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					                                                                       GMS Flagship Initiative
                 DEVELOPING HUMAN RESOURCES AND SKILLS COMPETENCIES


Objectives
      Strengthen and enhance the human resources of the Greater Mekong Subregion
      (GMS) by identifying key human resource issues in health, education, social, and
      labor sectors as they relate to cross border activities in the GMS and undertake
      studies and actions to address these issues. The latter includes implementing
      cooperative arrangements to tackle cross border human resource issues such as
      HIV/ AIDS; transferring knowledge and technology, especially information
      communications technology (ICT), and sharing academic research, training, best
      practices and innovations across GMS countries. All of these are expected to
      ultimately enhance human resource benefits from subregional cooperation. The
      initiative also aims to improve the skills and competence of the subregion’s labor
      force, and contribute to their improved capacity to handle labor market issues such
      as labor information exchanges and skills training, standards, and accreditation.

Participating Countries
      All GMS Countries

Programs and Projects
      1.    Health and education needs of ethnic minorities in the GMS
      2.    Development management in the GMS (Phnom Penh Plan)
      3.    Preventive health education (PHE) through information communications
            technology (ICT)
      4.    ICT for continuing and distance education in the GMS
      5.    Decentralized education management
      6.    Capacity building for skills exchanges and accreditation for GMS labor markets
      7.    Regional communicable diseases surveillance system
      8.    Regional Center for Research and Priority Studies on HIV/ AIDS-Related
            Technical Issues
      9.    Curriculum modernization
      10.   Development/strengthening of competency standards/ accreditation
      11.   Knowledge generation and transfer to support regional cooperation in the GMS
      12.   Cooperation in Alternative Development promotion (drug control) in the GMS
      13.   Strengthening regional capacity for drug quality control
      14.   Poverty monitoring
      15.   Educational infrastructure upgrading
      16.   Gender inequalities in education
      17.   Role of private sector in education
      18.   Prevention of trafficking in women and girls
      19.   Yunnan (PRC) HRD proposals covering language, ICT, drug control, health
            (HIV/ AIDS)
      20.   Program for poor people living from forest resources
      21.   Poverty reduction in forest areas and cross border dimensions of poverty
            reduction
      22.   Small-scale technical assistance for networking with the Asian Institute of
            Technology (AIT)
                                                                                                                              GMS Flagship Initiative
                                                                                            DEVELOPING HUMAN RESOURCES AND SKILLS COMPETENCIES




            Program/Project         Description, Scope and Status         Estimated          Financing       Implementing Implementation         Issues and
                                                                            Cost           Plan/Sources        Agencies      Schedule            Constraints
                                                                           (US$M)           or Potential
                                                                                              Sources

    1   Health and Education Needs of Ethnic Minorities in the
        GMS
        Components
        Project Preparatory   PPTA will determine possible health             0.8               ADB/           Health/             2003
        Technical Assistance  and education policy reform                                 bilateral donors    Education
        (PPTA)                components of the loan project.                                              ministries in the
                                                                                                                GMS
        Project on Health        Important components of the project          30.0        ADB: US$23.0M        Health            2004-2008   In strengthening
        Needs of Ethnic          include capacity building for agencies                   bilateral donors ministries in the                 health policy,
        Minorities               providing health services, and                                                 GMS                          research and
                                 implementation of redesigned health                                       (Cambodia, Lao                    management
                                 services that incorporate culturally                                      PDR, Vie Nam)                     programs must
                                 compatible strategies, approaches,                                                                          consider the special
                                 and interventions. The project                                                                              needs of at-risk
                                 includes medical services for HIV/                                                                          ethnic minority
                                       1             2
                                 AIDS, malaria, TB, reproductive                                                                             groups.
                                 health, and safe medical practices.
        Project on Education     The project includes institutional           30.0            To be            Education         2004-2008   Curriculum
        Needs of Ethnic          reform and capacity building for                           determined       ministries in the               development
        Minorities               agencies providing education                                 (TBD)               GMS                        depends to a large
                                 services, and redesigned education                                           (Cambodia,                     extent on state
                                 services incorporating culturally                                           Lao PDR, Viet                   policy on the use of
                                 compatible strategies, approaches,                                               Nam)                       local languages.
                                 and interventions.                                                                                          Education services
                                                                                                                                             delivery should
                                                                                                                                             consider cost-
                                                                                                                                             effective methods
                                                                                                                                             identified in the
                                                                                                                                             study on “Health and
                                                                                                                                             Education Needs of
                                                                                                                                             Ethnic Minorities.”
    2   Phnom Penh Plan for Development Management in the
        GMS
                             The project will selectively finance              0.8              ADB               ADB            2003-2004   To ensure financial
                             scholarship programs to train                 (for a five-                        (Cambodia                     sustainability, the
                             development managers in the GMS              year period)                          Resident                     possibility of

