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					The student’s strategies in composing narrative writing at

second year of SMK NEGERI 1 WATAMPONE




                            1
                                    CHAPTER I

                                INTRODUCTION




1.1 Background of the Problem

      English is the first foreign language in our country, which is taught from

   Elementary level to University level. English is also intensively used in

   international communication, in written as well as in spoken communication. In

   addition, many books of science, technology, art and other published issues are

   written in English.

      In English language, there are integrated skills to be mastered such as:

   Speaking, listening, reading, and writing. As Haycraft states (1978:8) that there

   are various skills in mastering of language: respective skill, listening

   (understanding the spoken language), reading (understanding the written

   language), and productive skills-speaking and writing.

      The researcher chooses student’s composing narrative writing as a material

   of narrative writing. By assumption that the composition is the result of

   students’ product that can be known clearly. Sofyan (1999:86) stated that

   Narrative is a story which is connected with events based on the plot. Then why

   the teachers use narrative text, it is because the narrative as a story of human

   experience, so that the students arrange easily the composition. As Keraf

   (1991:136) states that “Narrative as a story tells or describe an action in the past




                                           2
time clearly, so narrative is tried to answer the question: what had happened?”.

Narrative as a story, so it is should have the element that can make story more

interesting to the reader such as a conflict and conclusion of the story.

   The students must have good communication in both oral and written form.

Oral form is that speaking and listening, and written form is that writing in

reading. The students have difficulties in composing narrative writing. Some of

them feel difficulties in composing narrative writing such as: stuck to get

diction, getting idea, and ordering the words.

   Based on the problem above, the students must know some strategies in

composing narrative writing such as: making outline, using picture, using

dictionary, sharing with friends, using the tools (audio, audio-visual) or

learning’s aids( a guide),. As Brown (2000:113) stated that strategies are

specific methods of approaching a problem or task, modes of operation for

achieving a particular end, planned designs for controlling and manipulating

certain information. Because of that the students should choose a good strategy

to compose narrative writing. As Chamot in Masdari (2005:5) says learning

strategies are techniques approaches, or deliberate the learning and recall of

both linguistic and contains information.

   From the above explanation, we can infer that each student has certain

tendency and capability in using certain learning strategies, therefore the use of

various learning strategies influenced by their family background, experience,

and character. In order words, strategy that is useful to student might not be




                                        3
   useful to others. Since students have their own strategy characteristic, they will

   have different learning strategies that are useful and comfortable for them.

       From the above explanation, the researcher will discuss about “the students’

   strategies in composing narrative writing” which is conducted at the second

   year of SMK NEGERI 1 WATAMPONE.



1.2 The Identification of Problem

       Based on the background above, the research identifies the problem as

   follow:

   1   The students get difficulties in composing narrative writing.

   2   Inappropriate learning strategies and teaching techniques.

   3   There is much kind of strategies which have done.



1.3 The Limitation of Problem

       In this research the researcher limits only on strategy in composing

   narrative writing done by students at second year of SMK NEGERI 1

   WATAMPONE.


1.4 The Formulation of Problem

       Dealing with limitation of the problem, the researcher would like to

   formulate the problem as follow:

       1) What strategies are used by the students in writing narrative at second

             year of SMK NEGERI 1 WATAMPONE?



                                          4
       2) What are the students’ reasons in choosing strategies at second year of

          SMK NEGERI 1 WATAMPONE?

       3) How do the students’ compose narrative writing at second year of SMK

          NEGERI 1 WATAMPONE?



1.5 Objectives of the research

       The objectives of the research could be formulated as follow:

       1) To find out strategies used by the students at second year of SMK

          NEGERI 1 WATAMPONE.

       2) To know the students reasons in choosing a strategy at second year of

          SMK NEGERI 1 WATAMPONE.

       3) To know the students ability in composing narrative writing at second

          year of SMK NEGERI 1 WATAMPONE.



1.6 The Uses of the Research

   1.6.1 Theoretically:

       1. As the references for other researchers who are interested in

          investigating the teaching writing ability by using composing narrative

          writing to students’ composing narrative writing.

       2. As the support for the theory which states that composing narrative

          writing.




                                         5
   1.6.2 Practically:

       1 As the answer of the writer’s curiosity on the teaching by using

           composing narrative writing to the students’ and the English teachers.

       2 As the information for all the teachers and the students to use strategies in

           composing narrative writing.




1.7 Clarification of terms

   1.7.1 Writing Strategies

       According to Collin (2008) state that writing strategies are deliberate,

   focused ways of thinking about writing.

       Based on definition above, writing strategies are some of technique it can be

   a formal plan to write a book report, or it can be something as simple as a trick

   to remember how a word is spelled.

   1.7.2   Strategy

       According to Brown (2000:113) Strategies are specific methods of

   approaching a problem or task, modes of operation for achieving a particular

   end, planned designs for controlling and manipulating certain information.

       Then strategy is as a remedy the teacher in making system area that

   happened to process teaching learning. (Ahmadi: 2005: 32).

       According to Chamot (1987) strategies are often more powerful when they

   are used in appropriate combinations.




                                           6
   Based on those definitions above, strategies are any tools or tactics that

learners employ to learn more effectively and more autonomously.



1.7.3   Learning Strategies

   According to Chamot (1987) learning strategies are techniques approaches,

or deliberate the learning and recall of both linguistic and content information.

(Cited from Masdari, 2005:5)

   Then learning strategies are intention behavior and thoughts used by

learners during learning, so as to better help them understand learn or remember

new information. (Richards. 1992:209)

   Based on definition above, learning strategies are technique approaches,

intention behavior used by learner during learning, so as to better help them

understand learn or remember new information.



1.7.4   Narrative writing

   As Semi in Hasani (2005:22) stated that narrative is conversation or writing

with the purpose tells about action or human experience based on the

development of time.

   Then according to Keraf (1991:136) states that “Narrative as a story tells or

describes an action in the past time clearly, so narrative is tried to answer the

question: what had happened?” Narrative as a story, so it is should have the

element that makes the story more interesting to the reader such as a conflict

and conclusion of the story.



                                       7
      Referring on the definitions above we conduct that narrative is a story

  telling about the event consist of conflict and conclusion.



1.8 Organization of the paper

       Chapter one discusses about introduction that consists of background of

  problem, identification of problem, limitation and formulation of problem,

  objective of the research, uses of the research, clarification of terms and

  organization of paper

       Chapter two discusses about frame of theories that consist of the definition

  of strategy, the kinds of strategies, definition of learning strategies, the

  categories of learning strategies, definition of narrative, the characteristic of

  narrative, the kinds of narrative, the different between narrative and recount,

  definition writing strategies, plan for writing.

