The New Professionalism in Educational Leadership and Management by lifemate

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									    Leadership in Multicultural and Intercultural Education
                   A Practitioner’s Submission1

                                      Dr. Indu Khetarpal2


Introduction
According to J. Cumming (2003):

“New Professionalism” in the education context could be defined as

     “A shorthand way of capturing the essence of complex changes occurring around the
     individual and collective work of educators in the context of a knowledge society and
     global economies” and continues,
     “The term reflects a metamorphosis of identity, disposition and behaviour that has
     been evolving for more than a decade. It is as much about how we as (international)
     educators perceive ourselves, as how others perceive us”.

New Professionalism in Educational Leadership and Management is undergoing a
metamorphosis due to the changing educational demands all over the world. It makes it
imperative for educational organization worldwide to promote leadership that matches
foresight and current demands of global economy.


There is a talk about Education and Human Development, and the fostering of „human
capabilities‟. The analysis of education by practitioners of the human development
approach seems to focus on marketable skills and neglects the human abilities of critical
thinking and imagining, so crucial if education is really to promote human development,
rather than economic growth and individual acquisition.


Education for Human Development is a broad idea and includes many types of
development, pertinent to a student‟s (personal) self-development. The focus is on the goal
of producing decent world citizens who can understand the global problems and who have
the practical competence and the motivation to do something about these problems. Three
important abilities required are –

1
  Theme: Charting the New Education Landscape: New Professionalism in Educational Leadership and
Management
2
  Principal, Salwan Public School, Sector-15 (II), Gurgaon, Haryana (INDIA)
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     (a) Capacity for critical analysis, introspection of ones existing traditions: Democracy
        needs a thinking society that can question and counter question the set ideological
        and political dictates for enhancement of societal fabric.

     (b) The ability to perceive oneself as a member of a heterogeneous group and not a
        homogeneous group:        A multicultural education is required for living in a
        pluralistic democracy. Language learning, history, economics, and political science
        all play a role in pursuing this understanding in different ways at different levels.

     (c) The ability to fathom from another person‟s point of view:            Sympathy and
        empathy has to be visualized from the prism of diversity and attitudes must change
        to bring the different admixture under one all pervasive commonality of human
        development. Both these elements hold the key to progressive education.


The Elements of New Professionalism in Education

The new educational landscape requires building strong and well balanced executive team
with complimentary skills, experience and knowledge. It entails the following:

        1. Creates appropriate professional standards concerned with quality assurance
            and accountability;
        2. Raising skills and increasing consistency in the quality of practice through
            effective feedback mechanism;
        3. Greater Freedom for High Performers; and
        4. Shared Commitment and redefining relation between stakeholders.


I.      Creates appropriate professional standards concerned with quality assurance
        and accountability.


Efficient organizations and management of complementary staff to support best
professional practices requires the development of a resource centre, to determine what
works best and with regular training and development opportunities. For example,
Salwan Education Trust (SET) which runs eleven schools in and around New Delhi, India
conducts workshops for every department to promote learning, sharing and developing the
various skills of teaching learning system amongst all the teachers of various Salwan



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Schools. A workshop is organized for each discipline where teachers of the concerned
discipline from all the branches of Salwan Schools participate, present and discuss various
designs and methods that assist in developing better teaching-learning experiences.


Today, schools are conscious of the fact that the education process to be truly rewarding
and enriching should evolve a strategy which functions on the basis of open
communication, interactive collaboration and a global view of common problems. SET's
aim is to forge a world-learning climate that constantly strives towards improving and
expanding the intellectual, emotional and spiritual horizon of the human race.
Functionaries engaged in the management of services in schools run by SET develop new
attitudes to serve the stakeholders to suit new times. New ways of promoting in-service
training of school teachers is through Inter-cultural interaction. Let us take an example. A
major daily, The Times of India‟s „Newspaper in Education‟ was put together by nine
Salwan Schools under the aegis of SET on 22 November 2006. The underlying idea was
to transcribe in words the ideas, experiences, aspirations and above all the dauntless desire
not to dismiss reality from the humdrum of a teenager‟s roller coaster life.