1
    HIV/AIDS = Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
2
    TB = tuberculosis
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       Program/Project         Description, Scope and Status           Estimated     Financing      Implementing Implementation       Issues and
                                                                         Cost      Plan/Sources       Agencies      Schedule          Constraints
                                                                        (US$M)      or Potential
                                                                                      Sources

                             specializing in the planning,                                          Mission), GMS                 establishing an
                             management, implementation and                                            National                   endowment fund
                             evaluation of development plans,                                        Coordinators                 through contribution
                             programs, projects, and other                                                                        from GMS countries,
                             development activities. Focus will be                                                                donors and aid
                             on short-term courses of six weeks to                                                                agencies, as well as
                             six months. The project responds to                                                                  private individuals
                             the need for a critical mass of middle-                                                              and institutions will
                             and senior-level management and                                                                      be explored. Further
                             technical staff in the public sector                                                                 program support
                             imbued with the ideals of public                                                                     from ADB and other
                             service, good governance, and public                                                                 sources will depend
                             accountability. Networking will be                                                                   on demand for and
                             arranged with leading learning                                                                       early results of the
                             centers and agencies in the region,                                                                  training program, the
                             while a website in each GMS focal                                                                    value the program
                             institution will link with a technical                                                               adds to the first
                             assistance (TA) website. The TA will                                                                 batch of trainees,
                             be implemented over a two-year                                                                       and their
                             period, but will be comprehensively                                                                  development
                             reviewed at the end of 18 months.                                                                    environment.

                                                                                                                                  There is need to
                                                                                                                                  carefully select
                                                                                                                                  training institution
                                                                                                                                  where courses will
                                                                                                                                  be conducted or
                                                                                                                                  where scholars may
                                                                                                                                  be supported.
3   Preventive Health Education (PHE) through Information
    Communications Technology (ICT)
    ADB advisory technical The program will promote the                   1.9      Japan Fund for      ADB,           2003        Potential use of ICT
    assistance (ADTA) to   capacity of GMS countries to                              Information     UNESCO,                      in PHE has not been
    promote preventive     integrate ICT into broader                              Communication     SEAMEO                       fully explored in
    health education       applications in education, specifically                  Technology                                    developing member
    through ICT            to prevent the spread of HIV/ AIDS.                         (JFICT)                                    countries in the
                           Project includes establishing                                                                          Mekong because of
                           database/ management information                                                                       lack of
                           systems (MIS) for the monitoring of                                                                    infrastructure,
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       Program/Project        Description, Scope and Status        Estimated     Financing     Implementing Implementation       Issues and
                                                                     Cost      Plan/Sources      Agencies      Schedule          Constraints
                                                                    (US$M)      or Potential
                                                                                  Sources

                           cross-border HIV/AIDS trends,                                                                     hardware, software,
                           creation of health monitoring                                                                     trained personnel,
                           networks among schools,                                                                           and limited financial
                           communities, and health centers,                                                                  resources. Given
                           development of multimedia ICT                                                                     technology options
                           teaching/learning materials, and                                                                  already available,
                           training of teachers, health workers,                                                             and new technology
                           and multi-media PHE providers. A                                                                  that may arise, the
                           fact-finding mission would be                                                                     challenge will be in
                           necessary to arrive at a formal                                                                   ensuring optimum
                           agreement among the United Nations                                                                use of existing
                           Educational, Scientific, and Cultural                                                             infrastructure and
                           Organization (UNESCO), Southeast                                                                  resources of partner
                           Asian Ministers of Education                                                                      agencies and in the
                           Organization (SEAMEO), and GMS                                                                    GMS.
                           countries on the objectives and
                           scope of the program/project and
                           implementation arrangements the
                           program will require.
4   ICT for Continuing and Distance Education in the GMS
    Promote subregion-     The project will develop networks of      TBD           TBD             TBD           TBD         The locals have
    wide education and     academies for staff/faculty training,                                                             extensive ICT
    training through ICT   and electronic or computer-aided                                                                  training needs.
                           learning curricula, and oversees                                                                  There is also need
                           distance education programs. Project                                                              to develop
                           will also include the conduct of                                                                  affordable reference/
                           technical workshops on web                                                                        training materials on
                           management/ Internet services,                                                                    ICT topics in the
                           development of technical                                                                          local languages.
                           infrastructure (software and                                                                      Educational
                           hardware) for a national electronic                                                               institutions being
                           network, establishment of networks                                                                considered for the
                           with provinces and institutions, and                                                              project would need
                           human resources development in the                                                                assistance to
                           academic and administrative areas.                                                                achieve qualification
                           Through ICT, the project targets                                                                  standards.
                           reducing geographic isolation,
                           enhancing exchange of knowledge,
                           and enabling stronger participation
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       Program/Project         Description, Scope and Status         Estimated     Financing     Implementing Implementation      Issues and
                                                                       Cost      Plan/Sources      Agencies      Schedule         Constraints
                                                                      (US$M)      or Potential
                                                                                    Sources