       Chapter three discusses about methodology that consist of research

  design, place of the research, data collecting technique, data analysis technique

  and analysis of the instrument.

       Chapter four discusses about research result and discussion of the

  findings.

       Chapter five discusses about conclusions and suggestion.




                                          8
                                   CHAPTER II

                        LITERATURE OF THEORIES




2.1 Definition of Strategy

          Everybody has strategy in learning everything. It is conscious or

   unconsciously. It is natural for learners to use strategy in learning process,

   because learning is not an instantaneous process for every learner, it is one of

   their development process. Sometimes strategy can help the students, so the

   teacher helps the learner. As Ahmadi (2005:14) states that strategy is as a

   remedy for the teacher in making system area that happened to process of

   teaching learning.

          According to Brown (2000:113) Strategies are specific methods of

   approaching a problem or task, modes of operation for achieving a particular

   end, planned designs for controlling and manipulating certain information.

   Moreover, Mintzberg (1991: 5) says that strategy is the pattern or plan that

   integrates an organization’s major goals, policies, and action sequences into a

   cohesive whole.

          Then, Chamot (1999:32) stated that strategies are often more powerful

   when they are used in appropriate combinations. Based on the statement above

   strategies are any tools or tactics that learners employ to learn more effectively

   and more autonomously.




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2.2 The Kinds of Strategy

      There are kinds of strategies. As Brown (2000:122) states that the strategies

   divide in to two are

   2.2.1   Learning Strategies

           Chamot in Masdari (2005:5) stated Learning strategies are techniques

   approaches, or deliberate the learning and recalls of both linguistic and content

   are information.

           Strategies were divided into three main categories, are:

      a) Metacognitive strategies

           Metacognitive strategies is a term used in information-processing theory

           to indicate an “executive” function, strategies that involve planning for

           learning, thinking about the learning process as it is taking place,

           monitoring of one’s production or comprehension, and evaluating

           learning after an activity is completed.

      b) Cognitive strategies

           Cognitive Strategies are more limited to specific learning tasks and

           involve more direct manipulation of the learning material itself.

      c) Socioaffective strategies

           Socioaffective strategies have to do with social mediating activity and

           interacting with others.

                  Referring to the explanation above there are many categories of

           learning strategies are metacognitive strategies, cognitive strategies, and

           socioaffective strategies.



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2.2.2    Communication Strategies

         Faerch and Kasper in Brown (2000:127) defined communication

strategies as “potentially conscious plans for solving what to an individual

presents itself as a problem in reaching a particular communication goal”.

         There are several categories in communication strategies. According to

Brown (2000:127), such as:

a. Avoidance Strategies

         Avoidance strategies are a common communication strategy that can be

         broken down into several subcategories.

         The types of avoidance strategies are:

         1) Message abandonment: leaving a message unfinished because of

             language difficulties.

         2) Topic avoidance: avoiding topic areas or concepts that pose

             language difficulties.

b. Compensatory Strategies

        Common compensatory strategies are a direct appeal for help. Learners

        may, if stuck for a particular word or phrase, directly ask a native speaker

        or the for the form.

        The types of compensatory strategies are:

        1) Circumlocution: describing or exemplifying the target object of

           action.

        2) Approximation; using an alternative term which expresses the

           meaning of the target lexical item as closely as possible.



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         3) Use of all-purpose words: extending a general, empty lexical item to

            contexts where specific words are lacking.

         4) Word coinage: creating a none existing.

         5) Prefabricated patterns: using memorized stock phrases, usually for

            “survival’ purpose.

         6) Nonlinguistic signal: mime, gesture, facial expression, or sound

            imitation.

         7) Literal translations: translating literally a lexical item, idiom,

            compound word, or structure from L1 to L2

         8) Foreign zing: using a L1 word by adjusting it to L2 phonology

         9) Code-switching: using a L1 word will, Li pronunciation or a L3 word

            with L3 pronunciation while speaking in L2.

         10) Appeal for help; asking for aid from the interlocutor either directly.

         11) Stalling or time-gaining strategies: using files or hesitation devices to

            fill and to gain time to think.



2.3 Definition of learning Strategy

          According to Chamot in Masdari (2005:5) state that Learning strategies

   are techniques approaches, or deliberate the learning and recall of both

   linguistic and contains information. Then Richards (1992:209) says that

   learning strategies are intention behavior and thoughts used by learners during

   learning, so as to better help them understand learn or remember new

   information.



                                              12
            From the statement above we can infer that in order to be a successful

   language learner student should be able to decide which learning strategies that

   one suitable for them. Thus, they can optimize and enjoy they learning by using

   learning strategies, students can facilitate their quality of learning respond to

   their learning needs and acquire knowledge better than those who do not know

   and use learning strategies.



2.4. The Categories of learning strategies

       There are several categories. According to Brown (2000: 124), categories of

   learning strategies are:

   2.4.1    Metacognitive strategies

            Metacognitive is a term used in information-processing theory to

   indicate an “executive” function, strategies that involve planning for learning,

   thinking about the learning process as it is taking place, monitoring of one’s

   production or comprehension, and evaluating learning after an activity is

   completed. Brown in Purpura (1997).

            According to explanation of metacognitive strategies, we can conclude

   the characteristic of metacognitive strategies, are:

     a) Advance organizers: making a general but comprehensive preview of the

           organizing concept or principle in an anticipated learning activity.

     b) Directed attention : deciding in advance to attend in general to a learning

           task and to ignore irrelevant distracters




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  c) Selective attention: deciding in advance to attend to specific aspects of

        language input or situational details that will cue the retention of language

        input.

  d) Self management: understanding the conditions that help one learn and

        arranging for the presence of those conditions.

  e) Function planning: planning for and rehearsing linguistic components

        necessary to carry out an upcoming language task.

  f) Self monitoring: correcting one’s speech for accuracy in pronunciation,

        grammar, vocabulary, of for appropriateness related to the setting or to the

        people who are present.

  g) Delayed production : consciously deciding to postpone speaking in order

        to learn initially through listening comprehension

  h) Self valuation: checking the outcomes of one’s own language learning

        against an internal measure of completeness and accuracy.



2.4.2    Cognitive strategies

     Cognitive strategies are more limited to specific learning tasks and involve

more direct manipulation of the learning material itself.

