Youth Addictions Educational and by malj

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									Youth Addictions Educational and
       Awareness Course

            Pilot Study

    A Collaborative Initiative Between

      Dr. Bonnie Priest, Ed. D.
      Positive Heart Living Inc.




                  and
         Staff Sgt. Brian Ford
       Fredericton Police Force
 Northside Neighborhood Action Team
                                                      Table of Contents

Definition of Addiction ........................................................................................................1

Statement of the Problem .....................................................................................................2

Introduction on the process and development .....................................................................3

The Partnerships...................................................................................................................4

Research Questions ..............................................................................................................5

Methodology and Research Design .....................................................................................5

Anticipated Outcomes ..........................................................................................................6

The Pilot Study ....................................................................................................................8

Survey Pretraining and Posttraining Results......................................................................10

Overview of Findings ........................................................................................................20

           Focus Group Responses and Journal Entries .........................................................20

           Grade 6 to 8 (only) .................................................................................................20

Snowball Effect ..................................................................................................................23

Conclusions ........................................................................................................................24

References ..........................................................................................................................26

Appendixes
      A    Abstract of Doctoral Study ...........................................................................28
      B    Criminology Educational and Counselling Skills Course ............................29
      C    Requests for Expansion and Comments About the Pilot Study .................105




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                                       Definition of Addiction

        Addiction is a physical disease. It is properly classified with cancer, heart disease, and

diabetes as a chronic illness that produces long-term physical, psychological, and social damage.

Addiction is affected by and affects all areas of a person’s life. Therefore, it is called a bio-psycho-

social disease. Bio means of the body, psycho means of the mind; social refers to relationships

among people.
                                                                                            2

                               Statement of the Problem

       Addiction of alcohol and drugs is on the rise in our community. Programs and

interventions that provide increased education about addiction will lead to a safety net for

youth, and need to start in middle school at the earliest.

       Alcohol and drugs are leading causes of death among youth. Alcohol and drugs

contributes to adolescent motor vehicle crashes, traumatic injuries, suicide, date rape,

along with school and family problems. Children who are drinking alcohol by seventh

grade are more likely to report substance use, academic problems, and delinquent

behavior in junior high and high school. By young adulthood, early alcohol use is

associated with employment problems, substance abuse, criminal, and other violent

behavior. There is a direct link between addiction, crime, poverty, and health; and while

addiction is no respecter of economic status, this is the reality of the situation. Youth who

start drinking before they are 15 years of age, are more likely to develop addiction than

those who begin drinking around 21; therefore, early education is essential.

       An article appearing in the Daily Gleaner (Jennifer Dunville, October 13, 2007

New Brunswick revealed that just under 1,400 students between Grades 7 and 12 dropped

out of school in the 2004-2005 academic year. That number was reflected again this year

with 1,395 of the 58,878 students enrolled in Grades 7 to 12 dropping out school in the

2005-2006 school year. The majority of the students cited personal problems for dropping

out of school. Education about the process of addiction needs to become an intervention

strategy as early as possible in our schools. Losing youth, who become addicted, can be

prevented with proper education from facilitators who have compassion and an

understanding of the issues facing youth today.
                                                                                             3

                      Introduction on the Process and Development

       The idea for a Youth Addictions Educational and Awareness Course in the

Fredericton community was a direct result of a doctoral dissertation and pilot study.

During the study, a course was delivered which focused on the various risk factors facing

youth. Qualitative and quantitative research methodologies were used, along with

pretesting and posttesting. Data gathered and synthesized indicated that further education

about at-risk youth and how to work with the youth was needed at the grass roots level.

Recommendations for the expansion of the program in New Brunswick were

recommended. The conclusion at the end of the study was that there was a need for

increased education about the etiology of the issues facing the at-risk youth in school and

at the grassroots level. The abstract from the doctoral study explains concisely how and

why the pilot study was developed (see Appendix A).

       A lead facilitator training manual was developed. The manual was developed in

direct relationship to the issues facing youth at risk. Experts in their individual field were

contacted and asked to participate in the development of the manual. Numerous

partnerships were formed. The various components were compiled, accompanying slides

were prepared for facilitating purposes, and the Lead Facilitators Manual was developed

(see Appendix B). The initial course was held at the Fredericton Police Department in

February 2007, with a goal of educating people on issues and preventative interventions

when working with at-risk youth. The course proved to be very successful. The youth

addictions pilot study was modeled after this course.
                                                                                          4

                                    The Partnerships

       Positive Heart Living Inc. had been working with Police and the Fine Option

programs for close to two decades. During the crime prevention awards in November

2007, Dr. Bonnie Priest and Staff Sgt. Brian Ford discussed the rising problem of youth

addiction. With an alarming number of youth dropping out of school and detox filling up

with youths addicted to alcohol and drugs, our community became more engaged in the

solution.

       A meeting was held with Staff Sgt. Brian Ford and a number of his colleagues

from the Fredericton Police Force Northside Neighborhood Action Team. An agreement

on a pilot study, which focused on youth addictions, was discussed and, through a process,

was developed and implemented. After discussion of what had previously been developed,

a decision was made to develop the Youth Addictions Educational and Awareness Course.

       A decision was made to include the importance of neighborhood policing.

Research of available multimedia, which focused on youth addictions, resulted in using

Flipping the World. The DVD was created by the Vancouver Police Odd Squad (2000),

who work with addicts and recovery. Components of the lead facilitators manual were

extracted and used to develop the Youth Addictions Educational and Awareness manual.

       A component used from the lead facilitator’s manual was Addictions and

Interventions, which was developed by Mr. Tony DeCourcey from Addiction Services.

PowerPoint slides were created for this presentation. Another component, Characteristics

of an Effective Helper, was developed by by Karl Goguen, a retired EAP Counsellor with

the RCMP.

       Other material that designed included a student registration form, facilitator’s
                                                                                               5

roster, certification cards, and pretraining and posttraining quizzes. Facilitators, most of

whom were working with youth, were trained to teach the three-hour course as numerous

agencies needed to collaborate in an effort to provide the intervention.

       Members of the Positively Balanced Youth group helped to set up the program and

assisted with the analysis, which was reviewed by staff persons from Positive Heart

Living Inc. Members of this committee included

       • Anneke Latouche - Grade 8 - George Street Middle School

       • Justin Lee - Grade 9 - Rothesay Netherwood School

       • Breanna Latouche - Grade 7 - George Street Middle School

It was felt that by including youth we would get better results, raise the awareness of the

problem, and have more focus on the solution at the same time.



                                    Research Questions

       There were three research questions in this study:

       1. Did the program improve addiction knowledge of participants?

       2. Which areas of education are needed the most?

       3. How has the study improved the problem area?



                            Methodology and Research Design

       The study design and methodology were determined:

       1. The target population will consist of approximately 50 middle school students,

older students, and parents, if requested.

       2. Other professionals working in the field will be approved to participate in the
                                                                                              6

training, provided they understand that the group work of the youths is separate from

theirs.

          3. Training will be provided in the Fredericton community; however, participants

from other areas may attend.

          4. Participants will receive a certification card upon completion of the program.

A pretest and posttest will be used to analyze data. Journals and focus group work will be

implemented into the course (see Appendix C). A comparison of the data will be analyzed

to measure the effectiveness of the program and to enhance the existing material.



                                     Anticipated Outcomes:

Eight outcomes in this project were anticipated:

          1. Certification course in youth addictions will increase knowledge levels and

awareness in youth, through the development of the Student Manual, PowerPoint

presentation, and video. Group work along with the focus group will enhance

relationships of the participants.

          2. Government registration of the program for implementation into schools would

be achieved.

          3. Professionals would be trained and certified to train other professionals.

          4. Establishment of partnerships with other communities, and training of

individuals to facilitate the course.

          5. Establishment of ongoing courses through public relations, letter writing, and

media advertisements.

          6. Establishment of monthly community-based programs in partnership with the
                                                                                        7

Fine Option Program.

      7. Increase in the number of students aware of addiction and how to prevent it.

      8. Improvement in the quality of life of youth in New Brunswick.
                                                                                              8

                                      The Pilot Study

       Initially, a press release was sent out and was followed by public service

announcements and posters throughout the Fredericton area. Youth and parents were

contacted to register for the three-hour course.

       The first course was held at the Victoria Health Center, a community-based

building, easily accessible for participants. Positively balanced youth assisted in setting

up, registering, and issuing name tags for participants. Constable Jan Smith from

Fredericton Police Northside Neighborhood Police attended. Constable Smith spoke to the

youth about the value and responsibilities of their department and how this could be an

asset for any youth experiencing a problem personally, or with a family member or friend

having problems with addiction.

       Over a period of seven months, there were 51 youth from Grades 6 to grade 8, who

attended and were certified in the program. There were 31 youth from Grade 9 through

first-year university who attended and were certified in the program. Adults and

professionals who attended were not included in the final data collected, as our focus in

the study was on youth.

       The survey used a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree), 2

(disagree), 3 (neutral), 4 (agree), to 5 (strongly disagree). The purpose of the survey was

to look at the knowledge level of each participant before and after the program was

completed. Participants were asked to indicate their level of agreement with each

statement. For example, if the student strongly disagreed with the statement, they would

make mark an “X” beside 1.

       Facilitators explained the survey and verbally went through the questionnaire with
                                                                                            9

the students. Questions regarding the survey were explained to student with questions.

This ensured proper understanding. The posttest was a duplication of the pretest, and

focused on the students’ ability to apply the knowledge they had gained upon completion

of the course.

       Because this study was completed with no funding, and everyone who worked on

it volunteered, the data have been kept simplified through visual graphs and documented

differences. It was obvious by the results of the pretest and posttest questionnaires that the

knowledge levels improved significantly in all areas. The lack of knowledge about the

problem of addictions prior to the course was evident in the outcome of the posttests. The

need for this type of intervention was confirmed by the data.
                                                                                         10

           Survey Pretraining and Posttraining Results


1. My current level of knowledge about addictions is sufficient. [adequate]
Responses – Youth (Total participants = 51)


                       1          2                3              4           5
                  __________ __________       __________     ___________ __________

Training           No.     %     No.    %      No.       %    No.     %       No.    %


Pre                 16    37.3   20    39.2    12     23.5
Post                              4     7.8     5      9.8    22     43.1     20    39.2




Responses – Grade 9 and above (Total participants = 31)


                       1          2                3              4           5
                  __________ __________       __________     ___________ __________

Training           No.     %     No.    %      No.       %    No.     %       No.    %


Pre                 4     12.9   12    38.7    15     48.4
Post                                            1      3.2    18     58.1     12    38.7
                                                                                        11

2. My current level of knowledge to intervene if I had a friend who was involved with
drug/alcohol abuse is sufficient.

Responses – Youth (Total participants = 51)


                    1          2                   3             4           5
               __________ __________          __________    ___________ __________

Training        No.      %     No.     %       No.    %      No.     %      No.     %


Pre              29    56.9     19    37.3     3      5.9
Post                                           19    37.3    26     51.0     6     11.8




Responses – Grade 9 and above (Total participants = 31)


                    1          2                   3             4           5
               __________ __________          __________    ___________ __________

Training        No.      %     No.     %       No.    %      No.     %      No.     %


Pre              4     12.9     12    38.7     15    48.4
Post                                           1      3.2    18     58.1    12     38.7
                                                                                         12

3. My current level of knowledge about neighborhood policing and how they help if
someone has a problem with addiction is sufficient.

Responses – Youth (Total participants = 51)


                    1          2                   3             4           5
               __________ __________          __________    ___________ __________

Training        No.     %      No.     %       No.    %      No.    %     No.        %


Pre              45    88.2     6     11.8
Post                                           13    25.0    32    63.0    6        12.0




Responses – Grade 9 and above (Total participants = 31)


                    1          2                   3             4           5
               __________ __________          __________    ___________ __________

Training        No.     %      No.     %       No.    %      No.    %     No.        %


Pre              24    77.4     6     19.4     1     3.2
Post                                           1     3.2     18    58.1   12        38.7
                                                                                           13

4. My current level of knowledge about providing solutions in a conflict related to
addiction is sufficient.

Responses – Youth (Total participants = 51)


                     1          2                  3              4           5
                __________ __________         __________     ___________ __________

Training         No.     %      No.     %      No.     %      No.      %     No.       %


Pre              44     86.0     5     10.0     2      4.0
Post                             5     10.0     30    59.0     14    27.0     2       4.0




Responses – Grade 9 and above (Total participants = 31)


                     1          2                  3              4           5
                __________ __________         __________     ___________ __________

Training         No.     %      No.     %      No.     %      No.      %     No.       %


Pre               8     26.0    14     45.0     8     26.0     1       3
Post                                                           14    45.0     17      55.0
                                                                                         14

5. My current level of knowledge about communicating effectively in a crisis situation is
sufficient.

Responses – Youth (Total participants = 51)


                     1          2                  3              4           5
                __________ __________         __________     ___________ __________

Training         No.     %      No.     %      No.     %      No.     %      No.     %


Pre              47     92.0     4     8.0
Post                             2     4.0     18     35.0    26     51.0     5     10.0




Responses – Grade 9 and above (Total participants = 31)


                     1          2                  3              4           5
                __________ __________         __________     ___________ __________

Training         No.     %      No.     %      No.     %      No.     %      No.     %


Pre               8     26.0    14     45.0     8     26.0     1      3
Post                                                           6     19.0    25     81.0
                                                                                         15

6. My level of knowledge about the characteristics of an effective helper when dealing
with addiction or a crisis situation is sufficient.

Responses – Youth (Total participants = 51)


                    1          2                   3             4           5
               __________ __________          __________    ___________ __________

Training         No.     %     No.      %      No.     %     No.     %      No.     %


Pre              47     92.0     4     8.0
Post                                           2      4.0     33    65.0     16    31.0




Responses – Grade 9 and above (Total participants = 31)


                    1          2                   3             4           5
               __________ __________          __________    ___________ __________

Training         No.     %     No.      %      No.     %     No.     %      No.     %


Pre              10     32.0    15     48.0    5     16.0     1      3.0
Post                                                                         31    100.0
                                                                                      16

7. I have a high level of knowledge about addiction, and why youth become addicted.

Responses – Youth (Total participants = 51)


                    1          2                   3             4           5
               __________ __________          __________    ___________ __________

Training        No.     %      No.     %       No.    %      No.    %     No.     %


Pre              34    67.0    17     33.0
Post                                           12    23.5    34    66.7    5      9.8




Responses – Grade 9 and above (Total participants = 31)


                    1          2                   3             4           5
               __________ __________          __________    ___________ __________

Training        No.     %      No.     %       No.    %      No.    %     No.     %


Pre              22    71.0     9     29.0
Post                                           1     3.2     27    87.1    3      9.7
                                                                                         17

8. My level of knowledge about the impact of peer pressure in relationship to addiction is
sufficient.

Responses – Youth (Total participants = 51)


                     1          2                  3              4           5
                __________ __________         __________     ___________ __________

Training         No.     %      No.     %      No.     %      No.     %      No.     %


Pre              18     35.0    28     55.0     5     10.0
Post                                           19     37.0     25    49.0     7     14.0




Responses – Grade 9 and above (Total participants = 31)


                     1          2                  3              4           5
                __________ __________         __________     ___________ __________

Training         No.     %      No.     %      No.     %      No.     %      No.     %


Pre              22     71.0     9     29.0
Post                                            1      3.2     27    87.1     3      9.7
                                                                                         18

9. My current knowledge about addiction and appropriate interventions and referrals is
sufficient.

Responses – Youth (Total participants = 51)


                    1          2                   3             4           5
               __________ __________          __________    ___________ __________

Training         No.     %     No.      %      No.    %      No.     %      No.     %


Pre              28     55.0    20    39.0     3      6.0
Post                            1      2.0     29    57.0     18    35.0     3      6.0




Responses – Grade 9 and above (Total participants = 31)


                    1          2                   3             4           5
               __________ __________          __________    ___________ __________

Training         No.     %     No.      %      No.    %      No.     %      No.     %


Pre               1     3.2     5     16.1     21    67.7     4     12.9
Post                                           1      3.2     6     19.4    24     77.4
                                                                                        19

10. My current level of knowledge about "the skill of listening" is high.

Responses – Youth (Total participants = 51)


                     1          2                   3              4           5
                __________ __________          __________     ___________ __________

Training         No.     %      No.      %      No.     %      No.     %     No.    %


Pre               20    39.0     28     55.0     3      6.0
Post                             4      8.0     30     59.0     16    31.0   1     2.0




Responses – Grade 9 and above (Total participants = 31)


                     1          2                   3              4           5
                __________ __________          __________     ___________ __________

Training         No.     %      No.      %      No.     %      No.     %     No.    %


Pre               7     22.6     3      9.7     14     45.2     7     22.6
Post                                                            5     16.0   26    84.0
                                                                                        20

                                  Overview of Findings

Focus Group Responses and Journal Entries

The responses from the youth are evidence that there is a need for this type of

intervention. The group work helped youth to relate to other youth and make new

friendships as well. The responses below are from the focus groups.