                            by civil society in the GMS Program.

5   Decentralized Education Management
    Strengthen local        The project includes a series of           TBD           TBD             TBD           TBD         To the extent that
    capacity of GMS         subregional forums, benchmarking                                                                   country experiences
    countries to implement visits, consultation workshops, and                                                                 and best practices
    decentralized           documentation activities to facilitate                                                             provide
    educational             exchange of perspectives,                                                                          opportunities for
    management              experiences, and best practices on                                                                 cross- country
    approaches              decentralized education                                                                            learning and
                            management. The project will                                                                       capacity building,
                            support a series of action research                                                                the project should
                            pilot projects in selected GMS                                                                     be pursued.
                            countries to explore appropriate
                            models for decentralized educational
                            management. Pilot projects will
                            incorporate a range of capability
                            building interventions, including
                            technical assistance, training
                            workshops, study visits, and ICT-
                            based support activities, such as
                            websites, to strengthen the
                            institutional capacity of GMS
                            countries to manage decentralized
                            education.
6   Capacity Building for Skills Exchanges and Accreditation
    for GMS Labor Markets
    Inventory Study         The study will cover a range of labor      TBD           TBD             TBD           TBD
                            issues and subjects such as labor
                            markets and skills, systems for labor
                            mobility, gender and language
                            issues, training institutions, and
                            standards and accreditation
                            mechanisms.
    Advisory Technical      ADTA will help establish a permanent
    Assistance (ADTA) for a regional mechanism (forum, working
    Regional Mechanism to group, etc.) to manage the study.
    Manage the Study
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   Program/Project          Description, Scope and Status        Estimated     Financing     Implementing Implementation       Issues and
                                                                   Cost      Plan/Sources      Agencies      Schedule          Constraints
                                                                  (US$M)      or Potential
                                                                                Sources

Project Preparatory       PPTA will determine components of         0.8          TBD          International    2004        The program should
Technical Assistance to   the project to improve TVET systems                                     Labor                    ensure broad
Technical and             in the GMS, including the                                           Organization                 consultations with
Vocational Education      Subregional Labor Information                                        (ILO)/ labor                training institutions
Training (TVET)           Network (SLIN).                                                    agencies in the               to benefit from
Systems Improvement                                                                               GMS                      existing capacity
                                                                                                                           building programs.
Skills Exchanges and      Project will include:                    15.0          TBD           ILO/ labor      2005        Some issues the
Accreditation Loan        a) analysis of studies on labor                                     agencies of                  project will have to
Project- to enhance          markets, vocational standards,                                  Cambodia, Lao                 confront in
system for skills testing    skills certification, and                                       PDR, Viet Nam                 implementation
and certification and        accreditation of centers of                                                                   include political
upgrade of TVET              excellence;                                                                                   sensitivities involved
institutions.             b) upgrading the capacity of the                                                                 in addressing guest
                             SLIN;                                                                                         worker rights,
                          c) upgrade of certification/ testing                                                             recurring skills
                             centers, and TVET accreditation                                                               shortages,
                             bodies;                                                                                       differentials in
                          d) capacity building of TVETs and                                                                wages across GMS
                             centers of excellence through                                                                 countries, lack of
                             faculty training and equipment/                                                               transparency in
                             curriculum upgrading.                                                                         skills certification,
                                                                                                                           among other labor
                                                                                                                           issues. Project has
                                                                                                                           not fully explored the
                                                                                                                           willingness of GMS
                                                                                                                           countries to borrow
                                                                                                                           for labor-related
                                                                                                                           issues.
Regional Technical                                                 TBD           TBD              TBD          TBD         TBD
Assistance (RETA)-
Development of
Standards and Mutual
Accreditation
RETA- Upgrading of                                                 TBD           TBD              TBD          TBD         TBD
Selected Training
Institutions
RETA- Workers                                                      TBD           TBD              TBD          TBD         TBD
Training to Meet
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       Program/Project        Description, Scope and Status         Estimated     Financing     Implementing Implementation       Issues and
                                                                      Cost      Plan/Sources      Agencies      Schedule          Constraints
                                                                     (US$M)      or Potential
                                                                                   Sources