         According to explanation of cognitive strategies, we can conclude the

characteristic of cognitive strategies, are:

  a) Repetition :imitating a language model, including overt practice and

        silrehearsal

  b) Resourcing : using target language reference materials



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c) Translation: using the first language as a base for understanding and/or

   producing the second language.

d) Grouping : reordering or reclassifying, and perhaps labeling, the material

   to be learned based on common attributes

e) Note taking : writing down the main idea, important points, outline, or

   summary of information presented orally or in writing

f) Direction: consciously applying rules to produce or understand the second

   language.

g) Recombination: constructing a meaningful sentence of target language

   sequence by combining known elements in a new way.

h) Imagery : relating new information to visual concepts in memory via

   familiar, easily retrievable visualizations, phrase, or longer language

   sequence

i) Keyword : remembering a new word in the second language by (1)

   identifying a familiar word in the first language the sounds like or

   otherwise resembles the new word and (2) generating easily recalled

   images of some relationship between the new word and thee familiar

   word

j) Contextualization : placing a word or phrase in a meaningful language

   sequence

k) Elaboration : relating new information to other concepts in memory

l) Transfer : using previously acquired linguistic and/or conceptual

   knowledge to qqqq new language learning task



                                    15
     m) Inferencing: using available information to guess meaning of new items,

           predict outcomes, or fill in missing information.



   2.4.3    Socioaffective strategies

            Socioaffective strategies have to do with social mediating activity and

   interacting with others.

            According to explanation of socioaffective strategies, we can conclude

   the characteristic of socioaffective strategies, are:

       a) Cooperation : working with one or more peers to obtain feedback, pool

            information, or model a language

       b) Question for clarification: asking a teacher or other native speaker for

            repetition, paraphrasing, explanation, and/or examples.

       Base of explanations above, the characteristic of socioaffective strategies is

   more conclude to social activity or always met people to interaction with others.



2.5 Definition of Narrative

            The students are learning many texts. One of texts is narrative text. It is

   related to the experience or story of past time. Marahamin (1999:96) defined

   “Narrative is a story based on the plot, and plot consists of event, person, and

   conflict”.

            As semi (2003:29) in Hasani (2005:22) stated that narrative is

   conversation or writing with the purpose tells about action or human experience

   based on the development of time. Keraf (1991:136) stated that “Narrative as a



                                            16
   story tells or describes an action in the past time clearly, so narrative is tried to

   answer the question: what happened”. Narrative as a story, so it is should have

   the element that can make the story more interesting to the reader such as a

   conflict and conclusion of the story.



2.6 The Characteristic of Narrative

           According to explanation of narrative, we can conclude the

   characteristic of narrative, are 1) it is a story or it is usually human experience;

   2) it has a conflict and solving problem, 3) systematic. As Keraf (2000: 136)

   states that the characteristic of narrative are 1) concern to actions, 2) set in the

   time sequences, 3) try to answer the question, what happened? 4) It has

   conflicts. Semi in Hasani (2005:27) states that, the other characteristic of

   narrative, it has aesthetics; it should have imagery to increase the reader’s

   interest.



2.7 The Kinds of Narrative

       Keraf (1991: 136) defines those kinds of narrative:

   2.7.1   Expository narrative

       Expository narrative is usually tells the information about the event based

   on factual data. It also tells about the steps of the event to the reader. The object

   in expository narrative is beginning the first until the end; it means that the

   writer tells the story from the first until the end. The purpose of narrative is to

   make the reader’s knowledge about object of story is deeply.



                                            17
  2.7.2   Suggestive narrative

      Different from expository narrative, suggestive narrative can be unsuitable

  with the factual data, because it emphasizes the suggestive sense. So, the

  purpose of suggestive narrative is to increase the reader’s imagination. Hasani

  (2005:290) Says “narrative suggestive is narrative that tried to give a certain

  purpose tell an explicit message to readers or listener so they fell that they are

  involved in the story”.

          Referring to the explanation above, the narrative is tells the story based

  on the human experience in the first until the end to give a certain purpose tell

  an explicit message to readers about object of story deeply.



2.8 The Different between Narrative and Recount

          According to Pardiyono,M.Pd.(2007:63), recount is as a kind of the text

  that have purpose to gives the information about the activity in the past.



  Pardiyono (2007:94) defines the different Narrative and Recount:

     Narrative is a kind of text about the activities that happened in the past

      time. It is appear about problematic experience and resolution, it purpose to

      amuse and sometimes it can be have to give the moral education to the

      reader. Narrative text is very general than short story, novel, film text,

      legend, tales and other that tell about the experience in the past time which

      is it has the conflict and resolution.




                                           18
      Recount is a kind of text about the activities that happened in the past time,

       the main purpose is just to explain or give the information to help the

       reader.

            Based on the explanation above, narrative is tells story about

   problematic human experience and resolution in the past time, but recount is

   tell story about the activities that happened in the past time, end the purpose just

   to explain or to give information to the reader.



2.9 Strategies in Composing Narrative Writing

            According to Collin (2008) state that writing strategies are deliberate,

   focused ways of thinking about writing. A writing strategy can take many

   forms.

            From the definition above, writing strategies are some technique it can

   be a formal plan a teacher wants students to follow to write a book report, or it

   can be something as simple as track to remember how a word is spelled.



30. A plan for writing

       Preparing a writing plan for a specific text type from this they can put a plan

   for writing a descriptive report in the future, for example: (Department of

   education and early childhood development)

       1. Title of the narrative

       2. Setting of the narrative

       3. The main characters of the narrative and how they develop



                                           19
   4. The main background of the narrative

   5. The events that lead up to the problem or challenge (the complication)

   6. The events that lead up to the problem/challenge being solved (the

       resolution)

   7. The ending (the conclusion)

Students use a range of strategies including the following:

    Students describe their action plan for writing, and the actions they will

       use to achieve their goals or purpose for writing.

    Students use idea generation and collation strategies, orientation

       strategies, and idea organization strategies, for example, brainstorming

       and semantic mapping (including computer and graphic organizer in

       planning and collecting knowledge for writing different text types) and

       strategies for narrative or expanding a topic prior to drafting.

    Students use drafting strategies in which students; 1) use the idea and

       perspectives generated to write a first draft; 2) elaborate initial ideas and

       identify subordinate ideas; and 3) focus on developing ideas, details and

       organizing them.

    Students use revising strategies such as rereading the draft to check that

       there is consistency of learning and main ideas, language use and style,

       and modify the draft accordingly.

    The students use editing strategies to check the use of spelling,

       punctuation, grammar, and capitalization; students use several resources

       such as a dictionary, computer and style guides.



                                        20
    Students use publishing strategies such as; 1) selecting a format for

       publication appropriate for the audience for example a letter, a poster,

       an essay, a report); and 2) using technology to support the publishing

       process.

   http:/www.education.vic.gov.au/studentlearning/teachingresource/English/e

   nglishcontinum/40writingstrategy/htm.

