

The role of this committee is not clearly put across and the draft Zambia National NEPAD Action Plan
is silent on what the role of this committee is or should be.


4.2 Interim National NEPAD Secretariat (MFA)

Interestingly, according to MOFA, this committee is still an interim one. Its key role is to come-up
with a NEPAD programme of Action for Zambia and also coordinate NEPAD activities in Zambia.
The committee is manned by four officers from MOFA. According to MOFA this number of officials

                                                   22
OPTIONS FOR A SUITABLE NATIONAL NEPAD STRUCTURE AND REVIEW OF NEPAD PLANS
is not enough given the magnitude of work and also especially that all the four officers work on
NEPAD on a „part-time‟ basis. All four officers are fully engaged in the normal MOFA affairs.

Activities

      Organised a sensitisation workshop which was held from 10th to 12th September 2004 in
       Livingstone to sensitise and disseminate information to various stakeholders. Various
       stakeholders participated in the workshop including representatives from the private sector,
       civil society, academia, media, and youth, parliament, and government officials, NEPAD
       Secretariat (currently based in South Africa), Development Bank of Southern Africa, SADC,
       COMESA, NEPAD-Kenya, and NEPAD-Nigeria.
      Has come-up with the draft Zambia NEPAD Action Plan

Networking

Link between National Secretariat and Ministries

The main link between MOFA and the line ministries is supposed to be at the top level through the
Inter-ministerial Committee and at operational levels through ministerial NEPAD desks/focal points.
However, the linkage has been very weak and uneven between among the ministries. The reason being
there has been not enough meetings at inter-ministerial committee level and also key ministries have
not yet put in place NEPAD desk officers. Where ministries have put desk offers in place, these are
still busy dealing on their line ministries „normal‟ duties and having less time for NEPAD activities.

Link with the NEPAD Secretariat (in South Africa)

According the MOFA, there has been a very good working relationship between the National
Secretariat and the NEPAD Secretariat in South Africa. The link has been largely confined to meetings
and the process of distributing bulletins and other materials.

Link with Civil Society

The National Secretariat has found it hard to interact meaningfully with civil society. This could be
attributed to the lack of working knowledge of civil society and the lack of full appreciation of what
value civil society brings to the whole process. For example, in the sensitisation meeting in 2004, only
the Economics Association of Zambia (EAZ) was invited while key civil society networks such as the
Civil Society for Poverty Reduction (CSPR) and the Non-Governmental Coordinating Committee
were left out.

Asked to state at what levels the secretariat sees the role of active engagement of civil society, the
National Committee was not certain and believes that „government is the most effective in terms of
resource mobilisation and so on‟. This clearly shows that the participation is not guaranteed at least in
the currently envisaged structures of the NEPAD processes. All this is despite the Secretariat
recognising the important role that civil society plays. The Draft Zambia NEPAD Action Plan 2005 on
the role of civil society in NEPAD states that:
      Lobbying and soliciting for the adoption of the NEPAD objectives and principles. This entails
         consistent and collective fight for noble cause of adoption of NEPAD objectives.
      Advocating for the implementation and realisation of NEPAD goals and objectives.
      Complementing government efforts in providing social services that would help uplift the
         standards of living of the people
      Providing a platform for the discussion of NEPAD since civil society is better placed to deal
         with different interest groups

                                                   23
OPTIONS FOR A SUITABLE NATIONAL NEPAD STRUCTURE AND REVIEW OF NEPAD PLANS
       Facilitating and following up on the implementation of the outcomes and recommendations of
        various national and international meetings , conferences and consultations bearing on
        NEPAD
       Facilitate capacity building in civil society organisations to allow for empowerment of
        NEPAD activities

Link with Private Sector

Just like the civil society, the stage at which the private sector will engage in the NEPAD process is
not clearly spelt out. The Secretariat does however recognise the important role that the private sector
should play. The draft Plan outlines the private sector‟s role as:
      Identification and implementation of projects that would address social problems in society
      Financing different projects through cost-sharing , co-financing and similar financing
         arrangements
      Monitoring and evaluating of government‟s policies on the business environment
      Enhancing corporate governance
      Lobbying government for sound macroeconomic policies


