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					Chapter 3

Ethics and Social Responsibility
© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Learning Objectives
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Define ethics and understand the importance of ethical behavior for organizations Discuss four perspectives on ethics and arguments for ethical relativism and universalism Understand the efficiency and social responsibility perspectives of corporate social responsibility Know how ethics affect individual behavior in organizations Consider ways of scientifically studying organizational ethics Know methods for resolving cross-cultural ethical conflicts Analyze your ethics and how they affect your understanding of management and organizational behavior.
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© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Ethics

Moral standards, not governed by law, that focus on the human consequences of actions

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Four Perspectives on Ethics
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Descriptive Approach
Uses methods and theories of social science

Conceptual Approach
Focuses on the meaning of key ideas in ethics

Normative Approach
Involves constructing arguments in defense of basic moral positions and prescribing correct ethical behavior

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Practical Approach
Involves developing a set of normative guidelines for resolving conflicts of interest to improve societal well-being

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Relativism Vs. Universalism
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Individual ethical relativism
No absolute principle of right and wrong, good or bad, in any social situation

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Cultural ethical relativism
What is right or wrong, good or bad, depends on one's culture

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Ethical universalism
Universal and objective ethical rules located deep within a culture that also apply across societies

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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The Social Responsibility of Corporations
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The Efficiency Perspective
The obligation of business is to maximize profits for shareholders

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The Social Responsibility Perspective
Managers bear a fiduciary relationship to stakeholders

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development
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Stage 1 - Obedience and Punishment
Obedience to those in authority who have the power to punish

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Stage 2 - Individualism and Reciprocity
The greatest good for the individual person making the decision

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Stage 3 - Interpersonal Conformity
Expectations of others, including friends, family members, and people in general

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development (cont.)
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Stage 4 - Social System/Law and Order
Play one's role in the social system, do one's duty, obey rules

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Stage 5 - Social Contract
“The greatest good for the greatest number"

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Stage 6 - Universal Ethical Principles
Principles selected freely by a person and that the individual is willing for everyone to live by

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Face and Ethical Behavior
Displays an individual’s understanding of culturally defined moral codes as they apply to and maintain a particular social situation  Behavior that sustains the definition of the situation supports a person's face
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© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Organizational Ethics
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Internal Ethical Issues
Discrimination  Safety  Compensation  Child Labor
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© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Organizational Ethics (cont.)
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Cross-Cultural Ethical Issues
Theft of Intellectual Property  Bribery and Corruption  Intentionally Selling Dangerous Products  Environmental Pollution  Intentional Misrepresentation in Negotiations
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© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Studying Ethics
Social science methods  Study comparing U.S. and U.K.
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Corporations vary in the emphasis on different aspects of ethics and how they manage them

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Differences in perceptions of corruption among countries
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© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Resolving Cross-Cultural Ethical Conflicts
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U.S. approach
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Transform ethics into laws OECD views corruption in developing countries to be particularly harmful to their prospects for economic growth Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions Caux Round Table and the Conference Board standards for global business ethics and social responsibility
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Global approach

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© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Resolving Cross-Cultural Ethical Conflicts (cont.)
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Codes of ethics
Codify behavior that is unacceptable under certain conditions  Reduce ambiguity by specifying appropriate behavior
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© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Kohls and Buller’s Approaches for Resolving Ethical Conflict
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Avoiding
One party ignores or does not deal with the conflict

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Forcing
One party forces its will upon the other

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Education-Persuasion
One party attempts to convert others to its position through providing information, reasoning, or appeals to emotion

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Kohls and Buller’s Approaches for Resolving Ethical Conflict (cont.)
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Infiltration
One party introduces its cultural values to another society hoping that an appealing idea will spread

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Negotiation-Compromise
Both parties give up something to negotiate a settlement

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Accommodation
One party adapts to the ethics of the other

Collaboration-Problem Solving
Both parties work together to achieve a mutually satisfying solution
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© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Values: Core and Periphery
Status Customer satisfaction Society
Friends Leisure

Knowledge
Job security Honesty

Family Worker safety Human Life Health Freedom Trust Peace Property rights Stockholder values Living standards Job satisfaction

Efficiency

Power

Ethics as a Competitive Advantage in Global Business
Ethical capability related to perceiving interdependence, thinking ethically, responding effectively  Trust as a value among multinational corporations
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© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Convergence or Divergence?
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A Bureaucratic Ethic International Regulatory Agencies Diffusion of Capitalism Worldwide

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Religious Differences Reassertion of National and Ethnic Cultures Varying Economic Systems and Levels of Development
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© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Implications for Managers
Develop a Framework for Evaluating Ethical Codes and Determining Personal Ethics  Understand Behaviors and Ethics of Other Societies  Consider Approaches to Resolving Cross-Cultural Ethical Conflicts
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© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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