Student Random Drug Testing Survey by aaf63568

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									                               Student Random Drug Testing Survey
                                           Frequency Responses


In February 2004, researchers at Western Illinois University mailed a Drug Testing questionnaire to 41
school districts that had reported an interest in Student Drug Testing in a survey in 2000. Questionnaires
were returned from 31 of those 41 districts.

In the following frequency response tables, percentages may add to more or less than 100 due to rounding or
to allowance for multiple responses.



1. Has your district ever conducted random drug
   testing of students?                            Number                          Percent
   Yes, we now randomly test students for
       illegal drugs                                 22                               71%
   Yes, we conducted drug testing in the past but
       we have abandoned the practice                 2                                6%
   No, we have never conducted student drug testing   7                               23%
                                                     31                              100%


2. If your district has discontinued random student
   drug testing, please indicate the reason(s).
   Please check all that apply.                     Number                         Percent
       Lost through budget cuts                         1                           50 %
       Cost outweighed the benefits
       Objections raised by parents/students
       Objections raised by community
       Legal problems/ litigation concerns
       Ineffectiveness in identifying drug problem
       Absence of a student drug abuse problem
       Other. Please describe
       No response                                      1                           50 %
                                                        2                          100 %


3. How long has the district’s drug testing program
   been in place?                                   Number                         Percent
   Less than 1 year                                    0                               0%
   1-3 years                                           2                               9%
   3-5 years                                          11                              50%
   More than 5 years                                   9                              41%
   Unknown                                             0                               0%
                                                      22                            100%
4. Which students are subject to drug testing?
   (Please check all that apply.)                   Number     Percent
   All students                                        0           0%
   Participants in some – but not all – extra-
       curricular activites                             6        27%
   Participants in all extracurricular activities      10        45%
   Athletes                                            10        45%
   Marching band members                                0         0%
   Students driving to school                           3        13%
   Other – courses using power equipment                1         5%


   5. Is your district’s drug testing program voluntary
   or required?                                     Number     Percent
   Required for all students                             1         5%
   Voluntary for all students                            0         0%
   Required for participation in all or some
   extracurricular programs                             20       91%
   Voluntary for participation in all or some
   extracurricular programs                              1        5%
                                                        22      100%

6. Which grade levels are covered by your district’s
   student drug testing policy?                      Number    Percent
   Grades K-12                                          0          0%
   Grades 6-12                                          4         18%
   Grades 7-12                                          2          9%
   Grades 9-12                                         16         73%
                                                       22       100%

7. What is the total student enrollment of the school
   or schools involved in your district’s
   drug testing?                                      Number   Percent
   Less than 300                                         3        14%
   300 to 499                                           11        50%
   500 to 7995                                           5        23%
   800 to 999                                            1         4%
   1,000 or more                                         2         9%
                                                        22      100%

8. What is the approximate number of students in
   the drug testing “universe” of your school
   or schools?                                      Number     Percent
   Fewer than 50                                       0           0%
   50 to 99                                            4          18%
   100 to 299                                         11          50%
   300 to 499                                          4          18%
   500 or more                                         2           9%
   Unknown                                             1           4%
                                                      22        100%
9. Do you select a specific percentage or a specific
   number of students to be tested?                  Number   Percent
   Percentage                                            7       32%
   Number                                              13        59%
   No specific number or percentage                      1        5%
   No response                                          1         5%
                                                       22      100%


10. Is the number or percentage of students tested
    consistent from test to test or does it vary?    Number   Percent
    Consistent number or percentage                    18        82%
    Varies from test to test                            4        18%
                                                       22      100%



11. Who selects the students to be tested?           Number   Percent
    School personnel                                    7        32%
    Contractor                                         11        50%
    Other:
               Computer                                 2        9%
               Auditor                                  1        5%
               Other students                           1        5%
                                                       22      100%