4.3 Civil Society Perceptions on NEPAD Framework and Structure

In Zambia civil society is actively engaged in the NEPAD process. Although hampered by a lack of
adequate resources, some NGOs have already embarked on a process of sensitising and mobilizing
grassroots to engage and contribute meaningfully to the whole process. Some of the challenges that
civil society faces on NEPAD include:
      Lack of National Action Plan to guide how civil society may engage in the process
      National NEPAD Secretariat staff is unavailable to attend to civil society queries, either they
         are attending meetings out of town or the country.
      As a consequence of the above point, lack of information and materials on NEPAD
      Inadequate information from government on how far they have gone implementing the
         NEPAD Initiative
      Inadequate resources to undertake nationwide sensitisation and advocacy on NEPAD
      Lack of knowledge on NEPAD among most policy makers and the situation is worse when
         one goes down to lower levels including provinces and districts.
      Lack of government commitment on the NEPAD Initiative as it has taken more than two years
         but without a well-staffed Secretariat and a fully operational Steering Committee

Participation of Civil Society in Government-organised NEPAD meetings

Although civil society‟s participation in previous government meetings has been limited with only one
to two civil society organisations, there was improved response to invite a wider civil society during
the failed meeting which was to consider the draft Zambia NEPAD Action Plan. Most of the groups
interviewed indicated that they had been invited to that meeting.

Civil Society’s Views on National NEPAD Coordination

Various views were expressed on how MOFA has been coordinating NEPAD activities and below are
a list of some of the most prominent ones:
      There is need to have NEPAD focal points in all the ministries implementing NEPAD-related
         projects
      MOFA is not as easily accessible to non-government actors as other ministries such as MFNP
         and MCTI
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OPTIONS FOR A SUITABLE NATIONAL NEPAD STRUCTURE AND REVIEW OF NEPAD PLANS
      NEPAD focus is to reduce poverty but MOFA is mainly concerned with foreign relations and
       protocols without any oversight on poverty reduction.

Regarding the structure of the NEPAD National Secretariat, it is little known among civil society
players. This suggests that little is being done by the Secretariat to sensitise stakeholders on its
existence and its role in the NEPAD process. On the overall, the civil society is for the suggestion that
the Ministry of Finance and National Planning takes a leading role in the process and the secretariat is
based there.

Networks

Locally, there may be a loose civil society network that is focusing on NEPAD but it effect in terms of
advocacy is extremely weak, hence the result that government has lacked the momentum to move the
process forward. Although a strong NEPAD advocacy network is desirable it may not be attained
largely due to lack of adequate funding for such activities.

Most of the civil society groups engaged in NEPAD belong to regional networks. This helps the local
groups to learn how far other countries have gone and also best practices. And, regional networks have
helped to capacity build local groups on information acquisition and advocacy strategies and skills.

Civil Society Proposals

      There is need for a NEPAD National Action Plan
      There is need to establish a strong coordinating secretariat
      There is need to set-up focal points for NEPAD in every key ministry

5 Conclusions and Recommendations
5.1 Recommended National NEPAD/APRM Structure

Broad participation is one central element of any NEPAD/APRM structure. Although we have not
borrowed totally from the Rwandan case we strongly recommend that a national structure along the
Rwandan case would not only be feasible but also beneficial in the case of Zambia. For ownership of
NEPAD to be created, broad participation is important. Below is our proposed National NEPAD
Structure.




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OPTIONS FOR A SUITABLE NATIONAL NEPAD STRUCTURE AND REVIEW OF NEPAD PLANS




                                INTER-MINISTERIAL COMMITTEE




         APR NATIONAL COMMISSION                      NEPAD NATIONAL STEERING COMMITTEE




   APR/NEPAD NATIONAL SECRETARIAT




Inter-Ministerial Committee

This is Committee should be made up of ministers from key ministries its role is to ensure that
NEPAD/APR plans are fully incorporated into national policies and plans. The Committee reports
through Cabinet Office to the President.

African Peer Review (APR) National Commission

This Commission is charged with the responsibility of moving forward the APRM in the country.
Following the APRM guidelines, this commission must be comprised of a broad representation
including people from civil society, government and the private sector. In order to create country
ownership of the APRM country process there must be sufficient representation from all these
segments. The Chairperson of the NEPAD National Steering Committee should be a member of the
APR National Commission.

The Chairperson of this Commission must be non-partisan so that the whole process has minimal
political interference, but it should be some-one of high standing in society and especially
academically. This will be in line with what other countries have done.