II. Raising skills and increasing consistency in the quality of practice through
    effective feedback mechanism

A more flexible, dynamic and technically empowered workforce forms the basis of
professionalism. Increasing consistency in the quality of practice can be monitored by
continuous, and regular feedback often through mentoring as well as more formal training
programmes. The most successful education systems in the world are characterized by
high levels of lesson observation and ongoing regular performance management. The
effective use of classroom-based formative assessment with a feedback mechanism
approximately doubles the rate of pupil progress. Therefore a new professionalism capable
of driving world-class improvement is likely to represent a challenge to many established
ways of working. One important way is to create a mechanism of learning from each
others experience for raising skills and increasing the consistency in the management of
quality systemic design. Inter-country dissertation supports such development interest.
The UKIERI project is an interesting example that contributes meaningfully to the mutual
growth of heads of schools in the two countries.



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The UK India Education and Research Initiative (UKIERI) aims to substantially
improve educational links between India and UK ensuring in the long term that the Indian
and UK principals and schools become each other's partner of choice in education.
UKIERI was announced by the then Prime Minister Tony Blair during his visit to India in
September 2005. UKIERI is the first school programme where a good balance between the
clusters of 127 state-funded schools to 148 private schools has reached in India. Our
school has been working on this project since 2008. The modality of its working is
creating clusters of schools in India and in UK e.g. Salwan Public School, Gurgaon is a
member of a cluster of six schools in India. This cluster is linked with a cluster of four
schools in Lancaster, UK.


The Key Principles of UKIERI Cluster School Partnerships are:

1.      Making learning fun
2.      Engaging with technology
3.      Create professional teaching resources
4.      Sharing learning resources
5.      Connecting with the outside world
6.      Bringing the world into your classroom
7.      Appreciating different learning and teaching styles
8.      Leadership for learning

The underlying idea of New Professionalism, is that there is an increased need for
accountability and transparency of performance information. There are other initiatives as
well. Department for International Development‟s (DFID) Global School Partnerships is a
programme sponsored by British Council. Under this project in the month of April Mr.
John Durkin from Mount Carmel Roman Catholic Primary School, London visited our
school to facilitate few initiatives. In this project, themes were identified and then
integrated into the curriculum and finally discussed in the various classes. For example,
health was selected as the theme for the month in which - Obesity and Anorexia, two of
the major problems faced by children these days, were discussed. This project aimed to
create awareness about these problems. There was an exchange of ideas, presentations and
write ups on "Health Food Vs. Junk Food", Drug Abuse, BMI, Sharing of recipes, energy
drinks, etc.


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III. Greater Freedom for High Performers

New Professionalism involves decentralization of power and responsibilities. It requires
high performers to have the freedom and flexibilities to respond to the need of those who
use the service and to drive innovation at higher standard. Professionals must learn to
teach in ways they have not been taught. That deviation from the convention needs greater
freedom.


One of our (Salwan Public School, Gurgaon) students moved to the USA and initiated a
programme of video conferencing with Walker Elementary School, Milwaukee,
Wisconsin, USA. Being a high performing school in the private sector with greater
freedom, I took the decision to do Video Conferencing with Walker Elementary School.
Video Conference is a technique that enables schools to meet and collaborate together
through the „Sight and Sound‟ medium, no matter where they are located. This invokes the
spirit of multiculturalism. Technology in today‟s world is now providing powerful way to
collaborate and learn from one another. With the massive growth in websites,
professionals are brought together. These sites make it possible to share best practices and
learn from the experiences of colleagues in an effective manner.


The world is shrinking at a fast pace and there is a dire need for students to appreciate and
respect each other‟s cultures in the global society. Mutual respect and appreciation for
each other‟s culture must be fostered. It must permeate all aspects of curriculum
guidelines and human resource development if we are to achieve the goals of globalization
and world peace. This video conference provided the required stimulus to develop
(a) Verbal- Linguistic Strength (b) Intra-personal- Interpersonal Skill (c) Visual and
Spatial Skill. The video conference between Salwan Public School and Walker
Elementary School is done every month. The topics recently discussed were (a) School as
a Family (b) Contemporary Economic Situation.


The International Exchange Programme undertaken by our school has reshaped the
educational landscape of our school as it has kindled universal consciousness combined
with the urgency of the realization that if India has to emerge as a super power it must
break barriers and build bridges by learning, un-learning and re-learning from different
cultures and educational patterns existing in the different parts of the world.



