Energy Intensity, Climate Change and Coping by fid19596


									Energy Intensity, Climate Change and Coping
    Strategies for the Aluminum Industry

                     Subodh K. Das

                      Executive Director
          Center for Sustainable Aluminum Industry
                    University of Kentucky
                     Lexington KY, USA

                     April 9 – 10, 2008
                  West Virginia University
                 Morgantown, West Virginia
  Introduction to Center for a Sustainable
         Aluminum Industry (CSAI)
• Founded in Jan. 2005
• Funded by several sources:
   – Sloan Foundation Industry Centers Program
   – Arco Aluminum, Aleris International, Wise
     Alloys, Nichols Aluminum, Logan Aluminum,
     Ormet, Hydro Aluminum, Century Aluminum
   – The Commonwealth of Kentucky
   – The University of Kentucky
            Aluminum Industry
• The world produces 35 million metric tonnes of primary
  aluminum per year
• US produces 6 million metric tonnes of primary
  aluminum and consumes a total of 12 million metric
  tonnes aluminum
• Over 120,000 employed in the US aluminum industry
• The contribution to US GDP is $40 billion a year
• Electricity constitutes 30 to 40% of aluminum primary
  production cost, electricity prices pegged to LME
• US remains the largest producer, importer, recycler and
  consumer of aluminum products.
• New primary aluminum constructions are outsides the
  US: in China, India, Middle East
• Aluminum – “Energy Bank”
• High and Volatile Energy Costs
• Critical Competitiveness Issues Facing
  Aluminum Industries
• Coping Strategies
• Future Research and Development Needs
• Impact of Aluminum Industry on
  Greenhouse Gases
Aluminum – “Energy Bank”
            Primary: Al – 45 kWh/kg
          Secondary: Al – 2.8 kWh/kg

 251 Billion kwh (857 Trillion BTU)
       More than 1% of all U.S. energy use
More than 3% of all U.S. manufacturing energy use
   Competitiveness Issues Facing
       Aluminum Industry
• The competing materials:
   – Steel, magnesium, and composites: Automotive and aerospace
   – PET: packaging
   – Vinyl: building and construction

• High and volatile energy cost

• Climate change issues

• Limited R&D activities for process and product
        Coping Strategies

• Improve energy efficiency of current

• Develop innovative and new products

• Enhance aluminum recycling
           Future R&D Needs - (1)
          Primary Production
• Modeling to improve the processing practice.
• Continue development of wetted, drained
  cathode technology.
• Develop continuous or semi-continuous sensors
  to cost-effectively measure alumina, superheat,
  temperature, and bath ratio.
• Develop alternate cell concepts (combination of
  inert anodes and wetted, drained cathodes) to
  include variable and peak energy load.
          Future R&D Needs - (2)
 Melting, Solidification, Fabrication
• Develop an integrated process model to
  improve energy efficiency and product

• Develop low energy strip/slab casting
  technologies to improve surface quality
  and texture control.
          Future R&D Needs - (3)
New Product Design and Application
• Develop advanced forming techniques to
  manufacture net shapes.
• Develop integrated numerical methods for
  analysis and robust design of products,
  processes, and materials.
• Develop recycle friendly aluminum alloys.
• Develop low-cost joining techniques for
  similar and dissimilar materials.
   Impact of Aluminum Industry on
        Greenhouse Gases
• Aluminum is responsible for 1% of global human induced greenhouse
  gases (Carbon Dioxide and Perfluoro Carbons)
• 1 kg Perfluoro Carbons (PFC) is equivalent to 6500 kg CO2
• 32 million metric tonnes primary aluminum production worldwide
• Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
   – 15.6 kg CO2 per kg of aluminum production
      • Mining, refining, anode, electrolysis, and electric power generation
   – 453.8 billion metric tonnes CO2 per year for worldwide production
• Perfluoro Carbons (PFC)
   – 1.0 kg PFC per tonne of aluminum production
   – 32 thousand metric tonnes PFC per year for worldwide production
   – Equivalent to 208 million metric tonnes of CO2
           Process Improvements
• Production of electricity
    – Use electricity from efficient coal/oil/natural gas power plants
    – Use renewable energy sources
        • Hydro (current world use ~50%), Geothermal, and Nuclear
• Enhancement of process efficiency in existing plants and develop
  new technology
    – Replace rotary with fluid bed calciners
    – In the last 50 years, the average amount of electricity needed to make a
      pound of aluminum has been reduced from 12 kilowatt hours to about 7
      kilowatt hours
    – Lower smelting energy consumption
        • Wettable/drained cathode
    – Lower carbon consumption
        • Inert anode
        • Eventually develop more efficient vertical electrode cell
    – Lower anode effect frequency (reduce PFC)
    – Develop non-contact sensors
       Promote Aluminum Uses in
• Lightweighting in aircraft, rail, shipping and
  especially cars and trucks saves fuel, and
  reduces CO2 emissions
• Each pound of Al replacing iron or steel saves
  20 pounds of CO2 emissions over an average
  vehicle lifetime
• Fuel savings of 6-8% can be gained for every
  10% weight reduction of a vehicle, resulting in
  less GHG emissions
• EPA estimates ~90% of automotive aluminum is
  recovered and recycled
North American Light Vehicle Aluminum
         Content Changes
                North American Total Aluminum Content
                             (Pounds per Vehicle)

1991                                                183

1996                                                       224

1999                                                                   251

2002                                                                         274

2007                                                                                 319

       0   50          100            150            200         250               300
• Promote recycling of aluminum products
   – Recycling saves ~95% of energy AND emissions as compared to
     primary production
• Enhance recycled aluminum melting efficiency
• Implement new recycling/sorting technologies
• Consider urban mining of Used Beverage Cans (UBCs)
   –   US recycling rate ~ 50% (Brazil, Norway ~ 96%)
   –   Accumulated landfill totals 20 million tons in the US
   –   Total value of “urban mine” is $50 billion in the US
   –   New landfill equals 3 aluminum smelters output (~900,000 tonnes
       per year in the US)
• Develop recycle-friendly aluminum alloys for
   – Aerospace, Automotive, Building & Construction
   – Secondary benefit of lower carbon footprint from alloying elements
    Why Recycle Aluminum Can?
            The Aluminum Can Recycling Rate, 1992-2004

    70                                  1% change in recycling rate
                                        has an economic impact of
    65                                   approximately $16 million

           Trashed cans contribute about
            $800 million to the nation’s
               trade deficit each year
         1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

         National Aluminum Beverage Can Recycling Rate Trends.
                 Carbon Trading
• Materials flow modeling indicates that by
  2020, the Aluminum industry will have a
  negative carbon footprint
• Suggested commercial and technical
  – Urge aluminum companies to enhance recycling rate
    in liu of constructing new aluminum smelters in
    energy and/or consumption rich countries such as
    Middle East and Iceland (energy rich) and China and
    India (consumption rich)
     • Ratio of new construction to new recycling recovery is 1:20
  – Promote carbon trading replacing new smelting
    construction with new recycling activities
Aluminum Industry Flow Chart

 Carbon Trading   End Use

            Subodh K. Das

            Executive Director
Center for Sustainable Aluminum Industry
          University of Kentucky
           Lexington KY, USA

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