Grades 6 to 8 (only)

What are the main goals of the youth addictions educational course?

       1. To keep youth aware of drug addictions and help them realize how bad drugs

can screw up your life.

       2. To keep youth aware of drug addictions and to help youth realize how horrible

and horrifying drugs and alcohol are.

       3. To teach youth about addictions, let them know why people do it and how to

recognize and deal with it.

       4. To teach youth about addictions.

       5. Let them know why people do it and how to recognize and deal with it (a) to

learn about addictions and their effects and (b) to learn to stay away from drugs.

       6. To raise awareness of drug use and addiction and to help us understand what

will happen if we decide to use drugs or alcohol.

       7. To raise awareness for youth and to help prevent further drug addiction.

       8. To raise awareness for youth.

       9. To recognize symptoms/signs of a potential addict. Focus on ways to get them

help. To be a friend of someone in crisis-no labeling.
                                                                                            21

What are the outcomes of the course (i.e. what did you learn)?

       1. Improved knowledge of drug lifestyle in different parts of the country.

       2. It improved our knowledge of what we already learned.

       3. I learned about youth addiction, why youth do drugs, how to recognize and help

youth who are addicted. They also show what happens a few years down the road.

       4. I learned about youth addictions, why youth do drugs, how to recognize and

help youth who are addicted. They also show what happens a few years down the road.

       5. I learned about dealing with these problems and how doing drugs puts your life

to an end.

       6. It is a really long process to get off of drugs or alcohol and you could go back to

the root of your problem.

       7. I learned to stay away from drugs.

       8. I learned that it is harder than you think to quit.

       9. To be aware of the underlying issues causing drug use.

       10. To be aware of depression and the signs. That drugs cover up the problem.

       11. Teens like to experiment.

What did you l like best about the course?

       1. I liked that I could just sit back and take in the information in a relaxed setting.

       2. I like how we got to work in groups instead of sitting and listening to you talk

the whole time.

       3. Enjoyed the whole course.

       4. That there was a lot of group work at the end of something. We all talked about

it and we got to know everyone.
                                                                                            22

The video - Flipping the World-Through a Blue Lens.

         1. I felt the group discussions among the teens very enlightening. The video was

very forceful; the fact that it involved real life situations and not just actors made it more

real to the youth.

         2. It included teens that are at the forefront of this discussion.

         3. Hearing their side of the story and their concerns.

         4. Real-life addict movie--seeing is believing.

Comments

         I thought it was really fun and you were a really good teacher. You made it fun.

         I learned that when you get too far in, you couldn’t get back out. You could end

up on the street. You would be ruining your life and the lives of everyone around you.

         I learned that drugs and alcohol could ruin your life.

         Never do drugs!

         Don’t keep stuff bottled up; talk about it

         Look for signs.

         People do drugs to fit in.

         They experiment with drugs to cope with feelings and because they are curious.

         It was surprising to see that people actually have to live like that every day due to

drugs.

         It was sad and depressing.

         It was good to see that Randy got better.

         It was really sad and humiliating about Randy.

         It was a wake-up call to what was out there.
                                                                                        23

       It is shocking to know that people can hide it and shocking to see how hard it is to

get off the drugs.

       I never realized how addictive drugs are.

       It’s really good that some people got off the drugs.

       People think they can do it just once and stop but that’s what addicts thought too!

       Makes you look bad in the end (skin, hair, etc.).

       There are better ways to spend your money.

       You will lose everything if you get addicted.

       You don’t need drugs to feel good about yourself or to fit in.

       Drugs only hurt you.

       Don’t try drugs--not once-not ever!

       Abstinence is the best choice.

Research Questions

       1. Did the program improve addiction knowledge of participants?

       2. Which areas of education are needed the most?

       3. How has the study improved the problem area?

Snowball Effect

       During the course, we recruited a reformer drug addict by the name of Steve. He

read about the course in the Daily Gleaner and called and wanted to help. Steve was 25 at

the time of this study. A session was set up where Steve actually came and talked to

students about his personal experience, and we asked for permission to tape him on DVD.

Steve’s story was powerful because it was personal.

       We decided to develop and implement a health and addictions survey. It is obvious
                                                                                          24

that addiction and poor health choices go hand in hand. Steve, as a youth addicted to

drugs, helped develop the survey based on his personal story in school and his recovery.

Positive Heart Living Inc. selected questions from a heart health survey which had been

completed in previous years and combined the two areas. Staff Sgt. Brian Ford reviewed

and approved the survey.

       The trained youth facilitators assisted in gathering a total of 131 surveys. The

results of the health and addiction survey will go the police. Based on the findings, the use

of this study will be for internal use only, further research purposes, and not be published

as part of this pilot study. This survey was not our main goal; however, it did allow us to

look at the specific issue of addiction and the widespread problem of drugs and alcohol.

Conclusions

       The research showed that the program did improve addiction knowledge of the

participants.

       It appears that youth have limited knowledge about how to intervene if a friend has

a problem with drugs or alcohol. A detailed list of all programs and treatment facilities has

been collected and will be e-mailed to future participants of the program. Further

education in this area is needed.

       The youth did not understand the law regarding marijuana. Adam Stickles from

Public Safety wrote the law out, and this will be included in future courses on an

overhead.

       Students were from different schools, but the comment that drugs are being “sold

on the bus” by Grade 6 students was a concern and shows the magnitude of this increasing

cancer in schools. Students continually related that there are drugs on the school yard, and
                                                                                           25

almost every participant knew someone who was either drinking or doing drugs.

        The study has improved the knowledge level about addictions but, on a small

scale, compared to the magnitude of the problem. Students need increased intervention

and education about the pitfalls and problem pertaining to addiction. The statement made

by one of the students could be a slogan for a campaign, Don’t try drugs--not once-not

ever!

        Further expansion of the course and some modification to the grammar on the

pretest and posttest quizzes for middle school students is recommended.

        Mr. Tony DeCourcey from Addiction Services, who has been involved with this

entire process, is retiring and is willing to assist with delivery and further development of

the course. There are numerous requests for expansion and comments about the course

(see Appendix C) calls for training, and the youth program to be taught in other parts of

New Brunswick have been requested. The need for a Coordinator and the establishment of

a committee to further develop this course is necessary.

A public thank you to the youths who spent countless hours volunteering in the pilot study

will be done in the near future. Having youth added energy and a fresh view of the needs

of youth in 2008.

        It is imperative that partners collaborate with addictions interventions; the problem

is on the rise in New Brunswick, and in our community. Every effort must be put forth to

prevent addiction and criminal activity. Youth are the future in the province and each one

has a unique gift. Creating a safety net through further development and expansion of the

Youth Addictions and Educational Awareness course will help in the area of prevention.
                                                                                   26

                                     Reference

Vancouver Police Odd Squad. (2000). Flipping the world [DVD]. Available from Odd
      Squad Productions Society, Box 1107-516 Abbott Street, Vancouver, British
      Columbia, V6B 6N7, Canada. Telephone 604-408-9945, E-mail:
      info@oddsquad.com
                             27




       Appendix A

Abstract of Doctoral Study
                                                                                          28

                                          Abstract

The Effects of Criminology Education and Counseling Interventions on At-Risk
Adolescents. Priest, Bonnie Mae, 2006: Applied Dissertation, Nova Southeastern
University, Fischler School of Education and Human Services. Addictions/Poverty/
Sexual Abuse/Prevention

This applied dissertation was designed to improve the knowledge levels of individuals
working with at-risk youth and their extended family members. The research addressed
the plethora of risk factors and issues facing at-risk youth. Using a collaborative and
collective approach, this study was instrumental in the development and implementation
of a Criminology and Counseling Skills course. Subjects, who participated, work in the
gap, where at-risk youth congregate and knowledge levels of interventions need to
increase as was revealed in the results of the study.

The design used for this study included both qualitative and quantitative research
methodologies. Prior to the implementation of the intervention, the knowledge levels of
the research subjects were measured through the use of a Likert-type scale questionnaire.
An identical questionnaire was used at the completion of the intervention. The analysis of
the pretest and posttest results was compared and the mean differences were calculated,
and then used to generate a paired sample t test to determine significance. The t test
calculated the probability value or p value, which for each question (p < 0.05). This
indicated that the knowledge levels improved in each area and showed remarkable
improvement and confirmed statistical significance. Reflective journal entries,
participation, and presentations through observations were documented. The qualitative
research was equally positive and reiterated a crucial need for the intervention used in this
study, specifically to professionals who work in the gaps, where at-risk youth congregate.

The findings in the study revealed that by equipping professionals involved in grassroots
initiatives, criminology, the criminal justice system, and those involved in the education
system would ensure healthier communities and provide a safety net for at-risk youth.
                                                       29




                    Appendix B

Criminology Educational and Counseling Skills Course
                                               30



CRIMINOLOGY EDUCATIONAL
                  AND
    COUNSELLING SKILLS
               COURSE




 Doctoral Study and Collaborative Initiative
         A PREVENTIVE PROGRAM FOR


   INDIVIDUALS WORKING WITH AT- RISK YOUTH




 STUDENT TRAINING
     MANUAL
                                                                                     31

                                       Table of Contents

     Table of Contents…………………………………………………………….                            Pg. 2

     Thank you –Fredericton City Police ……………………………………….                  Pg. 3

     Dr. G.E. Chalmers Letter……………………………………………………                         Pg. 4

     Abstract……………………………………………………………………….                                 Pg. 5

     Introduction/Course Designer……………………………………………….                      Pg. 7

     Doctoral Study Literature Review…Duplication-removed…

     Youth Criminal Justice Act …………………………………………………..                     Pg. 28

     Counseling at Risk Students………………………………………………..                      Pg. 34

     Young Offender Statistics and Risk Factors (NB Statistics)……………...   Pg. 42

     The New Brunswick Alternative Measures Program………………………              Pg. 50

     Addictions and Interventions…………………………………………………                      Pg. 59

     The Many Faces of Abuse ………………………………………………….                         Pg. 68

          Teaching the Oppressed – The Poverty Link
          See Power Point Section ….…… Pg. 95

    Principled Negotiations………………………………………………………..                         Pg. 75

          Self Care and Balance………………………………………………                         Pg.82
          See Power Point Section ……….. Pg. 95

     Pre and Post Testing ………………………………………………………                           Pg.83

    Characteristics of an Effective Helper………………………………………                  Pg. 90

    Charles Betts POEM………………….……………………………………..                             Pg. 96

      Shame Walks at Night………………………………………………….                            Pg. 97

      Survey Questionnaire……………………………………………………                            Pg. 98

      Reference Letters……………………………………………………….                             Pg. 102
                                                                     32




              Special Thank You

                 Fredericton City Police




               Co-sponsor
                  Of the
        Official Lead Facilitator
                   And
      Program Launch, Feb. 9, 2007

 Special Thanks for Printing Assistance
Sis. Karen Kelly Leo Hayes Safe Grad-„06
 Sir James Dunn Academy Safe Grad-„06
     Fredericton Canadian Tire Stores
Canadian Tire Stores – Moncton
    Skyline Acres Boys and Girls Club
       Moncton Boys and Girls Club
  Communities across New Brunswick
      Special thank You to PHL Inc. - Major Sponsor and Motivator.
                                                                                                  33




Positive Heart Living places an emphasis on educating people about the risk factors associated
with heart disease and how these risk factors are related to a healthy, balanced lifestyle. Positive
Heart Living is working towards reducing the risk of heart disease and promoting improved quality
of life through program development and training about positive lifestyle choices to all age levels.

Good health and education are two of the most important human resources that we can aspire to
attain. A nation of healthy, active people can make life worthwhile and happy. However, there
must be goals, objectives, and programs.

A healthy lifestyle is a commendable goal and one that each individual is responsible for. Children
and adolescents will be greatly influenced by their peers; therefore, we must work together to
make our community more positive. Community leaders and health groups are important
components of promoting improved heart health.

Recognizing problem areas in our lives and turning them around so that we can benefit from them
is a step in the right direction.

We, as individuals, are responsible for our lifestyle choices. Quite simply, it could mean parking a
car a block away from our destination when we go shopping and walking briskly there and back, or
it could mean avoiding the elevator and using the stairs. There are many areas to think about
when we think of our lifestyle, such as education, spirituality, family, finances, physical fitness,
nutrition, sexuality, mental health, legality, social skills, emotions, and vocation. A balance in all
these areas is needed.

Remember — a healthy lifestyle is a positive lifestyle. Welcome to Positive Heart Living, Inc.


   Sincerely,


                             Dr. G. Everett Chalmers, O.C., B.A., M.D.C.M., FRCS(c), FASC
                             D.Sc. (UNB).
                             Honorary Chairperson Chief Consultant P.H.L.
                             (1986 - 1993)

                                                   (Signed copy of file)




                                             THE LINK

           The risk factors for heart disease cluster in the poor - poverty is also a
                             risk factor linked to criminal activity.
                                                               34

●    WHAT IS CRIMINOLOGY?