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IV. Shared Commitment and redefining relation between stakeholders

In the world of leadership, we find ourselves the victim of „snap back effect‟. Routinely
we stretch and embrace new perspectives with limitless capacity. As we stretch, we nod,
smile and send signals of understanding and commit to take actions. When we step back to
our daily routine, behaviour snaps back to its original position or comfort zone. The power
of leadership rests in ones fluency in speaking the language of influence and motivation.
Shared commitment towards the organization can only evolve if channels of
communication are open and handled carefully. According to Stephen Young „New
Professionalism‟ and „Micro Messages‟ are the true epicenters, defining a leaders ability
to influence others for better or worse. Effective use of micro messages by leaders lies at
the core of what inspires followers to follow. Micro messaging is communicating with
other human beings through visual, auditory, and sublingual means. Becoming aware of
micro messaging can deliver visible and measurable results without compromising on
one‟s personal style of working. Micro messaging is a subtle behaviour that leaders
communicate to their followers by non-verbal and para-verbal behaviour. Using micro
messaging, leaders have propelled teams to amazing achievement, solidified relationships,
opened new doors of creativity and transformed organizations interpretation on shared
commitment. For example, In Salwan Public School, Gurgaon on a day scheduled for
„Interface with Professionals‟, Parents take classes; this brings freshness to the teaching
learning process. Interface with parents who are professionals in different fields
strengthens our belief in our shared commitments for better outcomes.


With increasing globalization, the sharing of commitment cannot remain restricted to local
areas. The concept of stakeholder has to be redefined e.g., an alumni of an SET School
may be an employee of an Multinational Company located in Singapore. In the new
global order, the Singapore employer is also a stakeholder in Salwan's Education. As a
response to this new challeng, twinning arrangement between educational institution
within and across the countries are becoming a global phenomenon. If twinning comes,
can multi-culturalism be far behind!


Multiculturalism is now appearing as a requirement for the educational institution to
inculcate the understanding of the multicultural society keeping the influence of
globalization in mind. Multiculturalism initiates exchange/visit programme of students
and teachers helping the two schools from different countries to evolve common projects

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in the form of a „Twinning Programme‟. In UKIERI, for example, there is twinning
between two cluster of schools.


Salwan Public School, Gurgaon, an ISO 9001:2008 Certified, has all the modern facilities
and a sound infrastructure base. SPS has developed twinning arrangements with selects
school in Singapore. The Twinning Projects offer a good opportunity to provide exposure
to our pupils and teachers to the Indian and Singapore Educational System, history,
culture, and society and helped foster reciprocal ties and working understanding between
the two countries. In March 2006, as a part of a pre-twinning visit, the principals from
Kuo Chuan Presbyterian Primary School (KCPPS) and Jing Shan Primary School (JSPS)
together with one teacher from each school visited our school to meet up with educators to
determine the feasibility of and explore the opportunities for twinning. In September 2006,
teachers and pupils from SPS also visited KCPPS and JSPS on a cultural visit (Annexure
2). In this way the „Twinning Programme‟ acted as a catalyst to the new system of
education. It facilitated our team members in realizing the requirement of modern
pedagogy.


In context with multiculturalism, Hargreaves (1994) traces nine trends in the development
that promotes new professionalism.

      From individualism to collaboration
      From ones to twos
      From hierarchies to teams
      From in-service training to professional development.
      From liaison to partnership
      From authority to contract
      From process to product
      From survival to empowerment.




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Conclusion

It is not just that the demands for education are increasing, but that the very nature of of
the demand for education is changing. New Professionalism demands the ability to get an
honest audit of our internal communication, human resources policies, training
programmes and decision making structures. The power to drive change is with the
minutest of creatures and not the giant. Our attention tends to be drawn by the big and
obvious, but whether it is the tiny seed that is source of the life, or the microscopic
bonding and viruses holding the power for all life‟s destruction. The smallest act of
indifference can kill professionalism. New professionalism in Educational Leadership and
Management involves a persistent effort to open the windows for fresh breeze and
opportunities. In a nutshell it actively solicits openness, connects on a personal level,
crediting new ideas and responds constructively to disagreement.