NEPAD National Steering Committee

The role of this Committee is mainly to devise the national policy platform on NEPAD. Broad
participation at this level is cardinal in order to create ownership of the process. The Steering
Committee must have representation from civil society, the private sector and government. The Chair
of the Steering Committee should be a top government official, especially from MFNP. The Special
Economic Advisor to the President must also be a member. This will ensure that the President is well
informed about the process and that enough political will towards NEPAD is nurtured at the highest
political office of the land.

APR/NEPAD National Secretariat

Having one Secretariat for the two processes is a way of having harmony and also a cost saving
measure. The Secretariat must have fulltime staff and a director who should manage the day-to-day
work of the Secretariat. Half the Secretariat Staff should focus on NEPAD priority sectors and the
other half on the APRM process.

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OPTIONS FOR A SUITABLE NATIONAL NEPAD STRUCTURE AND REVIEW OF NEPAD PLANS

The line ministry NEPAD focal persons must be in close collaboration with the Secretariat and must
also be part of the Steering Committee.

Among the functions of the National Secretariat should be:
     To act as an agent for NEPAD activities which include coordination and sharing of
        information, experience and good practices, by organising regular coordinating meetings,
        developing too kits and disseminating information for advocacy of programmes adopted under
        NEPAD framework.
     On a continuous basis, liase with other NEPAD secretariats at regional level and continental
        level in order to keep abreast with developments, i.e. building networks and facilitating the
        exchange of information between the NEPAD Secretariat and Stakeholders.
     To be in full charge of the preparation and coordination of NEPAD meetings and forums.
     To strengthen and expand advocacy for NEPAD/APRM at national level and promote broader
        stakeholder involvement with a view to spreading awareness and reducing the information gap
        in relation to APRM activities.
     To channel consultations towards the implementation of APRM in Rwanda and preparation of
        a “Country Status Report and Way Forward” and “Self Assessment” as stipulated in the MOU
        and Programme of Action.
     To maintain a wide database of information on political and economic developments in
        Rwanda
     Preparing background documents for the Peer Review Team visits including proposing
        performance indicators Rwanda and tracking her performance.
     To identify and present national legal provisions, codes and standards, practices and
        procedures and explain their rationale in Streamlining good governance
     Make an annual progress report to the APR Secretariat on the Implementation of the
        programme of action after the country review process
To report on a regular basis to the NEPAD National Steering Committee on the Progress of NEPAD
programmes implementation. It is also important that the Secretariat launches a website for ease to
share information.

Options for NEPAD National Structure

On the basis of the lessons learnt form other African countries and the local situation we propose some
options for a broad participative and effective national NEPAD structure. No single structure is
recommended by to help the civil society make its choice, we give some of the strengths and
weaknesses of each structure.

Option One

The NEPAD Secretariat based at the Ministry of Finance and National Planning (MFNP)

The main justification is that the MFNP is currently driving national and regional planning initiatives
including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the National Development Plan. Since
NEPAD contains regional priority sectors with specific projects, it would be easy to integrate NEPAD
projects/plans into the national processes.

The other reason why MFNP may be preferred is because of its established consultative structures for
economic policy planning and implementation. Currently, the Ministry has established Sector
Advisory Groups (SAGs). Much of the planning in the PRSP and now NDP process takes place
through the SAGs and representation is fairly broad including non-government players such as civil
society and private sector. Based in line ministries, SAGs have been a form of formalised consultative
structures for economic policy dialogue. Coordination of the SAGs is done from MFNP.
                                                    27
OPTIONS FOR A SUITABLE NATIONAL NEPAD STRUCTURE AND REVIEW OF NEPAD PLANS

Due to lack of „convergence‟ between the two processes- the NEPAD process and the NDP process,
there is a danger that NEPAD projects and aspirations may not be integrated into the NDP.

Even though the Secretariat be based at MFNP, it is important that the NEPAD Secretariat is manned
by full-time staff that will conduct the day-today work of the NEPAD Steering Committee. Whatever
Ministry hosts the Secretariat, there is need to have a Coordinator and at least three assistants. All
these staff must be full time on NEPAD activities.


The only weakness of having the NEPAD Secretariat at MFNP is that there is a likelihood that
NEPAD may fail to be given the necessary attention that it deserves especially that MFNP is already
pre-occupied with various other initiative. This threat can firmly be avoided by having a Secretariat
with full-time staff.