   From the above explanation, we know that by knowing the plan of writing,

the students’ can be good written if their use strategies in make composing

narrative writing.




                                      21
                                     CHAPTER III

                        RESEARCH METHODOLOGY



3.1 The Research Design and Method

          In this research, the researcher used Descriptive Qualitative. Qualitative

   research is descriptive research. Borgan and Taylor (1990:3) in Margono

   (2005:36) defined that qualitative research is “the research procedure which

   produces descriptive data such as word written or speed from the population

   people and attitude which can analyze”. In line with that, Sugiono (2005:9)

   states that Qualitative research is descriptive, the data collected is in the form of

   words of pictures rather that number: Qualitative researches are concerned with

   process rather than simply outcomes or products: qualitative researches tend to

   analyze their data inductively.

          The writer used this method to examine the events or phenomena of

   students, especially in students’ strategies in composing narrative writing.

   Sukmadianata in Sugiono (2005:60) states that qualitative research is a research

   that is used to describe and analyzed phenomena, event, social activity, attitude,

   belief, perception and people thinking either in individual or in a group.



3.2 Place of Research

          The research is about the analysis of students’ strategies in composing

   narrative writing at second year class of SMK NEGERI 1 WATAMPONE. It is




                                            22
   a formal education institution located in Kabupaten Bone. SMK NEGERI 1

   WATAMPONE has facilities that support students in teaching and learning

   process such as library



3.3 The Research Instrument

          Arikunto (1997:136) stated that Research instrument is the tools or

   facilities used by researcher in collecting the data, hope the result of research is

   more accurate, complete, and systematic, so the process is easier. Based on that

   explanation, the writer used research instrument in collecting data to support

   the research.

          As human instrument, the writer should make to focus of the research,

   choose the informant as source of the data, analyze the data and make

   conclusion. Moreover Licon and Guba in Sugiono (2005:60) state that the

   instrument of choice in naturalistic inquiry is the human. We shall see that other

   forms of instrumentation mat be used a tear phrases of the inquiry, but human

   instrument has been used extensively in earlier stages of inquiry, so that an

   instrument can be constructed that grounded in the data that the human

   instrument has product.

          From the statement above, the writer concluded that in qualitative

   research, there is no other opinion that to use human as the main research

   instrument because the problem, research focus, research procedure hypotheses

   and event the result in qualitative research are still unclear, so that there is no

   choice than to use the researcher as the main instrument.



                                           23
3.4 Time of Research

          The research held on 15 – 29 August 2008. It consist three meeting.

3.5 The Research subject

          Related to the research subject, the writer conducted her research in

   SMK NEGERI 1 WATAMPONE at Second year, which consists of three class

   and 102 students. Then, the writer used purposive sampling in deciding the

   students as research subject. So, the writer took the students as research subject

   purposively. They are 102 students.

          According to Linclon and Guba in Sugiono (2005:54) the characteristic

   of purposive sampling:

      a) Emergent sampling design

      b) Serial selection of sample unit

      c) Continuous adjustment of focusing of the sample

      d) Selection to the point of redundancy



3.6 The Data Collecting Technique

          In collecting the data in the students’ strategies in composing narrative

   writing the writer used observation, interview known as triangulation and

   questionnaire.

   3.6.1 Observation

          In the instrument, the writers will observation about student’s strategies

   in composing narrative writing at second year of SMK NEGERI 1

   WATAMPONE.



                                           24
       In this observation the writer as an observer, just only observed and was

not involved in the teaching process. Furthermore, the writer only used

checklist as the instrument in the observation. Besides observing student’s

activities, the writer also observed teacher’s roles, teaching aids and students’

achievement in order to know how the process of students’ strategies in

composing narrative writing is and how is the result of students’ strategies in

composing narrative writing.

       Observation used as data collecting technique have specific type if

compared by another type such as interview and questioner.(Sugiono,2005:65).

As far as the writer conducted a observation in the second year at SMK

NEGERI 1 WATAMPONE.

3.6.2 Interview

       This instrument is the way on the method of data collection in which the

writer asks the information directly. The writer interviewed the English teacher

and students to knowing some information from her/him how the teacher give a

material narrative writing and how the students’ using strategies in composing

narrative writing at second year (management) of SMK NEGERI 1

WATAMPONE.

3.6.3 Questionnaire

       In this research, the writer was given questioner to the students’ at

second year of SMK NEGERI 1 WATAMPONE cause the writer want to know

more deeply how does the students’ strategies in composing narrative writing.




                                       25
3.7 The Data Analysis Technique

     Muhajir (1996:104), data analysis is a process to find out and set result data

  from observes, interview, and other to increase the researcher about the study

  and make easy to understand by our self and other. In this research the writer

  conducted her research at second year of SMK NEGERI 1 WATAMPONE in

  dividing into three classes (Management I, and II) consist of 102 students.

  Then, to find out the data, the writer used the method by L.R. Gay and Arikunto

  The writer used the following technique to measure the data:


                        Agreement x 100%
                       __________
                         ∑ Items

                (Taken from L.R. Gay, 1992:248)

         The following are the standard in measuring the data:

                1. Good                : 76-100%

                2. Enough              : 51-75%

                3. Unsatisfactory      : 40% - 55%

                4. Worst               : < 40%

                 (Taken from Arikunto 2002:244)




                                        26
   To analyses the data the writer as follow:

   3.7.1 Reduction of data

          Data reduction use for collecting the data from observation, interview,

   and questionnaire. In data reduction, the writer will summarize and focus on the

   important data that could eases the writer in collecting the next data.

   3.7.2 Display

          In data display, the writer will analyze the result from observation,

   interview and questionnaire. Then the data were organized and arranged in a

   pattern, so that they would be understood easily.

   3.7.3 Conclusion drawing/ Verification

          According to Miles and Huberman (1992), the third step in analyzing

   data in qualitative research is conclusion drawing or verification. It was used to

   describe all of the data which were still unclear in the beginning.



3.8 Research validity and Reliability

       To determine the validity of the data, it is needed a checking technique of

   the data. According to Moleong (1993:173), there are four terms used:

   a. Credibility

       The validity concept mentions that generalization of a finding can be valid

   or applied on all contexts in the same population based on the finding obtained

   in the sample which resent the population it self.




                                           27
b. Transferability

   Transferability as empiric matter depends on the equity between sender and

receiver contexts. To do the transferability, a researcher should find and collect

empiric event of the context equality. Therefore, the researcher is responsibility

for providing efficient descriptive data if she wants to make a decision about

the transferability. To do this thing, a researcher needs to conduct a researcher

to ensure an attempt of verifying it.

c. Dependability

   Dependability term is reliability substitution term in qualitative research.