References:
Nussbaum, Martha C, Education for Profit, Education for Freedom, Journal of
    Educational Planning and Administration, Vol. XXII, October, 2008
Hargreaves, Andy, Renewal in the Age of Paradox, 1994.
Cumming, J., Embracing New Professionalism, Campus Review, June 2003.
Manallack, Stephen, You can communicate, Pearson 2002.
Young, Stephen, Micro Messaging: Why great leadership is beyond words, Tata McGraw
    Hill Edition 2007.
Raghavan, Achal, Going Global and Taking Charges – The Road Ahead for Indian
    Manager. Vikalpa, October-December 2008
Report of the Salwan Education Trust, 1996-2008.
Twinning Programme 2007-2008 by Kuo Chaun Presbyterian Primary School, Jing Shan
    Primary School and Salwan Public School.
Western, Simon, Leadership: A Critical Text, Sage Publication, 2008.




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                                                                                                 Annexure I


                                      Expectation most children will describe an adequate &
Healthy Eating                        varied diet for humans, recognising that there are many
                                      ways of achieving this; explain how they should look after
                                      their teeth & recognise why they need to do so; suggest
                                      questions about diet to be investigated; make relevant
                                      observations & present results in bar charts & tables
                                      Expectation most children will have used information
                                      from an evaluation activity to select & prepare a range of
                                      sandwich ingredients for a purpose, combining the
                                      ingredients to create an appealing sandwich; have
                                      considered how well their sandwich meets the original
                                      purpose; have an understanding of the ‘balanced plate’
                                      model for healthy eating & will have applied this to ideas
                                      about how the sandwich contributes to a healthy diet
Unit           Learning                       Teaching Activities                        Learning
              Objectives                                                                 Outcomes
          introduction                  Revisit ideas about diet from Unit           children’s interest
 1                                        2A ‘Health & growth’, asking                  stimulated
                                          children separate questions about
                                          what they eat & what they like to
                                          eat.
        that all animals,               Visit a local supermarket or               produce a record of
 2         including humans,              market to look at the range of                the visit or work
           need to feed                   foods available or use secondary              done in writing &
        that animals need to             sources & a collection of foods.              drawing
           feed to grow & to              Group foods into broad categories          identify some foods
           be active                      eg meat & fish, fats, starches &              ‘for    growth’ &
                                          sugars,        vegetables,       fruit.       some foods ‘for
                                          Introduce the concept of groups of            activity’
                                          foods for particular purposes
                                          eg some foods, particularly meat,
                                          fish, cheese, lentils, beans, supply
                                          what we need for growth; fats,
                                          sugars & starches provide what
                                          we need to be active. Ask children
                                          to record their groupings in
                                          drawing & writing.
          that an adequate &            Present children with a collection         describe a varied &
 3           varied diet is               of pictures to illustrate types of            balanced      diet
             needed to keep               food from different cultures or               suggesting some
             healthy                      invite someone eg a vegetarian or             foods that     are
                                          vegan or an owner of a restaurant             needed for growth
                                          whose diet may be unfamiliar to               &      some that
                                          the children to visit & discuss               enable us to be
                                          their diet, explaining how they               active
                                          ensure that they have adequate
                                          amounts of food types. Ask
                                          children     to    describe    using
                                          drawings & writing how they aim
                                          to have a balanced & varied diet.
                                          Talk with the children about
                                          different diets &       explain the
                                          scientific use of the word ‘diet’.
          that           different      Ask children to find out using             suggest   what they
 4           animals          have        direct observation or secondary               could    find out
                                                                                                        9
          different diets            sources eg reference books, CD-             about the diets of
       to raise questions           ROMs what local/familiar animals            their pets
          about the diet of          eat. Ask them to suggest                 identify different sorts
          different pets             questions eg Do all cats eat the            of food eaten by
                                     same food? Do cats & dogs eat               the animals
                                     the same? Do animals prefer
                                     particular foods? Ask children who
                                     have pets to talk about the
                                     preferences of their pets.
     to turn ideas about           Decide as a class on one                   suggest a question in
5       the diet of animals          question to investigate eg Do all             a form that could
        into a form that             cats eat the same food? Discuss               be      investigated
        can              be          what evidence to collect eg which             eg Do cats eat fish,
        investigated                 cats should be included, & how to             chicken,      rabbit,
     to decide how many             describe different sorts of food              tinned food?
        animals should be            (fish, chicken, tinned food). Help         make      suggestions
        investigated      &          children to decide how to collect &           about the animals
        the range of foods           present the evidence eg tables,               &     foods to be