Option Two: National NEPAD Secretariat at Cabinet Office

In discussions with some of the ministries it was suggested that Cabinet office may be better placed to
coordinate NEPAD activities. Cabinet Office is better placed as a supra structure, above ministries
that can easily and effectively coordinate ministries to engage more and more in the NEPAD
initiatives.

The disadvantage with Cabinet office hosting the Secretariat is that there s lack of experience at
Cabinet office to consult non-government stakeholders. But this weakness can be overcome by the
office using MFNP SAGs as formal consultative structures and allowing sufficient representation at
the Steering Committee level of NEPAD in the country.

Like when based at MFNP, the Secretariat must have full-time staff with a coordinator.

Option Three: Ministry of Foreign Affairs to Continue Hosting the Secretariat

Ministry of Foreign Affairs is already hosting the Interim NEPAD National Secretariat. The Interim
Secretariat has failed to direct the programme effectively, especially when it comes to the key question
of how to incorporate NEPAD regional Initiatives, programmes and projects into the national
economic programmes. The main weakness of the Interim Secretariat is its lack of full-time staff and a
coordinator. This has meant that NEPAD activities have been done in an ad-hoc manner with lack of
engagement of non-government actors.

To be in line with many other countries, MFA can continue to host the NEPAD Secretariat with the
condition that a specific unit within the ministry is established with full-time staff on NEPAD and its
Coordinator or Director. Besides, the Secretariat must use MFNP SAGs as formal consultative
structure where NEPAD programmes can be integrated. In order to ensure that there is a close
coordination between the MFA-hosted NEPAD National Secretariat and MoFNP Structures, a
Permanent Secretary from MFNP must be made as Chairperson of the National NEPAD Steering
Committee to which the Secretariat will be accountable.

Other Recommendations on the National Structure

All line ministries should set-up NEPAD desks preferably within their planning departments. The
focal persons manning the desks must have their contact details readily available at the secretariat and
these must also be active members of the SAGs secretariat. The main role of NEPAD focal persons in
ministries is to act as a dissemination point for information to stakeholders in the sector where the


                                                  28
OPTIONS FOR A SUITABLE NATIONAL NEPAD STRUCTURE AND REVIEW OF NEPAD PLANS
ministry focuses. The desks will also be active points when integrating NEPAD projects into the
national plans




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OPTIONS FOR A SUITABLE NATIONAL NEPAD STRUCTURE AND REVIEW OF NEPAD PLANS



References
Matlosa . K, Kamidza . R, and A. Mwanza (2002) “The Role of the Sate in Development in SADC
                    Region. Does NEPAD provide a New Paradigm?” Apaper by the Southern
                    African Political Economy Series (SAPES) Trust prepared for the International
                    Conference hosted jointly by Third World Network (TWN) and the Council for
                    the Development of Social Research in Africa (CODESERIA) on African and
                    Development Challenges of the New Millennium,” Accra Ghana 23rd to 26th
                    April 2002.

NEPAD (2002) “Towards the Implementation of the New Partnership for Africa‟s Development
                 (NEPAD),” Progress Report and Initial Action Plan, June 2002 Midland South
                 Africa

NEPAD (2004) “NEPAD: Three Years of Progress,” a Power Point Presentation during the Multi-
                 stakeholder Dialogue held in Johannesburg, 22 October 2004.


NEPAD (2005) New Partnership for Africa‟s Development (NEPAD). Annual Report 2003/2004.
                http://www.nepad.org

NEPAD Rwanda (2004) NEPAD Rwanda Magazine, Issue No 001, May-June 2004

Nkhulu, W. L (2005) “NEPAD: The Journey So Far” NEPAD Secretariat, June 2005.

Open Society for South Africa (2002) The New Partnership for Africa‟s Development (NEPAD): a
                    full plain language version. A resource for organisations, Newlands, South
                    Africa

Republic of Zambia (2005) Zambia NEPAD Action Plan (draft) prepared by the Ministry of Foreign
                    Affairs (MFA), Lusaka, March 2005.

Shilimela, R (2004) NEPAD and the African Civil Society, NEPRU Working Paper No 94.