The reliability is achieved if the result is equal when two or several times

conducted repetition of a study in the same condition and essentially.

d. Conformability

   A conformability term derives from “objectives” concept according to non

qualitative research. Non qualitative states the objectivity of agreement side

between subjects. To make sure that something is objective or doesn’t depend

on several people’ agreement toward view, opinion, and someone’s finding. So,

in this case, the objectivity of something depends on the people opinion.

   Beside that, As Scriven (in Moleong, 1999:174), there is another

“qualitative” element which sticks on the objectivity, it should be trust able,

factual, and can be guaranteed. In other word, subjectivity means vague.

       From the above explanation, if qualitative research emphasizes on

“people”, whereas, non qualitative emphasize on the data. In this case, to

determine the validity and reliability, with a consideration that qualitative



                                        28
   research with its naturalistic paradigm is completely unable to use validity and

   reliability terms. Based on those descriptions, the naturalistic paradigm

   qualitative uses the term in which certainly adjusted to inquiry force, so that the

   redefine term is a demand that unavoidable.

          Based    of the techniques       mentioned above, the writer used

   conformability of the data.



3.9 Checking Technique of Data Credibility

          Lincoln et al (Moleong, 1999:175), there are eight checking techniques

   of data credibility suggested namely:

   3.9.1 Prolong Observation

          Prolong observation means that the writer should back to the field

   research again, then do observation and interview again to the participants in

   order to recheck whether the data, that were given before, are true or not. When

   the data, that were given, are true means that the data are credible and the

   prolong observation can be ended. Furthermore, by using prolong observation

   the relationship between the writer and the participants can form rapport.

   3.9.2 Persistent Observation

          Persistent observation means that the writer should do observation more

   accurately and continuously. By using persistent observation, the writer could

   give an accurate and systematic data description about the thing that is

   observed. In this case, the writer observed the English teacher when her/him

   teaching narrative writing.



                                           29
3.9.3 Triangulation

       Triangulation data is a checking technique of data credibility by making

use of another thing which out of data to check the necessity of the data or as a

comparison of the data. The most triangulation technique often used is checking

trough available source.

       Denzin (in Moleong, 1999:178) defines types of triangulation as

checking techniques, are: 1) triangulation of source, 2) triangulation of method,

3) triangulation of investigation, and 4) triangulation of theory.

3.9.4 Colleague Checking Through Discussion

       It is known as inter-rater. This technique is conducted to know whether

the writer and the other experts find the same data. When the writer and the

other research find the same data means that the data are credible.

3.9.5 Negative Case Analysis

       Negative analysis means that the writer should search another data,

which are different and even contradiction with the data that had already found.

When the writer does not find the contradiction data means the data are

credible.

3.9.6 Available Reference

       Available reference is a device to cope and adopt with written critics for

evaluation necessity. Film or video tape for example, can be used to record and

compare with the result gained with the critics collected. If those mediums are

not existed, other devices can be used as a comparison critic, for example

information that can be used during checking of the data.



                                        30
3.9.7 Checking Member

       Checking with the members involved in the process of collecting data is

very important to check credibility of the data. What will be checked with the

members involve are data, analytic category, assumption and conclusion. The

member involved who represent their colleague have function to give reaction

from their view sight and situation towards the data which organized by the

researcher.

3.9.8 Detail Description

       Detail description technique which demands the researcher to describe

the result of the research as accurate as possible which draws the research place

carried out. The description should be revealed in detail to give what the readers

needed so that they are able to understand the findings obtained. Auditing

technique is a technique in business concept, especially in fiscal field which is

used to check the dependency and credibility of the data.

       As Setiyadi (2002:206) states that there are five checking technique of

data credibility are, 1) Observation, 2) Interview, 3) Triangulation, 4)

Documentation, and 5) Field note.

       From all of the technique mentioned, researcher uses triangulation of

source to display that the data is credible.




                                         31
3.10 Research Procedures

   The following are the procedure used in this research:

    1.   Determining the subject of the research.

    2.   Providing the instruments of data collecting such as observation form,

         interview guide, interview students and questionnaire guide.

    3.   Doing observation in the class.

    4.   Interview the English teacher and interview students.

    5.   Giving questionnaire to the students.

    6.   Analyzing the result of observation, interview and questionnaire by using

         data display.

    7.   Explaining the result of data descriptively by making conclusion drawing

         or verification.

    8.   Identifying the credibility of the result of the observation, interview and

         questionnaire by using colleague checking or inter-rate and member

         check technique.




                                           32
                                  CHAPTER IV

                        RESULT AND DISCUSSION



4.1 The Result

   1. Result of observation

      After observing students’ strategies in the process of composing narrative

   writing in the classroom, the writer measured the data, which had been

   collected, so that the writer gets the result that was observed. In this research,

   the writer observed four components in the teaching process, such as, students

   learning activity, teacher’s participant, teaching’s aids and students’ learning

   achievement. (See table 1).

          To know what is of students’ strategies in composing narrative writing

   at second year (management) of SMK NEGERI 1 WATAMPONE, the writer

   observed the students’ learning to compose narrative writing. It takes 90

   minutes to observe the process of composing narrative writing. The writer got

   students’ strategies used to compose narrative writing.

          There are four components to get the data by observing the process of

   composing narrative writing. The first component is activities of students. The

   writer got the data which has result seventy five percent it means the students’

   are enough to do four activities. They are: the students listen to the teacher’s

   explanation about narrative writing, the students do assignment to compose

   narrative writing, the students make the outline before writing, and the students




                                          33
find difficulties in composing narrative writing. Actually one of four activities

was not done, it was the students make outline before writing, example the

students can not make outline before writing. While doing observation, the

writer found that the activities of students, such as : 1) the students listen to the

teacher’s explanation about narrative writing, the students make a group to

discuss narrative writing. 2) The students do assignments to compose narrative,

3) the students make the outline before writing, and 4) the students find

difficulties in composing narrative writing, the students find difficulties in

composing narrative writing such as: ordering the word, stuck to get diction and

etc.

       The second component was teacher’s participant. The main reason why

the writer observed the teacher’s participation because the teacher got the

important role in helping the students to learn narrative writing, such as: the

teacher gives explanation clearly to students in narrative writing so the students

will understand about the material and the teacher can help the students by

answering their question from the students about narrative writing.