A Body OF KNOWLEDGE REGARDING CRIME AS A SOCIAL PHENOMENON

BREAKING LAWS, MAKING LAWS AND THE REACTION OF THE BREAKING
OF LAWS

●    THE OBJECTIVES OF CRIMINOLOGY

THE DEVELOPMENT OF A BODY OF GENERAL AND VERIFIED PRINCIPLES,
AND OF OTHER TYPES OF KNOWLEDGE REGARDING THE PROCESS OF
LAW, CRIME, AND TREATMENT



●    THE FIELD OF CRIMINOLOGY

●ACADEMIC PRINCIPLES

●DEVOTED TO THE DEVELOPMENT AND VALID/RELAIABLE INFORMATION

●PRIMARILY CONCERNED WITH THE CAUSES OF CRIME AND CRIME
PATTERNS AND TRENDS



●    COUNSELLING

IN EVERY PROFESSION, JUST AS IN EVERY TRADE, THERE ARE TRULY
GIFTED PEOPLE. TITLES AND DEGREES MEAN NOTHING WHEN
COMPARED WITH GOD-GIVEN GIFTS. GOOD THERAPISTS HAVE BEEN
GIVEN THE GIFT TO HEAL
                                                                                     35

                This course is based on a Doctoral Study Completed by:


                         Dr. Bonnie Priest - Course Designer


Dr. Bonnie Priest is a native of Fredericton, NB, where she attended Albert Street School
and Fredericton High School. Bonnie trained at the old Victoria Public Hospital, where
she received certification as a Registered Cardiology Technologist. Dr. Priest has worked
in large teaching hospitals across Canada, and has attended numerous training
certifications, and developed educational programs in a variety of health care settings.
Working alongside her friend and mentor, Dr. G. E. Chalmers, she founded Positive
Heart Living Inc. in 1987. Returning to school as an adult learner, she received a 4 year
B. Ed. and a M.Ed. from the University of New Brunswick, both with distinction. A
Certificate in Criminology and Social Justice was attained from St. Thomas University,
due to her years of working with, and concern with recidivism rates of adolescent
offenders. Dr. Priest’s passion for new challenges led her into a Doctoral program, which
she has completed with Honors. An avid sports person, and working collaboratively with
like-minded people, has led to the many successes Dr. Priest has accomplished. Dr.
Priest is a member of the Canadian Counseling Association, and the Canadian Society of
Clinical Hypnosis.

                       Written by long time friend Sheila L. Cheevers
                                                                                      36

                                    Dr. Bonnie Priest


                              Preliminary Literature Review



   Removed for easier review as redundancy from the Lead Facilitators Training
    Manual.




SGT. KIM QUARTERMAIN – Fredericton City Police


Kimberly Quartermain is a native of Fredericton, N.B. and attended McMaster University
in Hamilton, Ontario where she obtained a BA. in Sociology in 1991. Kim went to the
Atlantic Police Academy in Summerside, PEI in 1994, and then spent a short time in
Charlottetown, PEI with the Charlottetown Police Force. Kim began her career with the
Fredericton Police Force in February of 1996 and has spent time in the Patrol Division,
the Community Policing Division, the Major Crime Division, and is currently a Sergeant
in charge of a patrol shift. While working in the Major Crime Division, Kim was tasked
with preparing the Fredericton Police Force for the changes that would take place with
the implementation of the Youth Criminal Justice System. Kim has since developed
programs within the Fredericton Police Force, and assisted in obtaining the funding for
the position of a Youth Intervention Worker for the Fredericton Police Force. Kim has also
instructed on the Youth Criminal Justice System at the Atlantic Police Academy, for the
RCMP, the John Howard Society, and other private institutions. Sgt. Quartermain has
been involved with the initial study, and assisted with the co-ordination of the Lead
Facilitators Course.
                                                                                       37


SGT. KIM QUARTERMAIN – Fredericton City Police
                       Youth Criminal Justice Act

The Youth Criminal Justice Act was passed by the Canadian Government on February

19, 2002 and was implemented on April 1, 2003.           The Youth Criminal Justice Act

promotes the protection of the public while maintaining children and youth as a national

priority. This legislation is in place to deal with young people who encounter the criminal

justice system. A young person is a person who is twelve years old or older, but less

than eighteen years old.


The Young Offenders Act


The Youth Criminal Justice Act replaced the Young Offenders Act, which was in place

since 1984. There are many reasons why new legislation in regards to young people

was implemented. The Young Offenders Act did not contain a Declaration of Principle

and did not have a youth justice philosophy. The Young Offenders Act did not usually

consider victims of a criminal offence during the court process, and there was an overuse

of incarceration for young people. In addition, police officers were only able to divert a

young person out of the traditional criminal justice system by utilizing one option. This

option was the Alternative Measures Program; now know as extrajudicial sanctions under

the Youth Criminal Justice Act.

The Youth Criminal Justice Act has changed the way that young people are being dealt

with by the Canadian criminal justice system. Young people get into trouble for many

reasons. Often it is because a young person lacks the skills to find employment; there is

a lack of support from the young person’s family, peer pressure, alcohol and drug abuse,

etc. In order to address the reasons why young people commit crime, it is necessary to

approach youth who are at risk in a different way.       The Youth Criminal Justice Act
                                                                                        38

encourages people involved in the criminal justice field to take a different approach to

youth crime.

Section 3 of the Youth Criminal Justice Act includes a Declaration of Principle, which

emphasizes the prevention of criminal acts through addressing a young person’s

underlying circumstances, rehabilitation and reintegration for young people back into

society after he or she has committed a criminal offence, as well as meaningful

consequences for a young person after committing a criminal offence. Emphasis is also

placed on holding the young person accountable for his or her actions while ensuring that

the punishment for the offence is proportional to the seriousness of the offence. The

reduced maturity level of a young person is also considered at all times while the young

person is involved in the criminal justice system. The Youth Criminal Justice Act provides

a number of options for police officers across Canada to utilize as consequences outside

of the traditional court process, options that are more effective and timely for holding the

young person accountable for his or her actions.


Extrajudicial Measures


Section 6 of the Youth Criminal Justice Act states that a police officer may handle

criminal offences committed by young people by utilizing measures other than court

proceedings. The options police officers have as extrajudicial measures are:

1.     Take no further action

2.     Warn the young person

3.     A caution

4.     A referral to a program or agency in the community

These measures must be appropriate, effective, and adequate to hold the young person

accountable for his or her offending behavior. When a police officer is considering which
                                                                                       39

option to utilize as an extrajudicial measure, the police officer must consider the type of

criminal offence and its severity, the criminal history of the young person, and the

willingness of the young person to repair the harm the criminal offence caused the victim.

Taking no further action is an option utilized to divert a young person out of the criminal

justice system for a minor criminal offence. The criminal matter is then concluded.

Warning the young person involves a police officer speaking to the young person in

regards to the criminal act. The warning can be done right at the time of the offence, and

the young person does not have to admit to being involved in the criminal offence. This

extrajudicial measure is also utilized for minor criminal offences. A caution is completed

by a police officer in a more formal setting, where the young person is spoken to in

regards to his or her actions. A caution can be done right at the time of the offence, and

again, the young person does not have to admit to being involved in the criminal offence.

A caution is a more formal extrajudicial measure that is utilized when taking no further

action or a warning by the police officer will not hold a young person accountable for his

or her actions.

A referral to a program or agency in the community may be done if the young person has

underlying issues that need to be addressed. These issues may be family related, a form

of substance abuse, learning disabilities, etc. These issues may be the reason why the

young person is involved in criminal activity, so the purpose of referring a young person

to a program or agency in the community is to address the causes of the criminal activity

to prevent its continuation.


Conferences


Section 19 of the Youth Criminal Justice Act has established the concept of conferences

for young people. A conference is a group of people who convene to give advice on how
                                                                                         40

to determine what consequences a young person should face after committing a criminal

offence.   Conferencing is based on a restorative approach and tries to balance the

interests of all parties who were affected by the criminal act. Conferencing provides an

opportunity to obtain a wider range of perspectives and solutions to find a creative way to

hold the young person accountable for his or her actions. A police officer, a crown

prosecutor, a probation officer, the Provincial Director of Policing Services, a justice of

the peace, or a judge may organize a conference.

Conferences may be organized to prevent a young person from entering the criminal

justice system, or a justice of the peace or a judge may organize a conference after a

young person has been found guilty of a criminal offence to assist the judge or justice of

the peace in sentencing options.

Extrajudicial Sanctions

Police officers still have the option of referring a young person to an Alternate Measures

Program. This program is called extrajudicial sanctions under the Youth Criminal Justice

Act, and it is a program sanctioned by the Attorney General of Canada. Extrajudicial

sanctions are utilized when the matter cannot be adequately dealt with by one of the less

intrusive extrajudicial measures. Extrajudicial sanctions may require the young person to

make a formal apology to his or her victim, attend counseling, perform community

service, write an essay, or pay restitution to the victim. Extrajudicial sanctions are

different from extrajudicial measures.       In order for extrajudicial sanctions to be

considered, the young person has to admit to being involved in the criminal offence, they

must consent to being involved in this program, there is enough evidence to lay a criminal

charge, the young person has been advised by his or her right to be represented by

counsel and has been given an opportunity to do so, and the charge is not statute barred.

If the young person refuses to admit to his or her participation in the criminal activity, or
                                                                                         41

wishes to go before a youth court judge, the matter does not qualify for extrajudicial

sanctions.

The YCJ Act has given police officers a large number of options to divert a young person

out of the traditional court system. The police officer must still be mindful that a young

person has the right to counsel and that the young person must be provided with the

opportunity to exercise this right. Section 25 of the Act states that young people have the

right to contact counsel upon arrest or detention, before making a voluntary statement,

and before consenting to an extrajudicial sanction.

The Youth Criminal Justice Act also provided requirements for a parent or guardian to be

notified when a young person is arrested or detained. A young person also has the right

to have a parent or guardian present during a voluntary statement and during the

completion of an extrajudicial sanction.


Conclusion


The Youth Criminal Justice Act has been present in Canada for four years. It is difficult to

determine if the Youth Criminal Justice Act is being effective, but on a national level, the

use of custody has been reduced. It is clear that criminal matters involving young people

are being diverted out of the traditional criminal justice process by utilizing either an

extrajudicial measure or an extrajudicial sanction.

The Youth Criminal Justice Act is legislation that requires police officers and

professionals in the criminal justice field to consider options that are poles apart from the

traditional approach to crime. It allows police officers to approach youth crime differently

and attempt to prevent youth from re offending by addressing underlying issues that may

cause the young person to commit criminal acts. Taking this pro-active approach to

preventing criminal acts that are committed by young people instead of the traditional
                                                                                  42

reactive approach is a much more effective way to deal with Canadian youth who are in

conflict with the criminal justice system.
                                                                                          43

       Mr. Gary Smith

                              Counseling At-Risk students

Gary Smith is currently a school counselor for the Weber School District in Ogden, Utah,
USA. Gary has been in education for 28 years serving the first 17 years as a custodian
serving grades 7 – 9 in a junior high setting. Gary began working with At-Risk student
that did not have a desire to go to class or learning was difficult and the students had
problem behaviors. Gary appreciated the opportunity to help in a non-threatening way to
help students succeed. Gary received his BS degree in Gerontology with a counseling
emphasis from Weber State University 1985. Gary continued his education and received
a MA.Ed. in educational counseling from University of Phoenix in 1998. Gary has been a
leader in elementary counseling in Utah and has received the praise of his fellow
counselors and administrators’ receiving the award of Elementary Counselor of the Year
for Utah in 2006. Gary is finishing his doctorate from Nova Southeastern University.
Gary has accomplished many things in his life despite the counsel given him by his high
school counselor, ―Find a job you enjoy and do not plan on going to college because it
will be too difficult.‖ Gary serves on the NAMI board in his local area teaching classes on
mental illness awareness. Gary has volunteered at the Kiesel Correctional facility in
Ogden, Utah helping inmates make better choices in their lives to remove the At-Risk
characteristics.

 Our attitude is a huge power for relief from At-Risk characteristics in every person’s life.


Mr. Gary Smith

Counseling At-Risk students

       There are many ways of describing ―At-Risk‖ relevant to counseling. To facilitate

the context of ―At-Risk‖ for this paper it will be addressed as any condition that allows a

student to be in danger of having a negative incident happen in the future. While there

are not one or two things that work with every client, some things work well. Getting to

know the student and work up a case with At-Risk factors, assessments and history is the

best way to help and assist clients and students to develop their best characteristics.

Work from strengths and building confidence in ―self‖ usually takes care of the deficits. If

one always does what they always do, they will always get what they have always gotten.

If the strategy is working then keep repeating the same behaviors or skills and it will

continue to work. When it is not working one, must change and do something different to

receive different results. Repeating something that did not work and expecting different
                                                                                      44

results is a major problem in most people. Students may be At-Risk with academics as

well as socially. This can be from choices or from environmental factors such as, family

problems, drug problems of a personal nature or those one associates with, anger and

resentment, mental illness, or criminal involvement.      All youth have the potential to

develop risk-taking behaviors for a number of reasons.

                                    At-Risk Factors

      Individual factors:
       - Physiological factors
       - Early and persistent conduct problems in a variety of settings
       - Alienation by others and rebellious behaviors
       - Early onset of drug use or crime involvement

      Family factors:
       - Poor or inconsistent management practices
       - Substance abuse behaviors by family members
       - Parental criminal history
       - Low or no bonding with family members
       - Amount of time without adult supervision

      Peer and social interactions:
       - Peer rejection in elementary school
       - Peer bullying or harassment
       - Gang involvement

      School experiences:
       - Early academic failure
       - Low personal commitment to school
       - Low expectations from school staff
       - Lack of involvement with significant adult role models

      Community factors:
       - Ignoring laws and norms in society
       - Availability of substances in the neighborhood
       - Extreme deprivation in the neighborhood
       - Lack of organization in the neighborhood


Some main characteristics of At-Risk youth

      Impulsivity
      Anger
      Sadness
      Disregard for the sanctity of life
      Do not desire help or interventions
                                                                                           45

      Lack of social skills
      Overly concerned with peer acceptance or approval
      Easily bored in a variety of situations
      Involved in observing or participation in criminal behaviors
      Personal experience with harassment due to cultural identification
      Feelings of disappointment from peers or family


Mental Illness is another category putting many youth and adults At-Risk today in all parts

of the world. In a report of the status of mental illness in the United States, National

Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) reports that:

              Mental illnesses can affect persons of any age, race, religion, or income.
Mental illnesses are not the result of personal weakness, lack of character, or poor
upbringing.
              Mental illnesses are biologically based brain disorders. They cannot be
overcome through "will power" and are not related to a person's "character" or
intelligence.
              Mental disorders fall along a continuum of severity. The most serious and
disabling conditions affect five to ten million adults (2.6 – 5.4%) and three to five million
children ages five to seventeen (5 – 9%) in the United States.
              Mental illnesses strike individuals in the prime of their lives, often during
adolescence and young adulthood. All ages are susceptible, but the young and the old
are especially vulnerable.
              Early identification and treatment is of vital importance; by getting people,
the treatment they need early, recovery is accelerated and the brain is protected from
further harm related to the course of illness (NAMI, 2006).

Mental illness should not be an embarrassing situation and seeking help is the best thing

to do. Those that live in denial and think they will outgrow it are the ones that have

extensive problems for months and years until it gets so bad they must seek help either

in hospitalization or court mandated treatment. People need to understand the mental

illness is treatable and many notable people with mental illness are very successful and

live quite normal lives within the bounds of the mental illness and continued professional

help. When a person is suffering from a mental illness, it requires extensive work with

assessments and counseling to determine the best practices for each case. With the

significant improvements in diagnosis, counselors are able to offer better help in a shorter

time. More people are finding relief and help through NAMI and the information offered in
                                                                                        46

partnership with the medical community. Every counselor should take advantage of the

free instruction offered by NAMI to professionals in understanding mental illness and its

affects in the lives of At-Risk youth, adolescents, and adults.