Uganda National NGO Forum (2005) CSO Engagement in the Upcoming Peer Review for Uganda,
                  CSO statement presented to the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM),
                  Support Mission to Uganda, 14th February 2005, Grand Imperial Hotel Kampala

Verwey. L ------ NEPAD and Civil Society Participation in the APRM. IDASA Budget Information
                    Service- Africa Budget Project. Occasional Paper , http://www.idasa.org.za

Press Statements

APR Secretariat (2004) “The African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) Support Mission to Ghana,
                     24th -29th May 2004”

APR Secretariat (2005) “The African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) Support Mission to Nigeria
                     21st to 24th March 2005”

NEPAD (2005) Brief Report issued at the end of the African Peer Review Mission to Ghana, 04-16
                   April 2005, Accra , Ghana
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OPTIONS FOR A SUITABLE NATIONAL NEPAD STRUCTURE AND REVIEW OF NEPAD PLANS

NEPAD (2005) Press Release on Developments in the APRM in Kenya and the continental process,
                   30the July, 2005, http: www.nepad.org

Important Official Documents

   NEPAD Base Document Presented at the Lusaka, 2001 OAU (now AU ) Summit

   Country Self Assessment for African Peer Review Mechanism by the NEPAD/APR Secretariat

   A Summary of NEPAD Action Plans by the NEPAD Secretariat

   Guidelines for Countries to Prepare for and participate in the African Peer Review Mechanism
    (APRM) by the APR Secretariat

   The APRM Questionnaire

All these can be accessed at http://www.nepad.org




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OPTIONS FOR A SUITABLE NATIONAL NEPAD STRUCTURE AND REVIEW OF NEPAD PLANS
Appendix A: Organisations Visited

Name of Organisation            Position of Person Interviewed Type of Organisation
Economics     Association  of   Programme Manager              Civil Society
Zambia (EAZ)
                            Coordinator-
Jesuit Centre for Theological                     Provincial Civil society
Reflection (JCTR)           Outreach Programme (Debt and
                            Trade)
Ministry of Agriculture and Chief Planner                    Government
Cooperatives
Ministry of Communications Economist                         Government
and Transport
Ministry of Education       Chief Planning Officer           Government
Ministry of Finance and Principal Economist                  Government
National Planning
Ministry of Foreign Affairs Senior                Economist Government ( Interim National
                            (Development, Cooperation and NEPAD Secretariat)
                            International Organisation)
Zambia Alliance of Women Executive Director                  Civil society
(ZAW)




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OPTIONS FOR A SUITABLE NATIONAL NEPAD STRUCTURE AND REVIEW OF NEPAD PLANS
Appendix B: Initial NEPAD Projects

   1. SUMMARY OF ENERGY PROJECTS AND INITIATIVES FOR THE NEPAD SHORT
       TERM ACTION PLAN
Power Systems Projects
Mepanda Uncua Hydropower
Ethiopia-Sudan Interconnection
West African Power Pool (WAPP) Programme
Algerian-Morocco-Spain Interconnection
Algeria-Spain Interconnection and Algeria Gas-fired Power Station
Mozambique-Malawi Interconnection
Gas/oil transmission projects
Kenya-Uganda oil pipeline
West Africa gas pipeline
Libya-Tunisia gas pipeline
Studies
Grand Inga Integrator
DRC-Angola-Namibia Interconnection
Nigeria-Algeria Gas Pipeline
Sub-Regional Interconnection (East, West, Central)

Capacity Building (Regional)
AFREC Operationalisation and REC Capacity building
Africa Energy Information Systems and Planning Tools
Training of Energy Experts
Facilitation (Regional)
Policies and Strategies
Energy Protocol
Cooperation in new and renewable energy
Cooperation in improving energy efficiency and reliability of supply
Cooperation in Gas and Oil trade refining and processing
Cooperation in rural energy
    2. SUMMARY OF PROJECTS FOR THE NEPAD SHORT TERM ACTION PLAN-
        WATER AND SANITATION
Enabling Environment for regional Cooperation
Water Resource Planning and Management- Nile Basin                   East Africa
Support of New and Existing River Basin Organisations
Action Plan for the Integrated Water Resources in West Africa        Several regions
Water Resources Management in Central Africa                         West Africa


                                                                       Central Region
Support to development of national integrated water management         Southern Africa
policies: Support for the development and implementation of national
water sector policies and strategies- SADC