        to be considered             pictograms or bar charts. Talk with           investigated
     to present evidence            children about how good the                present results in a
        about the foods              evidence is eg how many pets                  suitable bar chart
        eaten by animals             there were in the sample. Decide              or pictogram
        in a suitable bar            what, if any, conclusions can be           say what they think
        chart or pictogram           drawn.                                        they can conclude
     to decide whether                                                            from their work
        the evidence is                                                            eg only half the
        sufficient to draw                                                         cats eat fish &
        conclusions                                                                whether           the
                                                                                   evidence is good
                                                                                   enough        eg but
                                                                                   maybe the other
                                                                                   cats would eat fish
                                                                                   if someone gave it
                                                                                   to them
         that there are a        Discuss       the    contribution    of      have                 an
6         variety           of     sandwiches to a healthy diet.                 understanding         of
          sandwiches               Introduce the ‘balanced plate’ model          what a sandwich is &
          (structure         &     of food groups. Ask the children to           how to make one
          content)                 identify different foods in the groups.      record their opinions
         that people have         Encourage them to look at their own           on        a       table
          different                diets.                                        commenting           on
          preferences             Ask the children to evaluate a range          taste,    appearance,
         that     databases       of bought sandwiches, recording               smell & texture
          are useful for           opinions on appearance, smell,               identify the different
          holding      survey      taste & texture. Record this                  food groups in the
          information              information on a database to find             ‘balanced plate’
         that food can be         the most popular choice.                     put commonly eaten
          divided         into    Give the children a selection of              foods in their correct
          different groups         breads that can be used for                   food groups
         that sandwiches          sandwiches to taste eg rye bread –           have      a     sound
          can form part of a       Danish open sandwiches; pitta                 understanding         of
          healthy diet             bread – filled kebab; flat bread –            appropriate      terms
         that       different     filled naan; bread rolls; French stick;       used       in      food
          combinations of          sliced & unsliced loaves. Ask them            preparation & food
          ingredients     can      to identify each one & explain what           products
          affect the taste &       it can be used for.
          texture of the          Ask children to consider how the
          product                  sandwiches are packed & stored in
         to use appropriate       a shop until use. Which materials
          language related         are used & why? Where are
          to food products         sandwiches kept? What happens to
                                   sandwiches that are packed badly?
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       about           the        Discuss the importance of preparing           identify important
7       importance       of         a food area, wearing aprons, &                 aspects of personal
        hygienic      food          personal hygiene. Discuss why                  hygiene before
        preparation       &         some foods are high risk & should              handling food
        storage                     be kept in a fridge.                           eg washing hands,
       to use tools safely        Demonstrate or explore different               keeping long hair tied
        & effectively               ways of making sandwiches                      back, wearing an
       that combinations           eg toasted sandwiches, double-                 apron
        of     ingredients,         decker          sandwiches,         open      identify which foods
        preparation       &         sandwiches, club sandwiches, filled            should be kept in a
        cooking can affect          pitta, filled fajitas, ‘doorstep’/chunky       fridge & why some
        the end product             filled sandwiches. Discuss how                 foods are high risk
                                    different effects can be achieved &           use sharp tools
                                    who would eat these sandwiches.                correctly to ensure
                                   Show the children how to prepare &             safety & accuracy
                                    /or      cook       simple     sandwich
                                    components eg hard-boil an egg,
                                    make tuna mayonnaise, grill bacon
                                    rashers, make cheese on toast.
                                   Use different spreads eg butter,
                                    margarine, mayonnaise on the
                                    bread to carry out a discrimination
                                    test to see if children can identify
                                    each spread.
                                   Discuss the function of each
                                    ingredient in the sandwich eg bread
                                    – to hold filling, spread – to bind
                                    together & moisten.
                                   Show the children how to use a
                                    knife for slicing &                cutting
                                    eg keeping fingers well back &
                                    cutting away from self, using a fork
                                    to hold a tomato still while cutting
                                    through the prongs & a grater. Ask
                                    them to practise using them
                                    correctly & safely.
                                   Discuss how food ingredients
                                    change when different preparation
                                    techniques are used or heat/cold is
                                    applied.
                                   Ask the children to record what they
                                    have eaten over three days. Use
                                    time & plate wallcharts to show
                                    different times of meals. Discuss
                                    ways of improving our diet.