In a report entitled, ―What Kids Need to Succeed‖ Peter Benson (Benson, 1998)

conducted one of the largest studies of children across the United States in over 600

communities’ large and small, rural, large and small cities from two parent, single parent,

and adoptive families, in poverty, middle class, and affluent classes. The research based

on surveys given to evaluate the number of Developmental Assets possessed by each

child between the ages of 11 and 19. The surveys resulted in some very good research

into the success or failure of youth. Benson reports, ―Young people who have mire assets

are much less likely to get involved in problem behaviors.‖ Some examples form the

study show the positive support for higher Developmental Assets as shown in table 1.

With the increasing number of At-Risk students in our schools, our challenge is to re-think

school discipline. To do this it requires more commitment on the part of all those involved

in giving direction and guidance to youth to give them positive behavior supports to help

change their actions for the future.    The University of Oregon has been a leader in

Positive Behavior Supports for the last six to ten years. The school counselor is a key

part of intervention in behavior modification and helping to change problem behaviors.

Punishing problem behaviors is associated with increases in (a) aggression, (b)

vandalism, (c) truancy, and (d) dropping out (Mayer, 1995). The concept of Positive

Behavior Interventions depicts the students in a school in a pyramid (Lewis, 1998), as

shown in table 2. Most students in a school will not require more individualized instruction

to succeed with learning. Some of the students will need individualized instruction and

small group instruction to be successful.      In the worst cases, it will require intense
                                                                                       47

interventions and usually form a wrap around approach to help assist the student to make

better choices and control their destiny.



Each counselor has their style and knows what works. However, there is no counselor or

professional with all the answers or will be successful with every client. It is therefore

imperative a professional adopt a variety of skills and know when it is the appropriate

time to refer a client to achieve the growth and development of skills and attitudes to

reclaim a person At-Risk. The reclamation of our At-Risk population is so important in

the management of our responsibilities.       The At-Risk factors are only identifiable

indicators and not every At-Risk youth will be influenced by many of the indicators

however, if the youth exhibit only a few they are still considered At-Risk. It may take

more time to find out the causes of behavior, but it will always be worth the time invested

if we reclaim only a one or many. Each person reclaimed strengthens our resolve to

never give up and let the At-Risk population remain at risk.




Table 1

Number of Developmental Assets relating to At-Risk behavior

Problem                       Number of assets                 Percentage of youth

Illicit drug use                0-10                           53%

                              31-40                            3%

Violence                      0-10                             61%

                              31-40                            6%

School problems               0-10                             43%
                                     48

                       31-40   2%

Succeeds in school     0-10    7%

                       31-40   53%

Depression/Suicide     0-10    40%

                       31-40   4%

Resists danger         0-10    6%

                       31-40   43%

Delays gratification   0-10    27%

                       31-40   72%
                                                                                 49

Table 2

School Population Ratios Responding to Positive Behavior Support




Primary: 85 – 90% of the all students respond to the Universal system supports
with academics and behavior.

Secondary: 7 – 10 % considered At-Risk and need intensive social skills teaching,
self-management skills in a small group or classroom setting as an alternative to
out of school suspension.

Tertiary: 3 – 5 % of all students will require intensive academic support and adult
mentors. Teacher and parent collaboration is very critical during this time.
Parenting training is valuable to teach parents better ways to handle difficult
situations. Usually involves multi-agency support and wrap around services.
                                                                                         50

                                       References

Benson, P. L. Ph.D., Espeland, P. (1998). What Kids Need to Succeed. Minneapolis:
      Freespirit.

Lewis, T. J., Sugai, G., & Colvin, G. (1998). Reducing problem behavior through a
       school-wide social skills training program and contextual interventions. School
       Psychology Review, 27, 446-459.

Mayer, G. R. (1995). Preventing antisocial behavior in the schools. Journal of Applied
       Analysis, 28, 467-478.

National Alliance on Mental Illness, (2006, October 5). Retrieved October
       5, 2006, from http://www.nami.org/.
                                                                                         51




                                    Mr. Shaun Benson

             Young Offender Statistics and Risk Factors (NB Statistics)

Shaun Benson started his career in Corrections in 1994 as a Correctional Officer at the
Saint John Regional Correctional Center. After a period of time working with adult
offenders, he accepted a position working in a newly opened maximum security young
offenders unit. There, he worked closely with the Young Offenders under his care and
their families. In 1998, he continued in his chosen field as a Correctional Officer with
Correctional Services Canada at the Maximum Security Atlantic Institution in Renous,
N.B. During his employ there, he ascended the ranks to become a Correctional
Supervisor, who is responsible for the operation of the entire Institution, in the absence of
the Warden. Since attaining the position of Correctional Supervisor, he has worked for a
period of one year at the Minimum Security Westmorland Institution, where the effects of
rehabilitation are much more visible. Currently, he works at Dorchester Penitentiary,
which has a population of approximately 450 inmates.

Shaun has had the opportunity to work in all aspects of the Correctional system and has,
unfortunately, seen many of the Young Offenders whom he initially supervised, become
grown men and career criminals who have progressed into the Federal system. He is
aware of many of the risk factors which affect our youth, and is passionate about
providing the help and resources necessary to not only help young offenders to stop their
criminal behavior, but to attempt to prevent some of the factors which cause youth crime
to initially arise.
                                                                                        52

Mr. Shaun Benson

Young Offender Statistics and Risk Factors (NB Statistics)

      Average age of Young Offender under supervision – 16.5 years

      Number on Probation – 500

      Number on Community Supervision from custody – 70

      Number of Youth on Intensive Support Program – 35

      Number in Secure Custody – 40 (sentenced and remanded)

      In Open Custody – 15-20

      Average Length of Stay (secure custody) – 60-90 days

      Sentencing averages (open and secure custody)

1.     breach of probation – failure to comply – 26%

2.     break and enter – possession – 22%

3.     common assault – 13%

4.     assaulting police officer – 4%

5.     assault with weapon – 4%

6.     trafficking – 4%

Rate of custodial sentences in New Brunswick is 12/10,000 youth.

-2004-2005 statistics


Risk Factors

Much research has been done in Canada and elsewhere to determine predictors of

offending by young people. Many factors which correlate strongly with youth offending


have been identified. We find it helpful to group these factors into societal, family, and

individual markers.
                                                                                           53

Societal factors are those life conditions over which the young person and his or her

family may have little or no control. Their roots are in changes in and persistent features

of our social structure and institutions. Those which are prevalent for adolescent

offenders include poverty and unemployment, substandard housing and urban decay,

high urban mobility, racism, and lack of resources in the community.


Family factors include sexual and or physical abuse of children, witnessing of violence,

usually against the young person's mother, lack of or inadequate supervision by parents,

excessively harsh discipline, spousal conflict, father's absence, parental alcohol or

substance abuse, and parental and sibling psychiatric problems. Individual factors

include poor school performance and learning disabilities, school attendance problems

and drop-out, behavior problems and troublesomeness, low self-esteem, anti-social

attitudes, rejection by peers and/or association with a delinquent peer group, alcohol or

substance abuse, and psychiatric problems. Dr. Gus Thompson of Alberta Mental Health

Services has further found that child welfare status, in itself, constitutes an individual risk

factor for later criminality. Another key factor, which has not received enough attention in

the literature, is gender. The vast majority of young offenders are male, up to 90% in

some jurisdictions. Given that most experience neglectful, abusive or no parenting from a

father figure, many researchers have stated the need for more research into the role of

gender and, in particular, fathers in the etiology of youth criminality.


All of these influences work to reinforce one another. It is obvious that the family is key to

preventing or encouraging the development of the child's individual anti-social responses

especially when these manifest in early childhood. Leading writers in the area of family

policy for crime prevention theorize that families who are dealing with excessive stresses

of poverty, racism, and poor or disadvantaged communities often experience impairment
                                                                                       54

in their parenting capacity and/or skills. This will be exacerbated by lack of support from

extended family or community and will in more serious cases result, or be correlated with,

family violence, alcohol and substance abuse, and psychiatric problems.


The research conducted over the past number of years related to the prevention of

juvenile crime, alcohol and drug abuse and how best to intervene to predict and

ameliorate the life choices of many young and vulnerable members of the population, has

concluded that the prevention of behavior problems can be achieved provided that the

risk factors that are most strongly related to crime in later life can be identified with a

degree of certainty.


Moving from "Risk" to "Resiliency"


While there has been a fair amount of work done on identifying risk factors that, if

present, may increase the likelihood of a young person's involvement in crime or other

negative behavior problems, there has also been some work done on the development of

programs that build on the enhancement of protective factors which may reduce the

effects of exposure to risk factors and thus lower the chances a youth will develop

serious anti-social or other behavior problems or become a victim..


Protective factors may also be broadly grouped into three categories:


(1) Individual characteristics (i.e. high IQ, high level of

   resilience and flexibility and a positive social attitude);


(2) Social bonds (notably warm, supportive and affective

   relationships with parents and other adults); and
                                                                                           55

(3) Social support including positive social skills and socially

   acceptable pattern of behavioral norms.


The National Crime Prevention Council further articulated such protection factors as

including but not limited to:


* possession of problem-solving, life and communication skills

* sociability

* resilient personality or temperament

* a sense of belonging

* secure attachments to positive parent(s) or family

* positive relations with "pro social" peers

* access to other caring and supportive adults

* appropriate discipline, limit-setting and structure from parents

* opportunities to experience success and build self esteem.

 In the context of transitions from adolescence to healthy adulthood, it is important to

consider the notion of "resilience" as defined by the National Crime Prevention Council

(1997) as a young person's ability to cope in the presence of major stress or risk factors.

They go on to suggest that resilience is a source of strength in young people created or

nurtured by caring and effective parents or other adult caregivers, positive learning

environments in schools and access to community resources.
                                                                                        56

How Do We Match Risks with Needs of Young Offenders?


Instruments have been developed by a group of Canadian researchers to assess the risk

of re-offending based on ratings of a number of criminogenic factors:


* age of first offence

* number of prior convictions

* poor school performance

* anti-social peer group

* substance abuse

* parenting practices and other such variables


From these assessed risks, the young person can be assigned to different levels of

intensity of community supervision or custody.


The criminogenic factors identified are either static meaning that they are unchangeable

such as the number of prior convictions or dynamic meaning that they can vary from

person to person such as the involvement with drugs or substance abuse. It is the

dynamic factors which form the needs for these assessment tools. By targeting specific

factors or needs that are related to offending behavior, rehabilitative interventions can be

identified for each case (i.e. substance abuse counseling, parent counseling, intensive

school program etc.). Assuming such programs are available and implemented the risk of

re-offending can be reduced.


Effectiveness of Rehabilitation Measures


Research on recidivism has found that the first several months after release from custody

is the period in which there is the highest amount of recidivism and if programs can be
                                                                                         57

designed to promote successful community re-entry with follow-up in a transitional

community based program, there is substantial increases realized in reducing recidivism

and enhancing success.


We should be careful not to suggest that a program has not been successful if a young

person re-offends. While rehabilitative programs are designed with a goal of reducing

recidivism, it is essential that other forms of program success are included in the mix and

not totally rely on measures of recidivism to determine success. For most young people,

the offending behavior is part of growing up, of testing the limits, of taking risks, of

asserting their independence. It may also be an indication of boredom and the absence

of anything useful or meaningful to do. It may be a reflection of that awkward stage of life

where one feels grown up but not able to participate fully in the world of adults.

Generally, the offenses that they commit are relatively minor and decrease in frequency

as they grow older, mature and find a way to participate in and contribute to society.


We can reduce occasional or temporary offending by young people by helping them deal

with the stress associated with the turbulence of adolescence and finding ways of

involving young people in useful and meaningful activities. Educational and recreational

activities to which all have equal access and which are designed on the basis of the

varied needs and interests of young people are important. Access to social services can

help some young people and their families deal with problems which may underlie the

offending behavior. Given what we know about the correlation between poverty, mental

health and opportunities, the economic security of young people and their families should

also be a priority. These measures are all primary prevention strategies - ways of

creating healthier and ultimately safer communities for all Canadians.
                                                                                    58

Research shows that involving low-risk, low-need youths in correctional programs may

actually increase their chances of re-offending. Our best preventive strategy may be to

restrain the use of the youth justice system, to do less criminal justice processing not

more, and to let parents and community resources outside of the justice system deal with

the young person.


We know that a small group of young offenders persist in their criminal behavior into

adulthood. Research suggests that early intervention targeted at socially and

economically disadvantaged youth can reduce the likelihood of long-term criminal

activity.
                                                                                     59

                                 MR. ADAM STICKLES


Adam Stickles is a native of Fredericton, NB. Adam’s goal of achieving work in policing
was enhanced by his involvement, with the Fredericton City Police, where he volunteered
in the victim witness unit from 1999 to 2001. During this time Adam attended St. Thomas
University, where he graduated with a BA in 1999, with Majors in Criminology and
Sociology. Adam gained a vast amount of experience with at risk youth from 1999 until
2002, as he was also employed as a Youth Correctional Officer at NBYC. Adam is the
Coordinator for the Alternative Measures and Fine Option Programs in the Dept., of
Public Safety, with the Province of NB., where he has worked from 2002 to the present.
During this time his duties also included working in the Probation office. Adam Stickles
has been involved with this study since the beginning. Adam’s credibility and expertise
have been well received.




ADAM STICKLES

THE NEW BRUNSWICK ALTERNATIVE MEASURES PROGRAM


The Alternative Measures Program deals with the crime, the victim and the offender

outside the court system. Offenders referred to the program are given a chance to make

amends to the community and will face consequences for their actions.

LEGISLATIVE MANDATE FOR ALTERNATIVE MEASURES

The Youth Criminal Justice Act enacted in 2002, has greatly changed the way in which

we deal with young people encountering the law. The YCJA replaced the YOA or Young

Offenders Act and deal with youth 12 to 17 years of age.

Extrajudicial sanctions, known as Alternative Measures under the YOA, is a type of

extrajudicial measures that is intended for more serious offences and offenders than

would be dealt with by warnings, cautions, and referrals. In comparison to other types of

extrajudicial measures, a more formal set of rules applies to extrajudicial sanctions.

Extrajudicial sanctions may be used if

      Other extrajudicial measures would not be adequate.
                                                                                          60

Section 10 of the Youth Criminal Justice Act provides that an extrajudicial sanction may

be used if the young person cannot be adequately dealt with by another type of

extrajudicial measure (i.e.) an informal warning, a police caution, crown caution or referral

to a community program.

      Program in jurisdiction.

An extrajudicial sanction may be used only if it is part of a program authorized by the

government jurisdiction.

      Appropriateness.

The officer considering using the sanction must believe that it would be appropriate,

given the needs of the young person and the interests of society.

      Informed consent.

The young person must have been informed of the sanction, have been advised of his or

her right to counsel, have been given an opportunity to consult with counsel, and then

have consented to its use.

      Acceptance of responsibility

The young person must have accepted responsibility for the act or omission that forms

the basis of the offence. An extrajudicial sanction cannot be used if the young person

denies the offence or wishes to have the charge dealt with by the youth court.

      Sufficient evidence to proceed.

The Crown must believe that there is sufficient evidence to proceed with a charge and

the prosecution must not be barred.