       The result for teacher’s participation was good because it reaches eighty

percent, from five aspects the teacher did four activities such as: teacher gives

motivation to the students, teacher explains about narrative writing, teacher

answers the student’s question and the teacher solves their own problem in

composing narrative writing and one activity again the teacher can not prepare

learning’s aids. While doing observation, the writer found that teacher had done

some roles, such as: 1) Teacher gives motivation to the students, for instance I



                                         34
saw the teacher gives rewards to students in learning narrative writing, 2)

teacher explains about narrative writing clearly, the teacher make groups of

students to discuss about narrative writing, 3) teacher prepared learning’s aids,

the teacher gave works sheet, hand out or picture to helping the students in

learning, 4) teacher answered the student’s question, the teacher could answer

students question directly and indirectly, example the teacher answered directly

students question or the teacher answer the question in the students paper, and

5) the teacher solved their own problems in composing narrative, the students

found stuck to get diction, finally they found dictionary.. Unfortunately, while

explaining and conveying the material, the teacher only focused on the teaching

aids a book, for supporting the teaching learning process.

       The third component is about students’ aids was enough. Because it

reach seventy five percent, from four aspects the students used three students’

aids such as: students used a guide, students used dictionary, and students

shared among their friends, one again the students did not use picture to

compose narrative writing. It means that the students used the aids when they

compose narrative writing. The writer found that the students aids, such as: 1)

Students used a guide, the students used the hand out or work sheet in learning

process. 2) Students used dictionary, students founds stuck to get diction,

finally they used dictionary. 3) Students used picture       to compose narrative

writing, the students used picture sequence or picture card to compose narrative

writing, and. 4) Students share among their friends, for example the students

asked with their friend about the ordering the words into good sentences.



                                       35
       The fourth component or the last component is students’ learning

achievement. The result of the data is good. The students’ could do the aspects

about one hundred percent. The aspects are: 1) Students make their own

experience orally, the students can compose narrative writing based on their

experience in the last time. 2) Students are able to compose narrative writing,

the students can composing narrative writing because the students use some of

strategies in compose narrative writing, and 3) Students use strategies to

compose narrative writing, students know some techniques in composing

narrative writing, such as: make outline, use picture, use learning’s aids or

sharing with friend.

        The result of students’ strategies in composing narrative is the first

component is seventy five percent, the second is eighty percent, the third

component is seventy five percent and fourth component is one hundred

percent. ( see appendix 1). So the average of table 1 is good. It can achieve

eighty two percent that doing activities of the students and teacher activities

during observation, and eighteen percent of the activities can not doing.

2. Result of interview

       After analyzing the data, the writer interview was given to the students

to know their learning strategies especially in composing narrative writing at

second year (management) of SMK NEGERI 1 WATAMPONE.

       The writer interviewed the students at second year (management) of

SMK NEGERI 1 WATAMPONE. The writer got the result that most of the

students always use strategies such as: 1) sharing with their friends, because



                                       36
some of students do not believe themselves. 2) Using outline, because their

stuck idea and the result do not coherence. 3) Using dictionary, because the

students lack of vocabulary. 4) Using picture, they said that it is easy to

compose narrative writing and help them in writing, because the picture can

remind their experience. 5) Using tools (audio, audio-visual), the students

seldom used this strategy because it doesn’t work.

       The writer saw the students could compose narrative writing well

because some of the students used metacognitive strategies such as: making

outline, using picture, using learning’s aids, using dictionary, sharing with

friends and using tools (audio, audio-visual) to help them to compose narrative

writing.



3. Result of questioner

       After analyzing the data the writer was given questioner to the students,

and it has been done in order to know the students’ activity in composing

narrative writing. It consists of ten items, there are: 1). Do you like writing? 2)

Do you write your experience in writing? 3). Do you determine outline before

compose narrative writing? 4). Do you make outline before writing? 5) Do you

use the tools to help you in writing? 6). Do you use dictionary in learning? 7)

Do you always share with your friend? 8). Does the teacher give explanation

clearly? 9). Do you find difficulties in composing narrative writing? 10). could

you get idea in compose narrative writing?. Students can answer the questions

by choosing the options yes, seldom, no and sometimes



                                        37
       Based on the questioner above, the result of the questioner are:

1) Do you like writing?

       From ten students, there were three students who answered yes.

According to those students, they like writing because they often write their

past experience on their diaries. Then, there were five students who answered

sometimes, because, they only compose if they get the task from the teacher.

There were two students who answered no because they don’t like writing,

because they stuck idea to composing narrative writing

2). Do you write your experience in writing?

       From the ten students, there were seven students who answered yes,

because they said it is easier to write experience their own, because writing

experience is something experienced or felt by them at past. There was one

student who answered sometimes because he only can memorize a little bit of

his past experience. The last, there were two students who answered no because

they didn’t like writing therefore they seldom write their experience.

3) Do you determine the outline before composing narrative writing?

       From ten students, first, there were six students who answered yes, they

said that the outline can help them in composing narrative writing. Second,

there were two students, who answered sometimes, because according to them

determining the outline can save the time. Third, there was one student who

answered no, she said determine the outline is difficult then compose. The last,

who answered seldom, because they seldom write by determine the outline.




                                       38
4) Do you make outline before writing?

   From ten students, there were five students who answered yes, they said

making outline make them easier to composing narrative writing, and there are

2 students who answered sometimes, because based on their opinion, making

outline can help them in writing. The last, there were three students who

answered no, because they never make outline in composing narrative writing.

5) Do you use the tools to help you in writing?

   From ten students, who answered yes there were seven students, they said

by using the learning aids such as: picture, book that make them easier, because

with the picture can express their idea in composing narrative writing. There

were three students, who answered sometimes, because learning’s aids

sometimes can help them in learning narrative writing.

6) Do you often use dictionary in learning?

   From ten students, there were three students who answered yes, because

they said they could find the meaning of difficulty English words, and there

were five students who answered sometimes, according them dictionary doesn’t

help them much. There were two students who answered seldom, because they

said by opening dictionary to make confused than to share with friends.

7) Do you always share with friends?

   From ten students, there were eight students who answered yes, because

they said sharing with friend could give idea or share the idea if their found

words difficult. There were two students who answered sometimes because

they liked writing theirselves, they enjoy writing what they like to write.



                                        39
8) Does the teacher’s give explanations clearly?

       From ten students, there were four students who answered yes, because

the teacher explanation was simple and clearly, and who answered sometimes

there were five students, because the teacher voice couldn’t be listened clearly.

There was one student who answered no, they said the teacher explanation

make them confused and He could not understand.

9). Do you find difficulties in composing narrative writing?

       From ten students, there were five students who answered yes, they said

they found difficulties in ordering the words and they stuck to get the diction,

then there were three students who answered sometimes, because they

sometimes sharing with friends if they find difficulties in composing narrative

writing, and the last who answered no there were two students, because they

made outline before composing narrative writing.

10) Could you express your idea in composing narrative writing?