    Regional Demand for
    Labor
7   Regional Communicable Diseases Surveillance System
    Establish surveillance Project will involve:                       1.0          TBD           Ministry of     2003        Project should
    system for HIV/ AIDS, a. staff training in epidemiology and                                 Health of GMS                 ensure broad
    TB and malaria in each    surveillance;                                                       countries                   surveillance of three
    GMS country            b. application of ICT for disease                                                                  common
                              surveillance in GMS countries;                                                                  communicable
                           c. capacity building of health                                                                     diseases threatening
                              surveillance system and                                                                         the health of the
                              development of centers of                                                                       people in the GMS.
                              excellence in health surveillance                                                               This will enhance
                              through faculty training and                                                                    health education
                              equipment and curriculum                                                                        and ensure better
                              upgrade.                                                                                        prevention and
                                                                                                                              treatment.
                            The project will enhance linkage and
                            networking among academic and
                            research institutions and responsible
                            government agencies in GMS
                            countries.

8   Regional Center for Research and Priority Studies on HIV/
    AIDS-Related Technical Issues*
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        Program/Project          Description, Scope and Status         Estimated      Financing       Implementing Implementation       Issues and
                                                                         Cost       Plan/Sources        Agencies      Schedule          Constraints
                                                                        (US$M)       or Potential
                                                                                       Sources

    Establish Regional         The RC network will be the                 1.0      ADB/ other grant     Research        2005        One issue is the low
    Center (RC)- linked with   coordinating body for priority HIV/                    facilities       institutions,                level of available
    local centers as the       AIDS research/ studies. The network                                    Working Group                 expertise in
    GMS flagship HIV/          will be supported through funds for                                      on Human                    HIV/AIDS and health
    AIDS network.              staff, offices, conferences,                                             Resource                    research, but this
                               publications, scholars, and studies.                                   Development                   may be addressed
    *This is part of 18                                                                                 (WGHRD)                     by comprehensive
    regional proposals         The studies will guide policy and                                                                    staff training.
    submitted and              decision making and will include                                                                     Another program
    collectively agreed upon   measures to enhance the role of law                                                                  issue is possible
    by GMS countries           enforcement and enhance the role of                                                                  independence of the
    under the Study on         NGOs in community-based                                                                              center from national
    Prevention of HIV/ AIDS    prevention and care, among others.                                                                   governments in
    in the GMS (Phase 1).      (Please refer to Appendix for list of                                                                defining critical but
                               18 proposals from Phase 1 project).                                                                  politically- sensitive
                                                                                                                                    research agenda.
9   Curriculum Modernization
                          The project will share experiences             TBD            TBD               TBD           TBD                 TBD
                          and best practices in GMS countries
                          at modernizing curriculum for various
                          academic levels.

1 0 Development/ Strengthening of Competency Standards
    and Accreditation
                             The project will develop common             TBD            TBD               TBD           TBD                 TBD
                             competency standards across the
                             Greater Mekong and enable mutual
                             recognition/ accreditation of
                             diplomas/ certificates in all GMS
                             countries.
1 1 Knowledge Generation and Transfer to Support Regional
    Cooperation in the GMS
    Advisory Technical       The project will enhance linkages            0.3           ADB           GMS Academic      2004        Priority research
    Assistance – Support to and networking among academic and                                         and Research                  agenda should
    institution/ capacity    research institutions through the                                           Network                    consider processes
    building for subregional conduct of joint researches, student                                      (GMSARN),                    for resolving cross-
    cooperation in           exchange and visiting faculty                                               Mekong                     border and cross-
    academic research,       programs, among other cooperative                                           Institute                  cutting issues, such
    training, and            activities. Project will also support                                                                  as economic
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        Program/Project         Description, Scope and Status          Estimated     Financing     Implementing Implementation       Issues and
                                                                         Cost      Plan/Sources      Agencies      Schedule          Constraints
                                                                        (US$M)      or Potential
                                                                                      Sources