EXAMPLES OF TERMS USED AND ASSOCIATED WITH ALTERNATIVE MEASURES

The New Brunswick Alternative Measures Program is one way in which to describe the

out of court proceedings related to criminal offences for Youth or Adults. Other terms

sometimes used can be:
                                                                                      61

      Restorative Justice

      Sentencing Circles

      Healing Circles

      Community Justice Forums

      Extrajudicial Sanctions



RESTORATIVE JUSTICE

The terms above are other ways in which to describe out of court proceedings. RJ

framework or Restorative Justice is probably the most heard of and relies on situations in

which the victim in each event is present at the time of the meeting. These meetings, not

unlike Alternative Measures session, include a coordinator as well as individuals from the

community who have worked together to come up with conditions for the adult or young

person to complete. These conditions will address the needs of the young person and

attempt to get to the root causes of the problem. The types of conditions typically used

are:

1.     Keep the peace and be of good behavior.

2.     An apology – personal or in a letter.

3.     Community Service Work within the community or directly to the victim.

4.     Donations to charitable organizations.

5.     Referrals to Addiction Services.

6.     Referrals to Mental Health.

7.     Essays.

8.     Restricted contacts.

9.     Curfew’s

10.     Attendance at school.
                                                                                       62

11.     Restitution for damages caused to the victim’s property or other.

These conditions and many other possibilities are used to develop a customized contract

that addresses the root cause of the offence.




SENTENCING CIRCLES / HEALING CIRCLES

The following are terms used in dealing with First Nation Community issues surrounding

around criminal offences and injustices. They are once again options other than court

proceedings for First Nation persons encountering the law.

COMMUNITY JUSTICE FORUMS

This is a term closely related to Alternative Measures; it focuses on community reparation

and encourages victim involvement whenever possible. The program is often started

with involvement from local policing agencies or community organizations with great

interest in community justice.

EXTRAJUDICIAL SANCTIONS

A term meaning Youth Specific Offences dealt with through Alternative Measures type

programs, a term born out of the YCJA.



Extrajudicial measures are often used first before sanctions are put in place. These

warnings and cautions are referred to as extrajudicial measures.
                                                                                           63

HOW ALTERNATIVE MEASURES AND REFERRALS ARE RECEIVED

      The police investigate an incident and if there is sufficient evidence to proceed

with a charge, a recommendation is made by the investigating officer to proceed by way

of the Alternative Measures or court.

      The Attorney General designate reviews the file and if eligibility criteria are met,

the case is sent to the Alternative Measures Coordinator for review. In cases of Youth

matters with exceptional circumstances, the Crown Prosecutor may also be asked to

review the case prior to approval for Alternative Measures.

      If the case is not eligible, the Attorney General designate will refer the case to the

Crown Prosecutor for court processing.

      Once the Alternative Measures Coordinator receives and reviews the file it is

entered into CIS or the Client Information System. This system is designed to share

information on clients between community and custody settings for youth or adults

encountering the law.

      If the accused disagrees or does not accept responsibility for the offence the case

is forwarded back to the police for court processing. If the accused agrees to participate

in the program, the accused is contacted and the Alternative Measures program is

explained.

      Victim participation is voluntary and the program will proceed notwithstanding the

victim’s involvement.

      Once the accused has agreed to participate in the program, the coordinator

contacts the Alternative Measures Committee, a community based group of trained

individuals invited to sit in on the Alternative Measure session.       The committee will

discuss the case with the accused and the victim and appropriate measures will be
                                                                                        64

determined. An agreement will be signed by the accused and it will be administered by

the Alternative Measures coordinator.

THE ALTERNATIVE MEASURES PROGRAM AND VICTIM INVOLVEMENT

Victims play a big role in the Alternative Measures Program. All victims are contacted

through the program and when appropriate are invited to participate in the meeting.

Should the victim not want to participate in the meeting, they may be asked to write a

letter indicating their feelings towards the offence for the coordinator to read during the

meeting. Another instance of victim involvement may include a phone call advising the

direction of the file and asking for input into conditions for the young person.



BENEFITS TO YOUTH ALTERNATIVE MEASURES

1.     Referrals typically are done in a timely fashion, bringing the youth before a

committee quickly to address the problems he or she may be facing.



2.     The young person is required to explain his or her offence or offences before

family and committee. This is often felt more difficult than simply standing before a judge

and receiving sentence.



3.     This allows the committee to ask the questions surrounding the cause of this

incident and what it will take for the incident to not happen again.



4.     This allows the victims to have a real say and contribute to conditions.



5.     This process gives citizens in our communities the chance to feel as

     though they are contributing and making an impact in their communities.
                                                                                           65



6.     Students from colleges and Universities receive valuable experience in the field of

criminal justice through being a community member.




FINE OPTION PROGRAM

The Fine Option Program is a voluntary program providing alternatives to incarceration

for non payment of fines. This program provides an opportunity for fined individuals to

work their fines off through community service work in the community.



AUTHORITY

Section 736 (1) of the Criminal Code of Canada is where the program finds it authority for

adults. It is under Section 54 (2) of the Youth Criminal Justice Act for youth.

Provincial Offences Act or POPA offences are found under Section 85 (1) for adults and

Section 6 (1) under the Young Person’s Act.

Individuals interested in participating in the Fine Option Program can be directed to their

local probation office to sign up. Eligibility criteria must be met prior to signing up.

1.     A warrant must not have been issued.

2.     Victim Fine Surcharge must be paid for adults.

3.     Individuals must demonstrate inability to pay fine.

4.     Offence must be approved.

5.     The offence must not exceed $5000.
                                                                                   66

                                SCENARIO SECTION

Thirteen year old Jessie attends middle school in the Fredericton area. Jessie
was recently involved in an assault on 14 year old Thomas. The assault occurred
on the play ground and left Thomas with a broken nose. Jessie has been in
trouble with the school since the beginning of the school year. None of these
previous issues involved incidents of assaultive behavior. The police were called
to the school and the matter was investigated. Jessie has been suspended for 2
weeks, one week of out of school suspension and the second week was in
school. Jessie and his parents have also been advised that any other incident will
result in Jessie being suspended for the remainder of the school year. Thomas’
parents have been made aware of the situation and wish Jessie charged through
the court system for this offence. This is Jessie’s first offence as a young person
and the school has a zero tolerance for assaults committed in or around the
school ground. What should happen with Jessie’s file?


Each of the statements below should be added one at a time once the group has
had a chance to discuss the scenario for a while. The idea is to complicate this
situation with real possibilities demonstrating the difficulties in setting appropriate
conditions for contracts.


1.     Jessie comes from a low socio-economic background and has been teased
by Thomas since the start of the school year.
2.     Jessie has seen his alcoholic father abuse his mother for the past two
years.
3.     Two years ago Jessie was diagnosed with a mild form of autism combined
with a bi-polar disorder. He takes medication which has recently been changed
and increased.
4.     Soon after Jessie’s diagnosis two years ago, he received a teaching
assistant through the school system. That assistant was removed due to funding
problems one week prior to this incident.


Talk about this scenario and come up with a viable contract that is customized to
fit the needs of Jessie. Keep in mind you will need the approval of the victim and
his parents.
                                                                                     67




                 Tony Decourcey – Addictions Services Presenter.

J. Anthony (Tony) DeCourcey is a Registered Social Worker, and an active and well
known member of Fredericton. Tony graduated from Mount Royal University in 1973 with
a - Leisure Ed. degree. Tony worked as Camp Director for Alberta Rehab Council from
1973 until 1975.

Tony DeCourcey started with the Alcoholism & Drug Dependency Commission in 1975
where he continues to be employed. Tony is an active Board Member of TADD NB. Tony
developed the Short High Impact Program for Impaired Drivers, and is a certified trainer
in the TIPS program. He also facilitated Train the Trainer in Youth and Drugs, and
currently does Gambling Training for Addiction Services. Tony is a dedicated husband
and proud father of three children.
                                                                                       68

Tony DeCourcey. ADDICTIONS AND INTERVENTIONS

Differences Between Adult and Adolescent Alcohol/Drug Abuse

A.     Adolescents are at a much crucial time developmentally than adults are;
therefore, the impact upon them is much more developmentally devastating.

B.      The duration of a severe problem among adolescents at the time of diagnosis is
usually less than 18 months.

C.    Adolescents do not generally have a loyalty to one particular drug, unlike adults.
Many adolescents are polydrug users and will use any drug that is available.

D.     Chemical use is rarely ―social‖ among adolescents. ―Partying‖ is going to a place
where a group of people individually sedate themselves into oblivion! There is really
nothing social about it.

E.      Consequences of drug use are somewhat different for adolescents. Also they do
not have a long history of use, subsequently, there may not have been as many losses
resulting in greater denial of both the adolescent and their family.

F.     Adolescents have many more enablers than adults; consequently, intervention is
often delayed.

G.      The problem rarely presents as chemical dependency and is most often seen by
parents, courts, and professionals as psychiatric, behavioral or family dysfunction. As a
result, adolescents can be stuck with labels as anti-social personality, conduct disorder,
ADD and clinical depression.



Why Adolescents Experiment With Alcohol and Other Drugs

          Drugs are available and provide an inexpensive and quick way to have fun.

          Curiosity – they need to experiment.

          A way to be assertive.

          To express opposition to adult authority.

          To separate from parents.

          Symbolizes a developmental transition, from a less to a more mature status.

          A way to socialize and have fun.

          To be part of a group.
                                                                                       69

Why Adolescents Go Beyond Experimentation

       To cope with feelings (anger, frustration, anxiety).

       To avoid or isolate from difficult situations.

       To deal with the expectations of others (parents, society).

       To create a personal identity that is valued in adolescent culture.

       A way of gaining admission into a peer group.

       To express a serious opposition to adult authority.

       To force developmental transition.

If parents are substance users, adolescents may want ―to join the club‖.

Drug Use Continuum

      Non-use
    Has never used a particular drug.
    Course of Action – Education, prevention.

       Experimental Use
    Motivated by curiosity.
    Course of Action – Education, prevention and monitoring.

      Irregular Use
   Use is irregular and infrequent, usually on special occasions or just when opportunity
arises
   Course of Action – Education, prevention and monitoring.

      Regular Use
    Has a particular pattern, may be frequent or infrequent.
    Course of Action – Education, prevention, monitoring and assessment.

       Dependent Use
    Use is regular, predictable and frequent. The individual has a physiological or
    psychological need for the drug.
    Course of Action – Assessment and treatment.


Physical and Psychological Addictions

Any type of alcohol or other drug that changes how we feel can be addicting. This
includes anything from nicotine to alcohol, from sniffing glue to heroin. But, what exactly
does addiction mean?
                                                                                        70

Understanding addiction is very complex. The best way to think of addictions is to realize
that they fall into one of two categories: physical addictions and psychological addictions.

Some mood altering substances are physically addictive. If a person regularly uses a
substance that person’s body will react negatively when he or she quits using this
chemical. Depending on the particular drug, the size or the dose, the frequency of use,
and the history of use, these withdrawal reactions can range from minor irritability to
violent seizures.

If a substance is psychologically addictive, the need for the alcohol or other drugs is in
the user’s mind rather than the body. Here, withdrawal is in the form of anxiety,
depression, and an expressed desperate need for the chemical. It is important to
remember that all alcohol and other drugs can be psychologically addictive and some are
physically addictive as well. Most people
usually develop a psychological dependence to the alcohol and other drugs prior to a
physical dependence and others only ever remain psychologically addicted.


It is psychological addiction – the need to change one’s thoughts and feelings – which is
the most serious problem. If someone enters a residential treatment center addicted to
alcohol, the first thing to do is to withdraw safely from the physical addiction. However
this is just the beginning of treatment as it is the psychological need for the alcohol and
other drugs that takes people back to using. For some reason we have glamorized
physical addiction as the big problem, when in fact abstinence ends the physical
withdrawal within a few days. The psychological addiction takes much longer to deal with
and is at the root of most people’s relapse.

The Stages of Change

The stages of change are based on the Transtheoretical Model of Change developed by
Prochaska and DiClemente.

Pre-contemplation “Get off by back”

In this stage the youth does not see that there is a problem. They see no reason to make
change. In this stage it is important to encourage youth to examine their behavior and to
increase their awareness of both the risks and problems associated with the behavior. It
is also key that the youth feel accepted and cared for in their current behavioral
presentation. This non-judgmental approach allows the youth to express doubts about
change and also helps them feel some sense of self-control. Youth in the pre-
contemplation stage usually enter treatment reluctantly and at the request or demand of
someone else.

Contemplation “I think something‟s wrong, “I want to stop feeling so stuck” or
“Yeah, but…”

At this stage of change the youth is aware that an alcohol and other drug use problem
exists but is ambivalent about changing. Youth in this stage need to examine the pros
and cons of changing or not changing. At this point they have no definite plans to take
action, they are exploring possible solutions.
                                                                                     71


Preparation “Don‟t do today what you can put off until tomorrow”

The youth is developing a plan to change in this stage. They may be committed to
making change but still experience some ambivalence; this will be resolved before
moving on to action. The youth may have already made some small change. They begin
to focus on the future.

Action “This is it!”

This is often a difficult stage for youth as they are changing a behavior that has been
entrenched and reinforced for a significant period of time. Making change is a process
not an event.

Maintenance “Keep on going!”

In this stage the task is to sustain the changed behavior. The focus is on building a new
healthier lifestyle.

Behavioral Checklist for Parents and Teachers

Have you seen any of these signs or behaviors?

BEHAVIOR

      Generally cooperative
      Inconsistent behavior
      Withdrawn
      Class clown
      Sleeps in class
      Obscene language, gestures
      Argumentative
      Lying
      Boasts ―partying‖, ―getting high‖
      Writes/draws drug graffiti
      Mood swings

ATTENDANCE

      Regularly attends class and is not late
      Frequent absences
      Frequently late
      Frequent requests to go to the bathroom
      Found in inappropriate places on school grounds/in building

APPEARANCE/HEALTH

      Appears healthy
      Neglects personal appearance
                                                              72

    Glassy, bloodshot eyes
    Slurred speech
    Cough (constant, persistent)
    Frequently complains of illness
    Smells of alcohol
    Smells of pot
    Lethargic
    Chemical/smoke odors

RELATIONSHIPS

    Who are the close friends

ACADEMIC

    Often frustrated
    Cheating
    Extreme dissatisfaction with school
    High achiever
    Is doing satisfactory or better
    Sudden decline in grades
    No effort
    Irresponsible
    Short attention span
    Academic failure
    Lacks motivation

SOCIAL BEHAVIOR

    Appears happy
    Change in friends – negative
    Sudden popularity
    Avoids peers
    Seldom expresses feelings/emotions
    Peer exclusion
    Defensive with adults
    Bully with other students
    Family problems talked about
    Mentions abuse in family
    Speaks angrily of parents
    Student feels persecuted, picked on
    Suffered recent loss in family (death, divorce, moved)
    Frequently talks about drugs/alcohol
    Usually has a large amount of money
    Mentions sibling problems
    Seems down, depressed
    Others talk about his/her use of drugs/alcohol
                                                                                      73

EXTRA-CURRICULAR

      Regular participation
      Loss of eligibility
      Quit team
      Quality of participants declining
      Banned from dances, assemblies

IMPACT OF USE ON ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT

In adolescents, substance use and abuse alters basic sensory processes by distorting:

      Perception
      Sense of time and space
      Judgments
      Boundaries
      Sense of body image
      Dulls and interferes with the adolescent’s ability to critically assess themselves,
others and situations, which hinders:
-              establishment and integration of values and beliefs
-              ability to establish intimate relationships
-              ability to delay gratification
-              process of separation and independence

RICK FACTORS FOR ADOLESCENTS
        Developmental Lags
-biological maturation
-intellectual development
-academic achievement
-personal skills development

       Learning Disabilities
- (Brain dysfunction that impairs the understanding of language)

    Effects: -behavior control
         -emotional stability
         -peer relationships

       Family Circumstances
-parents who are chemically dependent (1 in 4 families in Canada)
-child sexual abuse
-violence
-instability

       Social and Personal Competence
-lack of interpersonal skills
-inadequate social skills

      Behavior Problems
                                                                                      74

-youth with antisocial behaviors (truancy, theft, fighting, vandalism)

      Community Attitude or Health
-community values play a large part in the risk status of adolescents
-drug use occurs within a complex framework or individual and social structural
 dynamics, all of which should be addressed



STAGES OF CHANGE

PREPARATION

In this stage, the youth has decided to make a positive change. She/he is ready to
determine the best course of action to take in seeking the change.