       From ten students, there were eight students who answered yes, they

said in the composing narrative writing they could express their idea in writing

by memorizing the experience by looking at the picture, and who answered

sometimes there were two students because they said sometimes they got stuck

when they were writing narrative.

       Based on the result of questioner the writer got the data, strategies that

used by students in composing narrative writing are sharing with friends it is

fifty percent of the student, because most of the students thought that share with

friends is easier and they don’t have to open dictionary if they find difficult



                                       40
words, seconds, making outline. Those who use this strategy is about thirty

percent of the students, making outline make them easier than using dictionary,

because the students can not combine the words into good sentences. The third

strategy is using learning’s aids (picture, book, audio or audio-visual), those

who use this strategy were about twenty percent of the students, they said by

using learning’s aids they were able to arrange their ideas.




                                        41
4.2 Discussion

   Based on the description above, the writers can discussion:

          Strategies are specific method to help the students in learning narrative

   writing. Strategies can be used by the students to make them easier in

   composing narrative writing, because strategy is one of technique to helping the

   students in learning narrative writing and also express their idea. Strategies that

   used by the students are: sharing with friends, make outline, using dictionary,

   using picture, and using the learning aids (book, audio, or audio-visual).

          The students’ difficulty in composing narrative writing is in ordering the

   words. They still confused to combine the words into good sentences. In this

   case, there were two causes in composing narrative writing. They were seldom

   composing narrative writing and practiced their English. The students seldom

   practice to write at home. They only practiced to write narrative writing in the

   class, when teacher asked them to practice. So that, they must know some

   strategies in composing narrative writing. Another cause is lack of facilities

   which support them, such as there is no a guide, therefore, they only wait for

   the teacher’s explanation about the material.




                                           42
                                    CHAPTER V

                    CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS



5.1 Conclusion

            After conducting the research and analyzing the data, the writer

  proposes the conclusion as follow:

  1.       There were some strategies that used by the students’ in composing

           narrative writing, those strategies choose by the students to facilitate

           them in composing narrative writing.

  2.       The strategies that used by the students in composing narrative writing

           are: sharing with friends about fifty percent, making outline about thirty

           percent, and using learning aids (picture, book, audio, or audio-visual)

           about twenty percent.



5.2 Suggestion

            After having the research in SMK NEGERI 1 WATAMPONE, the

  researcher would like to give some suggestions, based on observation

  For the Teacher:

           The teacher should give motivation to students in learning especially in

            composing narrative writing.

           The teacher should explain clearly the material narrative writing

            because the students can be understood the material.




                                           43
For the Students:

      The students should use effective strategies in learning English such as:

       sharing with friends, making outline, using dictionary, using learning

       aids (picture, book, audio, or audio-visual) or ordering the words in

       compose narrative writing.

For the school:

      As a formal education institution, school provides facilities (have a

       library and language laboratory) to support and increase the student’s

       ability especially in composing narrative writing.




                                      44
                               REFERENCES

Ahmadi, Abu and Prasetyo, Tri, Joko. 2005. Strategi Belajar Mengajar.

     Bandung: Pustaka Setia.

Arikunto, Suharsimi. 2002. Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktek.

     Jakarta: Rineka Putra.

Brown, H, Douglas. 2001. Teaching by Principles An Interaractive Approach

     to Language Pedagogy. San Francisco State University

CollinsJim.2007.WritingStrategies.http://www.gse.buffalo.edu/org/writingstrate

     gies/index.htm.University at buffalo. The state university of new york

     Graduate school of education. April, 16th 2008. 09.30 Am.

Gay, L.R. 1996 Eductation Research: Competencies for Analysis and

     Application, New Jersey: Prentice -Hall, Inc.

Hasani, Aceng. 2005. Ihwal Menulis. UNTIRTA PRESS

Haycraf, John.1978. An Introduction to English Language Teaching, London :

     Longman Group Limited

Richards J. and Platt John. 1992. Logman Dictionary of Language Teaching

     and Applied Linguistics. Essex: Longman.

Keraf, Gorys. 2001. Argumentasi dan Narasi. Jakarta: PT. Gramedia

Marahamin, Ismail. 1999. Menulis Secara Populer. Jakarta: Pustaka Jaya.

Margono. 1999. Prosedur Penelitian Kualitatif. Jakarta: Pustaka Jaya

Masdari. 2005. The Correlation of using Memory Strategy on Improving

     students Reading Skill. Skripsi. Serang




                                      45
Miles and Huberman. 1992. Analisis Data Kualitatif. Jakarta: Universitas

     Indonesia.

Moleong, Lexy J M.A. 2005. Metodologi Penelitian Kualitative. Bandung: PT

     Remaja Rosdakarya

Muhajir, Neong. 1996. Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif. Yogyakarta: Rake

     Sarasin

Pardiyono, M.Pd. 2007 Pasti Bisa! Teaching Genre-Based Writing.

     Yogyakarta: ANDI

Setiyadi, Bambang. 2002 Penelitian Dalam Pengajaran Bahasa Asing. Bandar

     Lampung: Universitas Bandar Lampung.

Sofyan, Akhmad dkk. 1999. Mari Mengangkat Martabat Bahasa kita Bahasa

     Indonesia (Buku Pelajaran untuk SMU kelas III). Grafindo Media

     Pratama

Sugiono, 2005. Memahami penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung: CV. Alfabeta

http://www.education.vic.gov.au/studetlearning/teachingresouces/english/englis

hcontinuum/40writingstrategy/htm




                                     46
APPENDICES




    47
List of Appendices



Appendix 1 Observation

Appendix 2 Interview

Appendix 3 Questionnaire




                           48
                           APPENDIX I

                      DATA OBSERVATION



No   Komponen yang          Aspek setiap komponen           Ya   Tidak

     diamati
1.   Kegiatan Belajar Siswa a. Siswa mendengarkan
                               penjelasan guru mengenai
                               narrative writing.
                            b. Siswa mengerjakan tugas
                               membuat karangan(narrative
                               writing).
                            c. Siswa membuat kerangka
                               karangan (outline) sebelum
                               menulis.
                            d. Siswa menemui kesulitan
                               dalam membuat narrative
                               writing.


2.   Peran Guru            a. Guru memberikan motivasi
                              kepada siswa.
                           b. Guru menerangkan materi
                              narrative writing dengan
                              jelas.
                           c. Guru memberikan alat
                              Bantu ketika memberikan
                              materi.
                           d. Guru menjawab pertanyaan
                              siswa.
                           e. Guru membantu mengatasi
                              kesulitan siswa dalam
                              membuat karangan narrative
                              writing.