12. Among the school or schools involved in your
    district’s drug testing program, what percentage
    of the total student enrollment is subject to
    random drug testing?                             Number   Percent
    Percentage subject to testing:
        2%                                              1        5%
        15-25%                                          2        9%
        30%                                             3       14%
        40-50%                                          6       27%
        60 - 70%                                        4       18%
        70 - 80%                                        3       14%
        Unknown                                         3       14%
                                                       22      100%
13. What percentage of your drug testing “universe”
    is tested each year?                            Number    Percent
    Percentage tested each year:
         2%                                            1         5%
         10%                                           1         5%
         20%                                           2         9%
         30%                                           3        14%
         40%                                           1         5%
         50%                                           1         5%
         60%                                           1         5%
         65%                                           1         5%
    Percentage varies from year to year                6        27%
    Unknown                                            5        23%
                                                      22       100%


14. How often are students randomly selected
    and tested?                                      Number   Percent
    Weekly                                             10        45%
    Semi-monthly                                        0         0%
    Monthly                                             4        18%
    Quarterly                                           0         0%
    Once per semester                                   1         5%
    Other:
       3 times per week                                 1        5%
       3 out of 4 weeks                                 1        5%
       16-17 weeks per year                             1        5%
       3 times per season (Fall, Winter, Spring)        1        5%
       1 time per season (Fall, Winter, Spring)         2        9%
       Varies from year to year                         1        5%
                                                       22      100%

15. How many students are selected for each
    round of tests?                                  Number   Percent
    Fewer than 10                                      14        64%
    10 to 19                                            5        23%
    20 to 29                                            2         9%
    30 to 39                                            1         5%
    40 or more                                          0         0%
                                                       22      100%


16. Approximately how many students have
    been randomly tested since the testing program
    began?                                           Number   Percent
    Fewer than 50 students                              0         0%
    50 –100 students                                    0         0%
    100-200 students                                    4        18%
    More than 200 students                             18        82%
                                                       22      100%
17. Approximately what percentage (%) of the
    total student body has been tested since the
    program began?                                  Number     Percent
    Less than 10%                                      2           9%
    10%-25%                                            6          27%
    25%-50%                                            8          36%
    More than 50%                                      2           9%
    Unknown                                            4          18%
                                                      22        100%


18. For which drugs does your district test students?
    Please check all that apply.                      Number   Percent
    Alcohol                                             11        50%
    Benzodiazepines                                     17        77%
    Cocaine and/or its derivatives                      17        77%
    Ecstasy                                              4        18%
    Opiates                                             21        95%
    Marijuana (THC)                                     22      100%
    Methamphetamine                                     21        95%
    LSD                                                  6        27%
    Steroids                                             3        14%
    PCP                                                  4        18%
    Nicotine                                             4        18%
    Amphetamines                                         3        14%
    Barbituates                                          1         5%
    Methaqualone                                         1         5%



19. What types of testing does your district use?
    Please check all that apply.                    Number     Percent
    Rapid on-site drug screen?                         4          18%
    On-site breath alcohol                             4          18%
    On-site saliva alcohol                             1           5%
    Laboratory urinalysis                             19          86%
    Laboratory hair analysis                           0           0%
    Laboratory saliva analysis                         0           0%


20. Who conducts the testing?                       Number     Percent
    School personnel                                   3          14%
    Contract service provider                         19          86%
                                                      22        100%

21. How does the district pay for the testing?      Number     Percent
    On a per test basis                               18          82%
    Per an agreed amount for all services             5*          23%
    *One school reported both                         23        105%
22. If your district pays for testing on a per test
    basis, what is the cost of a single test?         Number   Percent
    Under $25                                            7        32%
    $25-$50                                             14        64%
    $50-$75                                              1         5%
    More than $75                                        0         0%
                                                        22      100%

23. If your district pays a lump sum for testing
services, please indicate the approximate amount.     Number   Percent
    $1600 per year                                       1         5%
    $2500 per year                                       1         5%
    It varies from year to year                          1         5%
    We do not pay a lump some                           18        82%
                                                        21        97%


24. Approximately how many tests have returned
 positive results for illegal drug use since the
district’s testing program began?                     Number   Percent
    Zero positives tests                                 2         9%
    1-5 positive tests                                  12        54%
    5-10 positive tests                                  3        14%
    10-25 positive tests                                 3        14%
    25-50 positive tests                                 2         9%
    More than 50 positive tests                          0         0%
                                                        22      100%