How to work with the youth in preparing for change:

      Help him/her set goals for change
      Help him/her develop a plan of action most suited to him/her personality, needs,
background, etc.
      Educate the youth of possible withdrawal symptoms that may occur once use is
stopped.
      Reassure the youth that change is possible and that you will support him/her
through any barriers/obstacles to change.
      Be prepared to support the youth through the change.

ACTION

This is the stage in which action is taken to make the agreed upon change. It is in this
stage when the alcohol or other drug use will stop and the accompanying life changes will
take place.

How to work with the youth making changes:
       Provide support, encourage and help the youth in making his/her changes.
       Support the youth in developing alternative social and recreational activities,
friends and support systems.


MAINTENANCE

In this stage the change(s) have already taken place and the youth is attempting to
maintain the change(s).

How to work with the youth in maintaining the change(s):

      Be aware that relapse is possible.
      Educate the youth on signs and symptoms of relapse.
                                                                                      75

        Work with the youth to identify his/her triggers.
        Educate the youth on relapse prevention strategies.
        Continue to support the youth in developing alternative social and recreational
activities, friends and support systems.

ENABLING/FIXING

Reacting to a youth abusing alcohol/drugs in ways that shield or protect him/her from
experiencing the true consequences of his/her alcohol/drug use.

       Ignoring apparent intoxication.
       Ignoring a youth’s verbal announcement about alcohol/drug use in ways that
glamorize it (i.e. war stories, romancing).
       Believing a youth’s alcohol/drug use is just a phase.
       Failure to report incidents of observed alcohol/drug use of a youth to the
appropriate authorities.
       Covering up, bailing out or making excuses for a youth’s alcohol/drug or
consequences arising from that use.
       Failure to refer a youth to the appropriate resources.
       Believing that youth couldn’t possibly be alcohol/drug involved because of good
grades, is an athlete, is polite/respectful, etc. and consequently failing to explore this
possibility with the youth.


“ENABLING DELAYS THE INEVITABLE”

     Escalation of alcohol/drug use.
     User does not recognize that there is any reason to change.
     Increased chance that the user will progress through the stages of use to
―dependency‖.
                                                                                        76

                                     JEN MYSHRALL

                             THE MANY FACES OF ABUSE



Jen is a native of New Brunswick, and has always had an interest in working with youth.
Jen Myshrall is currently a student at the University of New Brunswick, with an ultimate
goal of obtaining a Law Degree. Jen serves as a Director of Positive Heart Living, which
has resulted in working with the Fine Option Program, and at risk youth. Jen’s education
in the area of Criminology and her extensive experience with help lines, have embedded
within her the need for change and developing programs to help at risk youth. Over the
years Jen has worked as a lifeguard, combined with teaching swimming lessons, and she
continues to spend numerous hours volunteering in this area. Jen has contributed greatly
to the study, which resulted in extensive research, an area in which she is gifted.




JEN MYSHRALL

THE MANY FACES OF ABUSE:

       There are several different forms of abuse such as physical, emotional and sexual

abuse. Sexual abuse is a negative problem that crosses cultures and affects our society

and young children at a high rate. Physically and sexually abused children come from all

kinds of families and socio-economic conditions; victims are not limited to poor

neighborhoods or at the hands of parents or relatives with less prestigious jobs. One

commonality that the children do have is the lasting trauma they carry with them

throughout their lives because of having been abused.

       Many times children, who have been abused, seek relationships and friendships

where they can feel safe and accepted. The anger and resentment that many people feel

because of abuse carries into relationships far after childhood. It can also be a mitigating

factor of their involvement in criminal activity and often finding themselves in bad

relationships.   Due to the complexity of the school, family, and government system

surrounding the issue of childhood abuse, it is obvious that new relationships, programs,
                                                                                        77

and leadership initiatives must be developed, implemented and adhered to in order for

change to occur.


        Abuse is a form of control that the abuser wields over others including their

children. Regardless of the circumstances, there is never any justification for the violence

and physical or sexual abuse when it involves children.         Abuse can occur in any

household and the abuser can be an immediate family member’s relative, a professional,

a neighbor or a friend of the family. The child is often in a relationship with the abuser

and this is one of the reasons that the abuse continues because the children do not tell

anyone what is happening to them. One of the reasons why they do not tell anyone is

because they are threatened by the abuser, the abuser tells them that no one will believe

them or the abuser may even threaten to harm other members of their family if they

report them.    Sometimes, the abuser is in a position of authority over the child for

example a member of the church or a teacher. Often times the abuser uses the fact that

the children are afraid or that they feel no one will believe them and the abuser

repeatedly tells the victim that.


        Often times the signs of abuse are evident in cases where abuse is occurring but

many times, the signs and indicators are ignored due to people not knowing what to do in

that situation. People sometimes convince themselves that they are mistaken about the

signs and indicators that they see or even because they cannot convince themselves that

the potential abuser would be capable and they feel the risk of falsely accusing someone

of abuse outweighs potentially stopping the abuse.

        Any signs of change in children should be taken seriously regardless if it is an

abuse situation or not. Any sudden changes in behavior such as aggression, disruptive
                                                                                        78

behaviors, children seeking inappropriate affection, or any behavior that is a sudden

unexplained change from their unusual behavior or personality is a cause for concern.

       Often times, the different forms of abuse are intertwined as well. There can be

physical abuse at the same time as emotional abuse or sexual abuse. There is no set

standard for which abuse occurs, but there are warning signs and indicators that point to

issues that need to be addressed. The people who are in positions where they interact

with potential at risk youth need to be educated on how to recognize the signs, and what

to do if they find themselves in situations where there is possible abuse. For example,

teachers spend a great deal of time with children on a daily basis. They would recognize

immediate changes in children and bruises or other signs or symptoms the children may

exhibit. There is a large stigma associated with abuse and the reporting of abuse, that

the opportunities for ending it are missed and the abuse continues longer than it should.

Not only should the teachers be educated on how to recognize the abuse and how to

report it without being penalized, but children should be educated as well on how to

report the abuse and their abusers. Children are educated from a very young age to say

no to drugs and the dangers of alcohol and cigarette smoking but they are not as well

versed on what to do if someone they know and trust touches them in inappropriate ways

or if their parents use any type of violence against them. Unfortunately, the effects of

abuse last much longer than the abuse. The children grow into adults with the pain of the

abuse with them as well.      Many times, the children grow up to become abusers

themselves or grow up to find themselves in another abusive situation as adults. Even

though it may be easier to ignore a situation where there is possible abuse occurring,

society must take a stand and work together towards eliminating abuse. The children

deserve a chance to grow and develop into healthy productive adults. Their innocence is

taken away by people who they place their trust in only to have it destroyed.
                                                                                                   79

The following information on physical, emotional and sexual abuse is referenced with
permission from Darlene Barriere’s web site, which contains an abundance of research
about pertinent issues when dealing with at risk youth.

Referenced from DARLENE Barriere Child Abuse Effects: www.child_abuse_effects.


.“ Thank you for you complimentary words Bonnie. I am all for quality programs that help
youth, especially youth at risk. I hope you'll keep me informed about how things are
moving along. If you develop a website for your youth program, let me know the URL.
 If it’s a good fit with mine, I'd be happy to include it as a link on one of my pages. And
good on you for taking on such a worthwhile cause.. The world needs more dedicated
people like you”. Sincerely, Darlene Barriere
Violence & Abuse Prevention Educator
Author: On My Own Terms, A Memoir
Available in PDF e-book format: http://www.child-abuse-effects.com/child-abuse-story.html     child-
abuse-statistics@child-abuse-effects.com


Emotional Abuse Signs:

Boys


»   aggression
»   temper tantrums
»   fights with peers and siblings
»   bullying tactics
»   frustrates easily
»   disobedience
»   lying and cheating
»   destructive behaviors
»   impulsive behaviors
»   argumentative
»   loud
»   tease excessively
»   worry excessively
»   withdrawn


Girls

»   withdrawn
»   passive
»   approval-seeking
»   compliant
»   frustrates easily
»   infinite patience
                                                                                                                            80

»   clinging to adults
»   overly dependent
»   stubborn
»   tease excessively
»   worry excessively
»   somatic complaints

Emotional Abuse Signs

1 Baumeister, Roy. (2002, forthcoming). Effects of social exclusion on cognitive processes: Anticipated aloneness reduces
intelligent thought. The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

2 Ney, P., Fung, T., & Wickett, A. (1994, September). The worst combination of child abuse and neglect. Child Abuse and Neglect,
18(9), 705-714.



Canadian Sexual Abuse Statistics:

In one sexual abuse statistics study done by Social Services Agencies in Canada in 1998, sexual
abuse was the primary reason cited in 10% of all child maltreatment investigations (135,573). 38%
of these cases were substantiated (Trocme, Nico & Wolfe, David, 2001, p. 3 and 241).

Another sexual abuse statistics study revealed that young women who had not participated in a
school abuse prevention program in childhood were about twice as likely to have experienced
child sexual abuse as those who had participated in a prevention program (Gibson & Leitenberg,
2000, pp.1115-11252).

Child and youth victims who were sexually assaulted by family members were on average 9 years
old compared to 12 years old for victims of non-family members (Canadian Centre for Justice
Statistics, 20023).

A sexual abuse statistics study done on female prisoners showed that 80% were victims of
childhood physical or sexual abuse (Conference on Child Victimization & Child Offending, 2000 4).

In 30% of 30 occurrences studies, victims of sexual abuse were members of
stable, intact families (B.C. Institute Against Family Violence, 2001, p.35). Cases
of sexual abuse have a higher proportion of multiple abusers than do other
abuses (Statistics Canada, 1994, p. 786).

Aboriginal Sexual Abuse Statistics
75% of Aboriginal girls under the age of 18 were sexually abused; 75% of Aboriginal victims of sex crimes
were females under 18 years of age; 50% were under 14 years of age; almost 25% were younger than 7 ears
(Alliance of Five Research Centres on Violence, 1999 7).

Clinical and anecdotal evidence suggests that the incidence of sexual abuse among Canada's
native peoples is as high as 80% (Kingsley & Mark, 20008).
                                                                                                                                   81

More than 7,000 lawsuits have been filed against the Canadian Federal Government, claiming
sexual, physical and cultural abuse suffered at Residential Schools. Churches and school staff
have been named as co-defendants (Woodard, 20009).

FROM: http://www.child-abuse-effects.com/emotional-abuse-signs.html

Trocme, N., & Wolfe, D. (2001). Child maltreatment in Canada: Canadian incidence study of reported child abuse and neglect:
Selected results. Ottawa: National Clearinghouse of Family Violence, Health Canada.


Gibson, L. & Leitenberg, H. (2000). Child sexual abuse prevention programs: Do they decrease the occurrence of child sexual
abuse? Child Abuse and Neglect, 24(9), 1115-1125.

Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. (2002). Family violence in Canada: A statistical profile 2002. Catalogue no. 85-224-XIE.
Ottawa: Government of Canada.


Conference on Child Victimization & Child Offending. (2000). Working together for children: Protection and prevention data needs
for timely intervention. Paper presented in Toronto, Ontario. B.C. Institute Against Family Violence. (2001). Multiple victim child
sexual abuse. Child Maltreatment, 7(3).

Statistics Canada. (1994). Family Violence in Canada. Ottawa: Government of Canada. Alliance of Five Research Centres on
Violence. (1999, December). Violence prevention and the girl child: Final report. Retrieved January, 2000, from
http://www.unb.ca/departs/arts/CFVR/girl.html



Kingsley, C. & Mark, M. (2000). Sacred lives: Canadian Aboriginal children and youth speak out about sexual exploitation. Canada:
Save the Children Canada.9 Woodward, J. (2000, September 22). Lawsuits could close churches. The Calgary Herald.         Why
Youth Do Disclose Abuse

76%         I told because I couldn't hold it in any longer.
56%         I told because I wanted it to stop so my life could go on.
56%         I told because I wanted him/her to be punished.
53%         I finally felt comfortable enough to tell.
50%         I was afraid someone else would get hurt if I didn't talk.
48%         I was afraid I'd get hurt if I didn't tell.
41%         I told because I couldn't sleep/ eat/ think anymore.
41%         I got tired of the unwanted sexual experiences.
40%         Someone else convinced me to tell.
35%         Someone else told me about their unwanted experiences.
31%         I was pregnant or afraid I might be.
28%         Due to a school program about unwanted sex experiences.
22%         I told because I didn't want to go home.

                                      Kellogg and Huston, 1995, pp. 308-3091

Why Youth Don't Disclose Abuse


74%         I was scared.
60%         I was embarrassed.
55%         I didn't want to get into trouble.
47%         I didn't want anyone else to get into trouble.
46%         No one would believe me.
29%         I still like/love the other person.
29%         I was my fault as much as the other person's.
                                                                                                                             82




1 & 2 Kellogg, N., & Huston, R. (1995, June). Unwanted sexual experiences in adolescents: Patterns of disclosure. Clinical
Pediatrics, 306-311. http://www.child-abuse-effects.com/child-abuse-intervention.html




                                                 MR. KARL GOGUEN

Mr. Karl Goguen recently retired as an employee of the RCMP, where he had
been employed for approximately two decades. Karl has worked in numerous
positions over the years. His passion for working with people and helping others
has always been a major goal in his life. Karl’s skills led him into the field of
counselling through the EAP Program and the Coordinator of Conflict Resolutions
and Alternative Dispute Resolutions. While ―J‖ Division will miss Karl as he retires
this year, Karl has gone on to new dreams. He is currently the Founder and CEO
of MC Border Security in Fredericton, New Brunswick.

Mr. Goguen has worked collaboratively with Dr. Priest for many years, and the
foundation for this program has been discussed for the past several years. Mr.
Goguen was a lead player in the implementation of the Doctoral intervention
program that led to the development of the Criminology Educational and
Counselling Skills Program.
                                                                                         83




MR. KARL GOGUEN

PRINCIPLED NEGOTIATION

There are three things to remember about conflict:

*OMNIPRESENT: It is everywhere; it happens many times a day and doesn't always
              result in a fight.

*O.K.: Despite what we may have learned as kids, conflict is acceptable and even
       desirable if there is to be social change and individual development.

*ADDRESSED: Conflict needs to be addressed in some way - resolved? Coped with?
            Discussed? But not simply ignored.

Negotiation is the Ability to TALK and to resolve conflict.


WHAT ARE THE SOME OF THE QUALITIES ESSENTIAL TO AN EFFECTIVE
NEGOTIATION AND A LASTING SOLUTION?