3.   Alat Bantu Belajar    a. Siswa menggunakan buku
                              paket sebagai panduan dan
                              pembelajaran.
                           b. Siswa menggunakan kamus
                              untuk membantu



                                  49
                              menterjemahkan kata-kata
                              yang sulit.
                           c. Siswa menggunakan gambar
                              sebagai media bantu
                              membuat karangan.
                           d. Siswa bertukar pikiran
                              dengan teman sebagai
                              masukan dalam membuat
                              karangan (narrative writing)

4.      Pencapaian hasil   a. Siswa mampu memahami
        Belajar Siswa          narrative writing dengan
                               bercerita tentang
                               pengalaman pribadi
                           b. Siswa mampu membuat
                               karangan (narrative writing)
                           c. Siswa mengetahui
                               taktik/cara mudah dalam
                               membuat karangan.


        Jumlah                                                13   3



Note:

Component 1 : 75%

Component 2: 80%

Component 3: 75%

Component 4: 100%


Average percentage: 75% + 80% + 75% + 100% = 82,5%

                           4




                                  50
                           INTERVIEW GUIDE



Identity of interview          : 29 August 2008

Name                           : Yulianti, S.Pd

Place and Date of Birth        : Tangerang, 24 August 1981

Background of Education        : English Teacher of SMK NEGERI 1

WATAMPONE

Teaching Experience            : 6 years



Questions:

  1.   How long have you been teaching? I have been teaching for 6 years

  2.   So far, what difficulties faced by you in teaching English subject in SMK

       NEGERI 1 WATAMPONE? The students are not interested in studying

       English, they never bring dictionaries

  3.   What is your technique to increase the students’ ability in narrative writing?

       Make outline, let them use Indonesian language and then translate it into

       English.

  4.   Have you found the difficulties in teaching narrative writing? Yes, I have

  5.   What strategies used in teaching narrative writing? Make outline or give some

       pictures then ask them to make narrative writing based on the pictures

  6.   How is the student achievement in English Subject? It is not as good as I hope

  7.   What is the method used to increase the students’ ability interest in writing

       English? Always support them, give them more exercises




                                           51
                         Interview of Student



Name                  : Irham Maulana

Class or major        : II PJ I

Date of interview     : August, 25th 2008




Questions:

     1. Do you like writing (diary)? What story do you like to write? Yes. I

         like, usually I write story about my experience in the last.

     2. Before writing, did you make out line, using tools (audio or audio-

         visual) or ordering the words? Yes, I did. I make out line and ordering

         the word to help me in writing the story.

     3. What the tools (picture, book, audio or audio-visual) are uses if you

         want to writing? Why? No, because it is can not help me in writing.

     4. Have you ever share with your friend? Yes, sometimes

     5. Do you find any difficulties in composing narrative writing? Why?

         Sure! My difficulties in make story is ordering the word




                                       52
                          Interview of Student



Name                  : Aan Angraeni

Class or major        : II PJ I

Date of interview     : August, 25th 2008




Questions:

         1. Do you like writing (diary)? What story do you like to write? Yes.

             I like, usually I write story about my activity

         2. Before writing, did you make out line, using tools (audio or audio-

             visual) or ordering the words? No, I did not

         3. What the tools (picture, book, audio or audio-visual) are uses if

             you want to writing? Why? Picture, because can easy to helping

             me writing the story

         4. Have you ever share with your friend? Yes

         5. Do you find any difficulties in composing narrative writing? Why?

             Yes, ! because I always difficulties in writing especially in

             ordering the words




                                        53
                           Interview of Student



Name                  : Asep Supriadi

Class or major        : II PJ I

Date of interview     : August, 25th 2008




Questions:

         1. Do you like writing (diary)? What story do you like to write? No, I

             don’t’ like

         2. Before writing, did you make out line, using tools (audio or audio-

             visual) or ordering the words? Yes, I make outline before writing

         3. What the tools (picture, book, audio or audio-visual) are uses if

             you want to writing? Why? Picture, because make easy and

             helping me to writing.

         4. Have you ever share with your friend? Yes

         5. Do you find any difficulties in composing narrative writing? Why?

             Yes, ! because I can this to find ordering the words




                                        54
                         Interview of Student



Name                  : Citra Cahya Lestari

Class or major        : II PJ I

Date of interview     : August, 25th 2008




Questions:

         1. Do you like writing (diary)? What story do you like to write? Yes.

             I like, usually I write story about my experience

         2. Before writing, did you make out line, using tools (audio or audio-

             visual) or ordering the words? Yes, because I can writing well if I

             make outline before.

         3. What the tools (picture, book, audio or audio-visual) are uses if

             you want to writing? Why? book, because with the look of book I

             can write the story

         4. Have you ever share with your friend? Yes, I ever share with my

             friend

         5. Do you find any difficulties in composing narrative writing? Why?

             No, because I ever share with my friend




                                       55
                          Interview of Student



Name                   : Atika Sari

Class or major         : II PJ I

Date of interview      : August, 25th 2008




Questions:

         1. Do you like writing (diary)? What story do you like to write?

             Sometimes, usually I write my experience

         2. Before writing, did you make out line, using tools (audio or audio-

             visual) or ordering the words? Yes, I did, before write I make

             outline

         3. What the tools (picture, book, audio or audio-visual) are uses if

             you want to writing? Why? I use the picture, because it can help

             me in writing.

         4. Have you ever share with your friend? Yes

         5. Do you find any difficulties in composing narrative writing? Why?

             Yes, ! because I difficulties in ordering the word




                                       56
                                             APPENDIX III

                                            QUESTIONER



Nama              : ............................................................

Kelas/jurusan     : ..........................................................

Berilah tanda (       ) pada salah satu pilihan jawaban berdasarkan pendapat anda!
NO                      Pertanyaan                 Ya Kadang Tidak Jarang
                                                         -kadang
1.     Apakah kamu suka menulis?


2.     Apakah yang kamu tulis tentang
       pengalamnmu sendiri?
3.     Apakah kamu menentukan tema dulu
       sebelum membuat karangan?
4.     Apakah kamu membuat
       outline(kerangka karangan) sebelum
       mengarang?
5.     Apakah dengan menggunakan alat
       bantu dapat membantumu dalam
       menulis/membuat karangan?
6.     Apakah kamu sering menggunakan
       kamus ketika menulis?
7.     Apakah kamu sering bertukar pikiran
       dengan temanmu?
8.     Apakah penjelasan guru tentang
       narrative writing mudah di pahami?
9.     Apakah kamu menemukan kesulitan
       dalam menulis/membuat karangan?
10.    Apakah dengan menulis dapat
       menyalurkan ide atau gagasanmu?




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