Meeting Urgent Basic Services                                          West Africa, North Africa
Rural Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation in the Niger Basin
Combating drought and Desertification in the Maghreb
Improving Water Wisdom                                                 Southern Africa, East
Water Resources Assessment in the SADC                                 Africa, West Africa
Implementation of IGGAD HYCOS
Strengthening of the ABN
                                                33
OPTIONS FOR A SUITABLE NATIONAL NEPAD STRUCTURE AND REVIEW OF NEPAD PLANS
Interstate Forest Centre
Strengthening the Financial Base for the Desired Water Future     All Regions
Study to Improve Financing Mechanism for Development of the Water
Sector
    3. SUMMARY OF SHORT TERM PROGRAMME FOR BETTER AND SAFER ROADS
         TO BRING TOGETHER AFRICA
Institutional Policy Advice, road safety
Studies ( estimated on the basis of regional programmes)
Regional roads upgrading and construction

    4. SUMMARY OF SHORT TERM PROJECTS FOR PORTS
Mombassa Port                                                            Kenya, EAC
Expansion of the capacity of the container terminal and berth conversion
Nacala Port                                                              Mozambique-Malawi
Rehabilitation in support of concessioning                               SADC
Lobito Port                                                              Angola
Rehabilitation transhipment facilities
Abidjan Port                                                             Cote d‟Ivoire
Container terminal, dredging of Vridi canal
Dakar Port                                                               Senegal, UEMOA,
Rehabilitation and construction of container port                        ECOWAS
Djibouti Port                                                            Djibouti, Ethiopia, IGAD
Container handling facilities
Study                                                                    Gabon
Mayumba Port Pre-feasibility
    5. SHORT-TERM PROJECTS/PROGRAMMES FOR RAILWAYS
Institutional
Support for Concessioning of Railways: Technical Assistance for          Kenya
strategy formulation; regulatory capacity building; and provision of     Uganda
transaction advisors                                                     Tanzania
                                                                         Zambia
                                                                         Swaziland
Physical
Rehabilitation of Railway in support of concessioning
Uganda Railways Malaba- Kampala Railway (Part of 250 kms) including
bridges Port Bell and Jinga wagon ferry terminals rehab                  East
Improving Port Bell Kampala rail Section
Nakuru-Kisimu rail section rehabilitation (part 250 kms), including      East
bridges
Tanzania Railways, track rehabilitation, upgrading signal telecom for    East
Dodoma-Tabora-Mwanza section
Nacala Corridor Railway, Rehabilitation of 77 Kms (Cuamba-Entre
Lagos)                                                                   Southern

Studies
Feasibility Studies for railways interconnection               West and central
Feasibility Study of the Brazzaville-Kinshasa rail/road bridge Central
Feasibility Study of Trans-Maghreb railway system              North
Undertake needs assessment study for Angola/DR Congo for       Angola, D.R.C
rehabilitation of the Benguela railway corridor system
    6. SUMMARY OF SHORT-TERM PROGRAMME FOR SAFE SKIES- AIR
        TRANSPORT

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OPTIONS FOR A SUITABLE NATIONAL NEPAD STRUCTURE AND REVIEW OF NEPAD PLANS
Institutional and Physical
Support for implementation of Yamoussoukro Decision (liberalisation)    All regions
and aviation restructuring
Regional coordination and exchange of information and best practices    All countries
Regulatory capacity building
Upgrading airport security                                              Two non category 1 major
Upgrading airport infrastructure and related facilities to category 1   airports per sub-region
standard
Establishment of upper airspace control centre                          SADC & East African
                                                                        Community
GNSS Project                                                            African and Indian Ocean
Implementation of test bed                                              Region
Installation of ground infrastructure
Establishment of Joint Safety Oversight units                           West, Southern and
                                                                        Eastern
Studies
Establishment of upper airspace control centres                      West, Central, North-East
                                                                     and North
    7. SUMMARY OF SHORT-TERM PLAN: ICT INFRASTRUCTURE DEPLOYMENT
        FACILITATION PROJECTS
Telecommunications equipment manufacturing in Africa Study           Whole continent
ICT policy and regulatory framework harmonisation at regional level  Whole continent
Strengthening of Africa telecommunications and ICT institutions      Whole continent
Programme to enhance Africa‟s participation in the global ICT policy Whole continent
and decision making for a
The ICT Human resource capacity development initiative for Africa    Whole continent
The SADC regional infrastructure initiative                          Southern
The RASCOM project                                                   Whole continent
Utilisation to improve connectivity                                  South, Central, East and
                                                                     West
Source: NEPAD (2002) Towards the Implementation of the New Partnership for Africa‟s
Development, Progress Report and Initial Action Plan




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