25. If your district has experienced few positive
   drug tests, how do you interpret the results?      Number   Percent
   Testing has reduced or nearly eliminated
        our student drug problem.                        2        9%
   Testing keeps a small drug problem
        from growing larger.                            14       64%
   Testing may not be necessary to control
        student drug abuse.                              2        9%
   Testing is not reaching students most likely
        to be abusing drugs.                             5       23%
   Other                                                 3       14%



26. Have there been instances where a
preliminary positive test was later
shown to be negative (false positive).                Number   Percent
    Yes                                                  6        27%
    No                                                  15        68%
    Unknown                                              1         5%
                                                        22      100%
27. If the answer to question 26 was yes,
    approximately how many false positive
    tests have occurred?                             Number     Percent
    One false positive                                  3          14%
    2-5 false positives                                 1           5%
    5-10 false positives                                1           5%
    More than 10 false positives                        0           0%
    Unknown                                             1           4%
    No response                                        16          73%
                                                       22        100%


28. What actions are taken when a student tests
    positive for illegal drug use? Please check
    all that apply.                                  Number     Percent
    Notify parents                                     22        100%
    Suspension from activities                         19          86%
    Counseling/treatment                               17          77%
    Notify local law enforcement authorities            3          14%
    Suspension from school                              3          14%
    Expulsion                                           1           5%
    Suspension from school until testing
             shows a negative result                     1         5%
    Suspension from activities until testing
             shows a negative result                     1         5%
    Probation                                            1         5%


29. Have levels of participation in extracurricular
    activities in your district increased or decreased
    since the inception of random drug testing?        Number   Percent
    Increased                                             0         0%
    Decreased                                             2         9%
    No change                                            20        91%
    Unknown                                               0         0%
                                                         22      100%


30. If there has been a change in extracurricular
    participation levels, in your opinion, was the
    change due to random drug testing?               Number     Percent
    Yes                                                 0           0%
    No                                                  2           9%
    No opinion                                         20          91%
                                                       22        100%
31. Please characterize the reactions of the
    following constituencies to implementation/
    operation of your district’s random student
    drug testing program.category.                   Number    Percent
    Community
        Positive                                         20      91%
        Negative                                          0       0%
        Neutral                                           2       9%
                                                         22     100%
   Parents/Guardians
      Positive                                           20      91%
      Negative                                            0       0%
      Neutral                                             2       9%
                                                         22     100%
   Students
      Positive                                           10      45%
      Negative                                            3      14%
      Neutral                                             9      41%
                                                         22     100%
   Faculty/Staff
      Positive                                           20      91%
      Negative                                            0       0%
      Neutral                                             2       9%
                                                         22     100%



32. Has your district tracked the rate of reported
    drug use among students since the inception of
    the program?                                      Number   Percent
    Yes                                                  4        18%
    No                                                  18        82%
                                                        22      100%



33. If you answered "yes" to question 32,
    what has been the trend?                          Number   Percent
    Reported use has decreased                           3        14%
    Reported use has increased                           0         0%
    Reported use has not changed                         1         5%
    No tracking                                         18        82%
                                                        22      100%
34. What do you consider the primary benefit(s)
    of your district’s student drug testing program?
    Please check all that apply.                       Number   Percent
    Testing sends the right message about our
        district’s values.                               20       91%
    Testing has helped some students avoid
        starting on drugs.                               18       82%
    Testing has caused some students to stop
        using drugs.                                     14       64%
    Drug testing has reduced the overall amount
        of drug abuse among our students.                10       46%
    Testing has reduced the number of students
        who use drugs.                                   10       46%
    Testing has reduced the frequency with
        which some students abuse drugs.                 10       46%
    Talk of drug use has been reduced                     1        5%
    Testing has had no benefit.                           0        0%



35. Has the district formally evaluated the effectiveness
    of the random testing program?                     Number   Percent
    Yes                                                    3       14%
    No                                                    19       86%
                                                          22     100%

								
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