       to     identify    a       Discuss with the children the                 apply what they have
8       purpose for their             purpose of the sandwich &                      learnt      through
        sandwich eg for a             provide help to develop the                    IDEAs/FPTs          in
        summer picnic &               criteria for their designs.                    their designing &
        establish criteria         Explain clearly that when designing              making
        for a successful              children have a choice of:                  identify that different
        product                      bread                                          sandwiches        are
       to plan the order            spread                                         created            for
        of    their     work         filling ingredients & finishing                different    needs,
        before starting              shape/appearance of the finished               occasions           &
       that     they    can       Discuss       how      each     product          purposes
        modify          their         contributes to a healthy diet.              use their knowledge
        designs           by          Encourage the children to try                  from their research
        evaluating as they            these combinations as prototypes               to           choose
        are making                    before committing them to their                ingredients for the
       that the quality of           final design.                                  sandwich eg most
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          their product will     Explain that children will need to            people      preferred
          depend on their           develop a clear sequence for                brown bread so I
          skills, accuracy &        making         the        sandwich,         chose this for my
          care                      emphasising that the quality of the         design
         to evaluate their         finished product can be ensured          work      through     a
          product     against       through accurate use of tools &             sequence of tasks
          original    design        careful presentation. A small               to     produce      a
          criteria                  group may set up a production               sandwich, making
                                    line simulation, with each child            appropriate
                                    doing one process such as cutting           modifications
                                    bread, spreading, filling, finishing.    show that they have
                                    What will you need? Where will              worked safely &
                                    you work? Who will do what? How             hygienically in their
                                    much time do you have? Are                  preparation         &
                                    there different ways of making it?          finishing to ensure
                                    Which would give the best                   a quality product
                                    results?                                 evaluate           their
                                 Evaluate their product & each                 sandwich            &
                                    other’s against the original design         others’       against
                                    criteria. How well does this work?          their         original
                                    How can you improve it? What do             design criteria
                                    you need to change?



Lesson Plans 2008




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                                                                              Annexure -2
                                Twinning Programme



Objectives of ‘The Twinning Programme’:
The twinning of Salwan with KCPPS and JSPS served to harness immense opportunities
that the educational and cultural exchanges offered. The objectives were:
      Understanding and respecting differences and diversity.
      Understanding how people, places, economics and environments are all
       inextricably interrelated.
      To promote greater educational, cultural and social understanding between the two
       countries
      To cultivate a spirit of collaboration and service amongst our pupils

Programme Work Plan:
The Twinning Programme was for three years which involved 20 pupil and two teachers
from two schools namely KCPPS and JSPS. The three-year programme was structured in
three distinct stages –
(a) The Exploration Stage,
(b) Engagement Stage and
(c) Service Stage.

(a) The Exploration Stage
In the first phase, teachers and pupil from the two countries had the opportunity to learn
from each other through an immersion programme, by attending each others classes as
well as participating in various co-curricular activities. The learning attained during this
stage was given a concrete shape in the form of publication which included the journal
writings, sketches, poems, among others which were jointly published in the shape of a
Magazine by Salwan Public School and other Singapore Counterparts.

(b) Engagement Stage
The second stage continued with amalgamation of ideas but additional opportunities were
also provided for pupil to participate and engage in cultural activities. The students from
Singapore learnt about the rich historical and cultural heritage of India while Indian
students got an opportunity to imbibe the multi-cultural experiences. The students from
both the countries participated in cultural workshops and talks; had a joint exhibition
where they showcased their creative works inspired by their understanding of each others‟
culture.

(c) Service Stage
The third and final stage of the Twinning Programme continued with the intercultural
exchange and service segment in which pupils participated in lessons and co-curricular
activities. This stage focused on Community Service where pupils participated in various
community projects with their Indian counterparts. The experiences attained were finally
shared in the form of talks, presentations and exhibitions.

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