     cooperation.            training in development planning and                                                                corridor
                             management issues with regional                                                                     development.
                             dimensions, with training courses in
                             project appraisal, trade policy,
                             international relations, and customs
                             policy and procedures.
1 2 Cooperation in Alternative Development Promotion (drug
    control project) in the GMS
    Sustainable community- The project aims to strengthen the             2.0      Grants (ADB,      UNDCP           2002        Project should
    based approaches to      capacity of GMS governments and                         UNDCP,                                      ensure active
    eliminate opium supply NGOs to implement Alternative                             AusAid)                                     participation of
    in the GMS.              Development (AD) programs and to                                                                    upland/ ethnic
                             document and disseminate                                                                            communities to
                             innovative AD approaches for GMS-                                                                   foster their sense of
                             wide replication. Project activities                                                                ownership of the
                             consist of regional / national capacity                                                             project and promote
                             building in AD through training, staff                                                              prospects for long-
                             exchanges, field visits, seminars, and                                                              term benefits from
                             documentation support. The project                                                                  alternative
                             supports the development of a                                                                       livelihoods. The
                             knowledge pool through data                                                                         complexity of
                             exchanges, and assists institutions                                                                 community-based
                             for pilot activities highlighting                                                                   activities require
                             capacity building and local                                                                         extensive capacity
                             participatory efforts in crop                                                                       building plans.
                             eradication and demand reduction.
1 3 Strengthening Regional Capacity for Drug Quality Control
                             The project aims to prevent                 TBD           TBD             TBD           TBD                 TBD
                             proliferation of and trade in illicit
                             drugs across GMS borders.
1 4 Poverty Monitoring in the GMS
                             The project will identify poor              TBD       DFID-UK, TBD     ADB, TBD         TBD
                             sectors/groups in the GMS, and
                             gauge changes/improvements in
                             their conditions as a result of
                             development trends. Poverty
                             monitoring is included in the Poverty
                             Reduction Fund (PRF) pipeline of the
                             Department for International
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        Program/Project         Description, Scope and Status         Estimated     Financing     Implementing Implementation       Issues and
                                                                        Cost      Plan/Sources      Agencies      Schedule          Constraints
                                                                       (US$M)      or Potential
                                                                                     Sources

                           Development (DFID)-UK.
1 5 Educational Infrastructure Upgrading

1 6 Gender Inequalities in Education

1 7 Role of Private Sector in Education
    The projects listed below were not included in the priority
    projects list developed by the Working Group on Human
    Resources Development (WGHRD-4, Vientiane, 5-6 Sept.
    2002)
1 8 Prevention of Trafficking in Women and Girls
                              The project will focus on gender,         TBD       DFID-UK, TBD      ADB, TBD         TBD
                              poverty and trafficking in women and
                              girls as subregional problems. The
                              activity is included in the Poverty
                              Reduction Fund (PRF) pipeline of
                              DFID- UK.
1 9 Yunnan (PRC) HRD proposals covering Language, ICT,
    Drug Control, Health (HIV/AIDS)
  a Yunnan Subregion          The project covers all six GMS             1.0      Yunnan, PRC        Yunnan          2005
    Chinese Language          countries and involves training of      (Phase 1)                     Education
    Institute                 Chinese language personnel. Some                                     Department
                              primary training courses are ongoing.
  b Yunnan Software           Project involves training of software      5.0      PRC Ministry of     Yunnan       2003-2005
    Institute                 personnel for the subregion. The                       Education,      Education
                              Institute will be PRC’s key training                    Yunnan        Department
                              institution for software personnel.                   Province, co-
                                                                                  financing being
                                                                                       sought
  c Cross-Border Health    The project will enhance cross-               5.0         Ministry of  Yunnan Health      2003       Full implementation
    Hazards Prevention and border capability to prevent health                      Health, PRC,   Department                   may need further
    Monitoring System      hazards. Project agreement was                              Quality    and Quarantine                monitoring
                           signed by the concerned relevant                       Administration,     Bureau                    agreement among
                           governments of the border areas.                         co-financing                                the relevant
                                                                                    being sought                                governments.
  d Pilot Substitute Farms   Project aims to reduce opium poppy          0.5          Yunnan          Yunnan         2002
    at Laogai and            cultivation through substitute farms                     Narcotics      Narcotics
    Wendong, Myanmar         and alternative development. The                          Control        Control
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        Program/Project         Description, Scope and Status        Estimated      Financing     Implementing Implementation   Issues and
                                                                       Cost       Plan/Sources      Agencies      Schedule      Constraints
                                                                      (US$M)       or Potential
                                                                                     Sources