MUST BE GENUINE AND SINCERE!!! MUST ALSO BE TRUTHFUL, POSITIVE AND
TRANSPARENT.

WORDS OF WISDOM:

IT IS EASY TO PUT SOMEBODY IN THEIR PLACE.... BUT IT IS MUCH MORE
DIFFICULT TO PUT YOURSELF IN THEIR PLACE..


DISTRIBUTIVE BARGAINING

Default Mode:

If you deal in volume in measuring the success of the negotiation.

E.g. Each got a piece of the pie.

Idea: What one A gains, the other one has to A forfeit - because there is a finite resource.

Distributive negotiations seem to derive a certain style of outcome.
                                                                                        84

INTEGRATED NEGOTIATION

Parties do not distribute success but try to bring together their respective success in an
integrated fashion.


Integration:
Bring together the resources for mutual gain.
May mean integrating the ―others‖ for mutual benefits.


DISTINCTION: In principled negotiations we talk about strategies rather than tactics.
Activities:

Associates the person and the problem (blaming, name calling, generalizing, personal
attacks)

Fixes on Positions, not Interests.
Dictates outcomes which only help him/her; instead of inventing options for mutual gain.
Using subjective values.

Debrief the example.

Explain that you were negatively demonstrating Principled Negotiation points.


QTC: WHAT NEEDS TO BE ACHIEVED BEFORE DECIDING IF AN AGREEMENT IS
FAIR FOR THE PARTIES?

MUST then decide what is-Fair
-Reasonable
-Affordable
-Equitable
-Sensible

REMINDER: Must make sure the intangible terms are clearly defined -i.e. fair,
Reasonable and timely.

CONFLICT STYLES.....

ASSERTIVENESS: The extent to which I want to have MY objectives satisfied.

COOPERATIVENESS: The extent to which I want the objectives of OTHERS satisfied.

YOUR OWN PLACE ON THE CHART VARIES FROM SITUATION TO SITUATION
                                                                                         85

 IT ALSO CHANGES OVER TIME. TODAY AND 5 YEARS FROM NOW MAY BE
VERY DIFFERENT FOR YOUR POSITION ON THE CHART.

 YOU CAN ALSO DECIDE TO BE LESS ASSERTIVE OVER TIME IF IT IS USEFUL.

 COMPROMISING: The way life is really perceived by some.
 -i.e. The Charlottetown Accord as described by some politicians as:
 ... It must be fair to Canadians because no Province actually got what they wanted...


                 ********* IMPORTANT FOR MEDIATORS: *************

 -KNOW WHAT YOUR DEFAULT MODE IS WHEN ENTERING INTO A
  NEGOTIATION.
 -KNOW YOUR LIMITATIONS.

 WHY???

 Can also get you to know your BATNA and your WATNA.


 STAGE I – INTRODUCTION


  The purpose of this stage is to set the pace and tenor of the process which you expect
to undertake. Although you will not change the attitude of the other side, you may
substantially affect his or her behaviour. Stage I is the place to gain general
commitments -to the process, authority to bind and the mutual desire for an acceptable
outcome.

 Q. Establish the need to negotiate.

 Q. Discuss whatever ground rules may be needed.

 Q. Set a positive future focused - tone.

 Q. Express areas in which there is already a substantial agreement.

 Q. Address the other’s communication and conflict style.

 Q. Get a commitment to proceed.


 WHAT KIND OF GROUND RULES MAY YOU THINK OF?

STAGE II - ISSUES

Objective: Teach Stage II and emphasize issue framing.

In Stage II, the matters at issue are stated, discussed only briefly, and then framed.
Framing the issues in an inclusive way sets a mutual agenda for the negotiation and
                                                                                         86

encourages others to trust that the issues important to them are on the table. It also sets
common goals for the negotiators as they prepare to explore the interests they must
achieve.

Q. Give an oppositional statement of the issue(s) as you see it.

Q. Invite a similar response and listen carefully.

Q. Verbally recognize interests as they arise.

Q. Try to limit questions to those which clarify information.

Q. Fractionalize (break) the issue into more manageable parts.

Q. Summarize what all have said, emphasizing common issues.

Q. Frame the issues.


                                 STAGE III – INTERESTS

Detailed introduction to interest-basing, teaching of the stage and exercises in getting
from positions to interests.

Objectives: To understand positions, interests and skills in moving between them.
IDENTIFYING AND REVEALING

The purpose of Stage III is to transform the usual, positional oriented negotiation into
one which focuses upon the interests of the parties. This stage is give and take. If a
mutually satisfactory outcome is desired, it is as important to reveal interests as it is to
discover them. Knowing interests prepares the negotiating parties for solution building
into Stage IV.

Q. Ask Probing and clarifying questions.

Q. Test hypotheses about the others’ interests

Q. Give affirmation and acknowledgement to the other’s interests.

Q. Make your interest known.

Q. Formulate a neutral goal statement.

In a disagreement over two opposing positions, one of three outcomes is common. Ask
the class what they are:


1. One party beats the other.
2. One party "lumps it" and walks away.
3. The two compromise.
NEEDS VS WANTS
                                                                                       87

Interests are all of the qualities that underlie our positions and motivate them. They are
the fundamental objectives behind our positions which we typically don't discuss.
NEEDS
DESIRES
CONCERNS
FEARS
HOPES


Activities: (probing, clarifying, justifying and consequential).

Restating and Paraphrasing including exercises combining these skills with questioning
(triads).

Activities: Restating.
PROBING -CLARIFYING -JUSTIFYING -CONSEQUENTIAL

Restating: feeding back what you hear being true to the content but changing the words
so you're not parroting.

Paraphrasing: feeding back what you hear plus editing (emphasizing, adding, selecting
an interest which you read between the lines).

Activity

The first person makes a positional statement, the second asks an open question (which
the first responds to). The third asks another open question (which the first responds
to). The fourth paraphrases what the first has said, emphasizing an interest (which the
first affirms or rejects). The fifth should do a summary of the interests the first has
mentioned

A summary of interests that is neutral (because it doesn't only mention my interests), is
goal oriented (because it points to solutions) and is a statement of the interests that
have been generated in Stage III.



                               STAGE IV - SOLUTIONS

Objective: To teach the stage and raise the idea of brainstorming.

The purpose of this stage is the crafting of a solution once the component interests of
the parties have been fully explored. The negotiators create a solution out of the raw
material provided in Stage III. The solution may be as imaginative as the interests of the
parties require, but must be objectively measurable and must survive reality testing.

Q. Summarize areas of present agreement.

Q. Consider suggesting an easy fix.

Q. Keep in mind areas of interest which must be met.
                                                                                   88



Q. Consider brainstorming and other forms of listing.

Q. List objective criteria against which options can be measured.

Q. Seek solutions to maximize mutual gain and meet joint goals.

Q. List and evaluate options and select fair, agreeable, solutions.

Q. Reality test solutions by raising hypothetical.

Objective: reframing

1. Listen and guess the unmet interest.

2. (Reflect the comment of the speaker).

3. (Listen for affirmation to your reflection).

4. REFRAME the comment:

*giving it a future focus
*naming the unmet interest explicitly
*without dictating a solution

Questions

Probing
Clarifying
Justifying
Consequential
Reflections
Restating
Paraphrasing
Summarizing

There are some situations which require more than just a well expressed open probe, or
an accurate reflection.



Reframing is the medicine.
                                                                                           89

                      BALANCE AND LIFESTYLE AS A FACILITATOR


                         Submitted By: Positive Heart Living Inc.


       Stress is a very personal and individual matter.        Due to our varying genetic

make-ups, family backgrounds, and school experiences, we perceive and respond to

stress in a unique way. One person's overwhelming sense of doom may be another's

lifetime challenge.

       Because stress is so directly related to an individual's perception, it is almost

impossible to define; but in everyday language, it is best described as the "rate of wear

and tear on the body". Any change, whether threatening, challenging, or pleasing will

illicit within us some adaptive response or give and take that we call stress.

       Much attention and fanfare has been given over the last ten years to the negative

physical and emotional consequences associated with stress. While not overstating the

risks, much of this publicity has led individuals to forget that a certain amount of stress is

essential for personal growth. Too little stimulation or challenge can result in a routine

lifestyle that provides few rewards or inspiration.      It is only when stress becomes

prolonged or excessive that our ability to adapt lessens and the strain results in distress

or disease.

       Certainly, the most publicized research on the correlation between stress and

disease is that of Mayer Friedman and Ray Roseman on Type A Behavior.                   Their

research has defined a specific behavior pattern, labeled as Type A, which is linked to

significantly higher rates of coronary heart disease. The Type A person, as described, is

an intensely competitive, compulsive individual, who performs at a maximum rate of

energy regardless of the importance of the task. The following test elaborates further on

this behavior pattern.
                                                                                        90




                                    BEHAVIOUR TEST

Answer each question by circling the number on the scale, from 1 to 8, that best applies

to your behavior.

1.     Casual about appointments           12345678               Never late



2.     Not competitive                     12345678               Very competitive



3.     Never feel rushed                   12345678               Always rushed

       even under pressure



4.     Tackle one thing at a time          12345678               Try to do several

                                                                   things at once

5.     Slow in doing things                12345678               Hurry in everything

       (eating, walking, talking)



6.     Think before expressing             12345678              Impulsive in expressing

feelings                                                         yourself

7.     Many interests                      12345678              Few interests outside

                                                          work

Interpretation of scores;

Less than 30 Definite Type B

Now add up your scores and see into which category you fall:

30-33 Possible Type B

34-36 Possible Type A

37-40 Moderate Type A
                                                                                     91

Over 40      Extreme Type A



       The effects of prolonged stress become apparent in all aspects of people's lives

from the inability to make decisions, feelings of breathlessness, irrational fear,

aggression, or tension headaches. It is important to note that stress is not the only

factor involved in these problems, but that it does play a significant role in either

promoting or triggering illness.



To identify symptoms of stress, it is necessary to understand what effect stress has on

your body, mind, and behavior. This is commonly labeled as the flight or fight syndrome.

Whenever we receive a real or imaginary stress signal the body responds with a series

of reflex reactions, which affect every aspect of our system.    Muscles tense, blood

pressure rises, digestion slows, breathing quickens, perspiration increases, etc. These

signals reflect behavioral symptoms which may be an indication that the body has been

activated to deal with a stressor.



       Examples of the symptoms are the following:



  Physical                         Emotional              Behavioral

Chest discomfort               Feelings of rejection       Procrastination

Dry mouth                      Inability to concentrate    Change in appetite

Tense back muscle              Loss of self confidence     Mistrust of others

Diarrhea                       Sense of despair            Increased accidents

Change in weight               Boredom with life          Nervous mannerisms
                                                                                        92

       Coping with stress presents us with a rare challenge in life by offering the

opportunity to both decrease tension and enrich ourselves at the same time. The first

step is to identify the source of stress and then to choose a coping option that you are

comfortable with and will help you regain a more healthy equilibrium. Some of the most

effective strategies are listed below:



1.     Adopt strategies for making a clean break between your job and home by leaving

work-oriented problems at the end of the day.



2.     Bolster your own personal support network by talking with trusted friends or

peers about problems that your are encountering. Social support is a dynamic way to

reduce isolation, restore confidence, and validate your own feelings.



3.     Get physically active.     Regular exercise strengthens the heart, vents stress,

raises self-esteem, and helps control weight.



4.     Learn to relax. We all need to reserve some time for relaxation whether it is of

an informal nature like listening to music or taking a bath, or a formal skill like yoga or

deep muscle relaxation.



5.     Learn to distinguish between avoidable and unavoidable sources of stress.

Worrying about issues beyond your control only hampers your ability to surmount those

obstacles you can control.
                                                                        93




                                  Lifestyle Quiz




Social                                                     N no     Y yes


 Do you need a drink or cigarette in your hand to feel    No (2)   Yes(0)
comfortable at social events?

 Do you balance socializing with others with being        (No(0)   Yes(2)
alone to get to know yourself?

 Do you a) go out with your friends even when you         a(0)     a(0)are
exhausted, or b) do you take time for yourself?

 Do you change your personality like a chameleon          No(2)    Yes(0)
for every situation you are in?

 Do you ever volunteer your assistance to another         No(0)    Yes(2)
person or a group?


Physical


 Do you exercise three times a week for at least          No(0)    Yes(2)
twenty minutes, reaching your maximum heart rate?

   Do you get regular physical checkups by a physician?   No(0)    Yes(2)

 Do you find that you are an 'on-again','off-again'       No(2)    Yes(0)
person regarding exercise?

 Do you follow the "in crowd" or another person,          No(0)    Yes(2)
and join in exercise that you are not fond of?

   Do you have your blood pressure checked regularly?     No(0)    Yes(2)
                                                                        94




Spiritual

 Do you find value in the supposedly most menial           No(0)   Yes(2)
of tasks, like washing the dishes?

 Have you been able to truly forgive the person(s)         No(0)   Yes(2)
who have hurt you the most in life?

   Do you take time for spiritual growth in your life?     No(0)   Yes(2)

 Do you often volunteer your assistance without            No(0)   Yes(2)
expecting a reward?


Family


   Do you have a strategy in case of a family emergency?   No(0)   Yes(2)

   Do you feel love and acceptance in your family?         No(0)   Yes(2)

 Do you have family meetings and make schedules            No(0)   Yes(2)
for chores on a weekly or monthly basis?

 Do you spend "quality" time with your family              No(0)   Yes(2)
members?

 Are you able to communicate and compromise                No(0)   Yes(2)
with your family members?

Sexual * Note.. this is about your Locus of Control.
 Are you aggressive and demanding most of the time?        No(2)   Yes(0)

   Are you passive most of the time?                       No(2)   Yes(0)

 Do you give your opinions and suggestions when            No(0)   Yes(2)
you feel the need to?

 Are most of your relationships in balance where both      No(0)   Yes(2)
individuals' needs are considered?

   Do you love and accept yourself?                        No(0)   Yes(2)

Nutritional

   Do you eat a balanced breakfast, lunch, and supper      No(0)   Yes(2)
                                                                        95

most of the time?

   Do you opt for quick fixes?                          No(2)   Yes(0)

 Do you drink water, 2% milk, and juice most of         No(0)   Yes(2)
the time?

 Do you drink coffee, tea, or alcoholic beverages       No(2)   Yes(0)
most of the time?

   Do you follow Canada's Food Guide?                   No(0)   Yes(2)


Financial


 If you have a bank account do you always know          No(0)   Yes(2)
the balance?

 Do you put money as the focal point of your            No(2)   Yes(0)
lifestyle?

 Do you spend money without budgeting for the           No(2)   Yes(0)
costs?

   Do you have a financial plan for the future?         No(0)   Yes((2)

 Do you have money set aside for emergency              No(0)   Yes(2)
situations?


Mental


   Do you know how to problem-solve?                    No(0)   Yes(2)

 Do you a) make lists, or b) do you keep everything     b(0)    a(2)
in your head?

 When other people are speaking, do you give them       No(0)   Yes(2)
your full attention?

 Do you allow yourself to fantasize(e.g. when reading   No(0)   Yes(2)
a book or doing a project?)

 Do you think carefully before making important         No(0)   Yes(2)
decisions?
                                                                      96




Legal


 Do you think carefully before making important       No(0)   Yes(2)
decisions?