                             project, run by the Jili Company of                 Commission and    Commission
                             Kunming, is ongoing.                                 Jili Company
 e Documentary on the        Project will enhance community             0.1       Project seeks      Yunnan          2003
   Hazards of                awareness and knowledge on the                        cofinancing.     Narcotics
   Methampetamine (Ice)      hazards of drugs. A Chinese version                                     Control
                             is being prepared; multilingual                                       Commission
                             versions may also be produced.
 f   Training Center for     The project will enhance the               1.2        China State      Lao PDR,       2003-2008
     GMS Drug Law            capability of drug law enforcement.                    Narcotics      Myanmar,
     Enforcement Officers    The main building of the Center is                      Control        Thailand,
                             being completed.                                      Commission, Cambodia, Viet
                                                                                     Yunnan      Nam and China
                                                                                    Narcotics       Narcotics
                                                                                     Control         Control
                                                                                 Commission, co- Commission,
                                                                                 financing being     Yunnan
                                                                                     sought         Narcotics
                                                                                                     Control
                                                                                                  Commission
 g Substitute Crops          Project will promote cultivation of       10.0        China State      Lao PDR,
   Cultivation               substitute crops in parts of Myanmar                   Narcotics    Myanmar, PRC
                             and Lao PDR as part of alternative                      Control     State Narcotics
                             development. Project is in the design                 Commission,       Control
                             stage.                                                  Yunnan       Commission,
                                                                                    Narcotics        Yunnan
                                                                                     Control        Narcotics
                                                                                 Commission, co-     Control
                                                                                 financing being  Commission
                                                                                     sought
2 0 Alternative Livelihood of People Living from Forest
    Resources
                            The project will design alternative         0.8           DFID         ADB, TBD        2002-2003
                            income generating activities for the
                            poor in forest areas to sustain both
                            the farmer and economic uses of the
                            forests. Project is included in DFID’s
                            Poverty Reduction Fund (PRF)
                            pipeline.
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        Program/Project        Description, Scope and Status       Estimated       Financing     Implementing Implementation       Issues and
                                                                     Cost        Plan/Sources      Agencies      Schedule          Constraints
                                                                    (US$M)        or Potential
                                                                                    Sources

2 1 Poverty Reduction in Forest Areas and Cross Border
    Dimensions of Poverty Reduction
                             The project will identify alternative     0.8           DFID         ADB, TBD       2002-2003
                             livelihoods for poverty reduction
                             among ethnic minorities living in the
                             upland areas of Greater Mekong.
                             The project is included in DFID’s
                             Poverty Reduction Fund (PRF)
                             pipeline.
2 2 Small-scale technical assistance (SSTA) for networking
    with the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Bangkok
                             SSTA initiates networking                 0.2           ADB          ADB/ Asian     2002-2003     Networking will
                             arrangement with AIT on pilot basis    (ADB-0.15)                    Institute of                 operate as a
                             and will improve knowledge                                           Technology                   clearing devise
                             management within ADB by                                                                          under which cells in
                             accessing it to AIT’s knowledge,                                                                  ADB and AIT will
                             experience and expertise. The                                                                     serve as the focal
                             project supplements ADB’s internal                                                                point for information
                             knowledge creation efforts, augments                                                              exchange. While
                             capacity for training in capacity                                                                 flexible and cost
                             building for its developing member                                                                effective, the level of
                             countries, and provides efficient cost                                                            activity under the
                             effective means of obtaining required                                                             set-up will depend
                             skills and knowledge.                                                                             on needs identified
                                                                                                                               by the focal persons.

				
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