   Do you have life insurance?                        No(0)   Yes(2)

   Do you have a will?                                No(0)   Yes(2)

   Do you understand the term legal aid?              No(0)   Yes(2)

   Do you understand the term family court?           No(0)   Yes(2)


Educational


   Do you overreact in an emergency?                  No(2)   Yes(0)

 Do you balance your emotions with logical            No(0)   Yes(2)
thinking when making decisions?

 Do you believe in equal rights for men and           No(0)   Yes(2)
women?

 Do you handle criticism well when it is              No(0)   Yes(2)
constructive?

 Do you a) easily express your emotions or            b(0)    a(2)
b) tend to hold them in?


Vocational


 Do you have hobbies outside of work?                 No(0)   Yes(2)
(e.g. painting, knitting, woodwork).

   Do you enjoy going to work most of the time?       No(0)   Yes(2)

   Do you seek creative opportunities in your work?   No(0)   Yes(2)
                                                                                97


 Are you able to turn a bad day at work into a              No(0)         Yes(2)
better day later on?

   Do you balance your work with your family needs?         No(0)         Yes(2)

       Total: ________

                                      SCORING

♥      120-111 Perfect, well-balanced lifestyle
♥      110-101 Very Good, working hard at establishing a healthy lifestyle
♥      100-91 Good, hope this information benefits your lifestyle
♥       90-81 Fair, lifestyle and risk factor articles may help improve your score
♥       80-71 Low – risk factor articles may benefit you
♥         <70 Contact your family physician for further information on various
         professional Consultations available in the community
                                                                                       98

Karl Goguen Characteristics of an Effective Helper


1. An effective helper is an individual who is in touch and confident in their actions,

feelings, values and motivations. They are able to support others in open and non-

defensive exploration of themselves, and their own actions, concerns and feelings.


2. The helper inspires feelings of trust and confidence in the person they are helping.

For example, the person in need of help should be able to risk sharing deep concerns

and feelings, because there will be no ridicule, embarrassment, shame or criticism in the

relationship.   The helper should be trusted because they speak in an honest,

straightforward and non-manipulative way. They have no hidden agendas for the people

they help.


3. The helper should be skilled in reaching out, encouraging open and honest

communication by listening actively and concentrating fully on what is being

communicated (both verbally and by tone and body language) by the individual they are

helping. This includes attempting to understand not only the content of what is being

said, but also its significance to the speaker and to the speaker's well being.       An

effective helper is able to avoid responses that evaluate attack or defend.

4. The helper must communicate to the person they are helping in a caring and

respectful manner. The communication must be genuinely warm and full of concern for

the well being of the person in need of assistance; offering time and energy to them

because what has and will happen to them is important and matters to the helper. The

time, energy and presence a helper offers imply their hopefulness for the person. The

effective helper seeks to encourage a sense of self worth in the person they are helping.

5. An effective helper does not use people to satisfy their own needs. They feel secure

and are not dependent upon others for strokes, praise, or a build up of any kind. An
                                                                                     99

effective helper is NOT a rescuer in any way. Helpers offer their help without demanding

appreciation, recognition and/or acknowledgement.

6. An effective helper attempts to understand rather than to judge the behavior of those

they are helping.      By understanding that behavior patterns are ways in which an

individual has learned to cope with life, they try to understand how such a pattern has

developed, and why the individual is behaving the way they do. Thus, the effective

helper works hard to control any personal tendency to be judgmental.

7. An effective helper is able to reason systematically. They understand that the people

they are trying to help are acting upon many external influences, and all of these

influences must be taken into account. The helper realizes that they cannot change or

help others unless they want to be changed or helped, and then they do it - not the

helper. This is not to say people cannot help others, but truly helping others can only

occur when the helper is doing something for the person they are helping that they

desire and need. It is important to continually verify if what the helper is doing is

beneficial.

Once the helper recognizes his/her role in the helping process, the process can begin

by;

1. Clarification of values of the individual they are helping by:

  A) Clearing the mind.

  B) Identifying values.

2. Acting on values.

  A) Setting goals.

  B) Acting on goals

3. Assessing the values-clarification process.

  A) Importance of feedback.

  B) Values-clarification as a life long process.
                                                                                         100

The process of helping involves four possible methods of attaining the whole picture of

the concerns of the individuals they are helping. Also it is important that the helper gets

the whole picture of the situation in order to facilitate their growth and responsibility,

meeting their needs, seeking wellness, support and action. These four methods are:

1. Clarification

2. Summarization

3. Confrontation

4. Interpretation

The helping process involves skills of active listening, guiding, reflecting challenging,

interpreting, informing, determining problems and goals, problem solving through

negotiation, decision making and planning, behavior changing and summarizing.

In order to do this, one must let the person know that, for this space of time, the helper is

willing to be fully present to them, and that nothing else will occupy their attention. This

is expressed in the manner or method of communication and includes a quiet

uninterrupted atmosphere, attentive posture, good eye contact; attentive listening

includes allowing them to share their thoughts and concerns with few interruptions and

accurately restating what has been said. Important things to remember in this process

are;

-the need for warm respect with no condemnation

-the need for genuineness as shown by spontaneity, unassuming attitude and normal

serenity.

In a large measure, these conditions set the stage for the whole helping process. They

say to the individual in need of help: "I'm fully ready to explore your agenda with you".

Empathy is the key skill in active listening. It is the ability to see the world "as if" one

were looking through another’s eyes. As the clarification process continues, one not

only hears each other’s words, but one feels the feelings behind the words and the
                                                                                         101

unspoken meanings that they convey. As the clarification process continues through

communication, understanding is gained and the individual receiving the help is enabled

to go deeper in self exploration, and to expand and clarify their self- understanding.

During opportune times, talking about ones self in an appropriate way, using sensitivity

and judgment, can assist in creating more faith in the helper. Often self-disclosure is a

powerful way of helping to see that they are not the only person to have faced this kind

of problem. It may also help the person to feel that sharing in this relationship is not all

one-sided. However, the prime focus must remain on the person being helped situation.

In order to view the helper’s full story, it is suggested that a use of minimal encouragers,

to help the talking continue, be adopted.

Paraphrasing, to check on the helper's perception of what is being said concentrates on

verbal content, but sums up and restates the main idea in ones own words.

Reflection of feelings is another way of tentatively checking ones understanding so the

person being helped feels the message has been received properly.                  Seeking

information through open-ended questions is another great asset in the clarification

process.

A summary of the discussion can reinforce that there are some options to work on and

that there are some steps that the individual can take to help him/herself.

Challenging of blanket assumptions or over reactions is another tool that can be used,

but it must be used only in small amounts at a time and only when the timing is right.

When in the helping process, the following points must by at the forefront of the helper's

thoughts:

Situation Analysis: The here and now aspects of the situation.

1. Understanding the situation

2. Who considers the situation to be of concern?

3. Why is the situation troubling the individual?
                                                                                     102

4. Efforts made to deal with the situation

5. Severity of the situation; how long has it been there and how often does it happen?

6. Suggestions about where the individual would like to start

7. Agreement of a plan of action
                                         103




        BRUISED CHILDREN


 A sweet young girl with tender eyes
Banished to her room, alone, she cries
  Somewhere inside her spirit dies
       I think this is a shame.

   She listens as her Mom and Dad
      Yell at her and say she’s bad
  It’s all her fault when they get mad
       She thinks she is to blame.

      A little boy with golden hair
   Listens as they curse and swear
Just wishing he could hide somewhere
     Why do they call him names?

He once was happy – would sing a song
 He had good friends who tagged along
  What happened – what went wrong?
      Why is his family strained?

     A tender girl, a precious boy
   Should only know of love and joy
  Play and laugh and share their toys
    They should not know this pain.

 Harsh, angry words mean cruel tones
Hurt much more than sticks and stones
 Breaking more than children’s bones
     I think adults should refrain.

   When as parents we lose control
   And we destroy those tiny souls
  How will they ever be made whole?
     How will they laugh again?

    Author Charles Betts 27/04/05
    Fredericton Fire City Firefighter
       (used with permission) 
                                                                                        104

The results of an Invisible Child     Shame Walks at Night

It’s cold in here – God, why does he come here? The pit he calls it - fitting! No-one looks

for him but me. I know he’s here in the darkness. He knows it’s me, but sits limply, and

never shows any sign. Why do I allow him to treat me like I am invisible, when it’s he that

cannot see? It’s dark and smells musty, the livestock long gone. The rusted harnesses

hang from the splintered walls as though a touch would turn them to dust. The fire is

almost dead. I wonder who brought in the wood. God, he’s drunk again. ―Just sipping‖ he

says. It’s been this way for 30 years. Oh yes, ―Have another cigarette, ―I say - he never

answers me anyway. I’ve been coming here over half my life, just to check, I tell myself.

People don’t go looking for death. He looks like a giant slumped in a chair. His hands

look strong, but his weakness is killing him. I barely recognize his face, and his black

curls are grey as ashes. I wonder if he ever looks in that shattered mirror on the wall.

He’s over 6 feet tall, but he’s invisible. He walks at night and feels safe in the darkness,

when he wears this dark green tattered jacket. I feel helpless. I say, ―I have to go‖. Why

do I keep coming back? What penance do I owe?        ―You have to want to live‖, I say. He

darts his wolf eyes across mine, and I see a glimpse of the steel trap. Maybe he sees

me in that fleeting glance, just maybe - just something? There is no clock in here, and

time passes quickly when you cannot see it. Look at him. I could scream! He’s like a

stone. I wish I could throw him - just something to see some life.   God, why am I always

looking for hope? I see nothing - I want to touch his face - I know he’s never cried. He’ll

never let these secrets out. I’ve tried so many times. He’s hiding family abuse….. Incest,

some say. His rejection - God’s protection? Humph! I feel helpless - I feel like burning

this pit down. Then where would he hide? Then how would I find him? Oh yes, shame

walks at night. BCW - 2002
                                                                           105




                                 Appendix C

           Requests for Expansion and Comments About the Pilot Study

                                   Note:
Comments and Individual names are confidential between the researchers and the
                      Fredericton Police Department.
                                                                              106


Public Safety - Adam Stickles. Previous alternative Measures Coordinator

Current Coordinator has begun referrals. Josh Maynard ----- Original Message ---
-
From: "Stickles, Adam (DPS/MSP)" <Adam.Stickles@gnb.ca>
To: Bonnie Priest <positiveheartliving@yahoo.com>
Sent: Wednesday, May 14, 2008 7:33:47 AM
Subject: RE: Just to let you know I got a hold of all your clients..B

I may have mentioned it before, but I am really looking at making this a
mandatory condition for those youth coming with any CDSA offence. Not only
that but many mention in our meetings that they are involved in drugs despite
only coming to the office for theft or damage to property offence's, considering
both sets of circumstances I should be able to send at least 4 a month I would
think, sometimes more or less depending on the month.


Thanks
Adam Stickles
Sent: Monday, August 25, 2008 1:03:16 PM
Subject: RE: Meeting


Bonnie, I am pretty happy to have this for an option in dealing with youth at risk
and especially those coming to me with drug related offence's or are admitting
that they are using. I knew you were on to something when this first got off the
ground and I am seeing both youth and parents who are participating saying they
found the session informative. I just spoke to (ANONYMOUS CLIENT) who
indicated she hasn't used all summer, if she is telling me the truth this is a big
accomplishment for her and this course helped I am sure. Parents are really
pleased when we set this as a condition, I tell them on the phone prior to the
meeting that I will be making a referral and they support that because they are
not able to make them attend with out it being on the contract. I will continue to
make referral's in every case we see it fit, talk to you soon and have a good
holiday.

Stickles

RCMP Candidate - Philip Fortin Minto, NB
----- Original Message ----
From: FORTIN PHILLIP <gyfxb@stu.ca>
To: Bonnie Priest <positiveheartliving@yahoo.com>
Sent: Saturday, February 2, 2008 10:58:45 AM
Subject: Re: Youth Addictions

Good Afternoon Dr. Bonnie,
                                                                                  107


I am currently in Minto, and I am very interested in the course depending on
when it
is. I am leaving this month for Regina to pursue my career
with the RCMP. So if you have a confirmed date I would be
able to figure things out for you and then get back to you

Thanks a million
Phillip Fortin

YOUTH CHOICES/Boys and Girls Club = Janet Dingwall – St. John, NB

----- Original Message ----
From: Janet Dingwell <faunanb@hotmail.com>
Hi there Bonnie: As you are aware we at Youth Choices and Boys and Girls
Club feel this is something the youth of Saint John desperately need. Let us
know when we can take the training and we would also love to hear your results.
Thanks again. Janet




----- Original Message ----
From: Janet Dingwell <faunanb@hotmail.com>
To: positiveheartliving@yahoo.com
Sent: Thursday, February 28, 2008 7:37:21 AM
Subject: Program for those who work with at risk youth

Hello Dr. Bonnie Priest: sorry I haven't emailed before this however my
computer is down in my office so I had to get to another.

I am very interested in doing the course and facilitating accordingly. I work with
strictly with Public Safety clients and I am certain there is much in this course that
could assist me in my work. I typically carry a caseload of about 30 clients,
although any closed out are free to return for basic services and they do.

If you could send me the information about the next course being offered in
Fredericton that would be great, or maybe I could have someone from Public
Safety get a hold of you and see if there are enough folks here in Saint John who
are interested.

I look forward to hearing back from you.

Thanks for the time and information.

Janet Dingwell
                                                                                  108


Jason Murray
Program Director
Boys and Girls Club of Moncton
15 Everett Street
Moncton NB
E1C 3Z6
506-858-0949
jason.murray@bgcmoncton.com
www.bgcmoncton.com

Hello Bonnie, Mike told me you spoke to him about Positive Heart Living.
I was wondering if you plan to be in the Moncton area anytime in the next few
weeks and if you would be interested in coming in to tell us about your program.
Let me know, or feel free to give me a call,
Thanks, Jason

MC Border Security Inc. – Karl Goguen
From: Bonnie Priest [mailto:positiveheartliving@yahoo.com]
Sent: Tuesday, May 13, 2008 5:08 PM
To: Karl Goguen
Subject: Possibility

Hi Karl

Well..I got an e-mail today from the Native Friendship Center asking if I could go
to their bld. on Brunswick St. (FNFC) and teach on June 27th..this is strictly
aboriginal people...would you be available? Same message, same time...same
price :)

Let me know...

Hi Bonnie

I will make myself available for this worthy project. I’ve penciled it in on my
calendar. Please let me know if there is any change.
TTFN
Karl M C Border Security Inc.
150 Riverside Dr. PO Box 3383 Stn. "B"
Fredericton, N.B. E3A 5H2
www.mcbordersecurityinc.com
(506) 450-2800 Office
(506) 470-2804 Mobile (506) 458-8138 Fax
                                                                                                     109

Positive Heart Living Inc.
Victoria Health Center
65 Brunswick Street
Fredericton, NB.
E3B 1G5


August 13, 2007


The Fredericton Boys and Girls Club is happy to partner with Positive Heart Living to offer the
Criminology Educational Youth Addictions program.

We will be assisting with the advertising of the program through our 4 locations in the greater
Fredericton area, as well as posting information on our website.

We will also be offering one of our facilities as a location for the courses. This total ―in-kind‖
contribution is estimated to equal approximately $500.

If you have any questions, or would like more information about our commitment the project,
please do not hesitate to contact me at (506) 452-8737. I have a signed copy of this letter on file
for our records.


Sincerely,

Karen MacAlpine
Executive Director

								
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