PRESENT SCENARIO OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION IN INDIA AND
IMPLICATIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF TQM
AND ISO 9001 FOR ENHANCEMENT OF QUALITY IN EDUCATION
Wakchaure V. D.* Dr. Kallurkar S. P.** , & Dr. Nandurkar K. N. ***
* Department of Mechanical Engineering, Amrutvahini College of Engineering, Sangamner, India.
** Principal, Marathwada Mitra Mandal‟s College of Engineering, Pune, India.
*** Principal, KKW Institute of Engineering Education and Research, Nasik, India
Abstract: Education is the key to the resurgence of increased phenomenally. Only producing world‟s second
India. Our Technical education system has world’s largest pool of technocrats through such a system without
second largest population in engineering education. The much concern of quality would not let realize mission
number of degree institutes and polytechnics are 2020. The major issues and concerns of Technical
increasing like a mushroom. The quality of technocrats, Education system related to quality technical education
this system is producing, is a constant worry. This paper system and quality assurance as been addressed by many
is an attempt to study the present status of engineering mechanisms, and government bodies [8, 11, 15, 16].
education system in India and the success of the This Paper reviews the present status of the
mechanisms to assure the quality of the graduating engineering education in India and analyses the quality
students. The clues are drawn from TQM to develop a assurance systems to address the quality related problems.
conceptual model for excellence in engineering education The TQM approach has been suggested to achieve
and ISO 9001:2000 as a quality assurance system. “Quality Engineering Education” whereas ISO 9001 will
Key words: Engineering Education, Quality, Total be the Quality Assurance Mechanism.
Quality Management, Customer Satisfaction, ISO
9001:2000 2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENGINEERING AND
TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN INDIA
1. INTRODUCTION The history of imparting formal technical
The Indian educational system is has been education in India can be traced back to mid 19th century,
subjected to fast, radical and even revolutionary change although it got momentum in 20th century. Since
over recent years. Indeed, this change is still in progress. Independence in 1947, the Technical Education System
Vitality of engineering education is facing a considerable has grown into a fairly large-sized system, offering
amount of uncertainty and is significantly impacted by, opportunities for education and training in a wide variety
the general changes to global economics, and to the of trades and disciplines and had become a major concern
resulting social and cultural change that results. Since for the government of India to face the new challenges
technical education determines the development and and move the country forward. The system capacity
socio-economic condition of a nation, there is a greater increased very rapidly with the major role being played
need for high quality technical education to produce by the private sector and India now has the second largest
technically skilled manpower in India. A high quality number of engineering students in the world.
engineer or technician can obviously be created only Some of the industrially developed states, such
through high quality engineering and vocational teaching as Maharastra, Karnataka, Tamilnadu and Andra Pradesh
and training. If India wants to raise the standard of its , have experienced phenomenal growth both in numbers
economy to that of economy of developed nations such as of students and engineering and technical institutions
USA, UK, France, Germany and Japan, it should move over the last two decades. There are engineering institutes
forward. and colleges that are supported by the state and central
After globalization, liberalization and “General governments, and also a large number of private
Agreement on Trade in Services” (GATS) of world trade engineering colleges and institutes that provide technical
organization, the door is open for all to establish education in India. The number of private institutions is
educational institutions in various countries and is increasing rapidly. Fig. 1 shows the rapid growth of
increasingly interested in India as a nation. In this engineering institutions in India. The AICTE non-
competitive juncture qualitative technical education is the approved institutes are apart from this. Some polytechnics
need of the hour . India has witnessed phenomenal are also running in double shifts. Government
growth of higher educational institutions, but contrary, expenditure in technical education has increased by
the attraction of study abroad for Indian students has
almost 400 times from the first five year plan to the obsolescence, promote work on thrust areas, and
eighth . R&D programs in Technical Institutions.
After GATS, US and other universities, to name
a few, Harvard, Yale, Stanford, Carnegie Mellon, and WEAKNESSES:
Purdue Universities, and others are planning to be a part Technical Education perceived as a Business
of this system. Twenty prestigious U.S. universities have opportunity by some.
partnered with Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham for active Severe shortage of qualified and competent
collaboration in higher education and research through e- faculty especially in (hi-tech) ICT.
learning and India's educational satellite, EDUSAT . While there are islands of excellence these are
rather few in number.
Lack of interest among graduating engineers to
2000 pursue teaching careers.
Lack of interest for pursuing research degree
No. of Institutes
Lack of availability of Ph.Ds in Engineering for
1000 faculty positions.
Lack of adequate industry-institute interaction.
Mismatch between education and training
(knowledge and skills) received by graduates,
1960 1970 1980 1990 1995 1997 2004 2008 and job requirements.
Year Inadequate manpower needs assessment and
Degree Poly technic The widely prevalent affiliating system in our
universities precludes timely curriculum
Fig.1. The growth of AICTE approved engineering updating and introduction of innovative reforms.
colleges & polytechnic institutions in India. [Data of The recent boom in IT industry caused a
1960 to 1997 adopted from ; Data of 2004 and 2008 disproportionate increase in admission capacity
from www.aicte.ernet.in] in this area, at the expense of other disciplines.
While the admission capacity at the UG degree
2.1 A ‘SWOT’ ANALYSIS OF THE NATIONAL level has been on the rise, a corresponding
TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION SYSTEM: growth at the PG level has not taken place.
The SWOT analysis of the national technology OPPORTUNITIES:
education system of India given by Dr. R. Natarajan , For setting up quality Indian institutions –
the then chairman of AICTE is as given as follow: sponsored off-shore campuses.
STRENGTHS: IT tools are becoming available for Technology-
Aspirations of our Youth to pursue Technical Enhanced Learning, for widening the reach of
Education. Technical Education.
Private Sector initiatives complementing Distance Education possibilities for Continuing
Government initiatives. Education.
Increasing interest of Industry Associations Networking of technical institutions, at different
(such as CII, FICCI, ASSOCHAM) and of levels, for mutual benefit, sharing of resources,
Professional Societies to partner and collaborate undertaking major projects.
with academic institutions. Networking of technical institutions with R&D
The Accreditation initiatives of NBA are serving labs and industry.
to promote Quality Improvement in the Schemes such as TDB, CORE, and promoting
Technical Education sector. industry institute interaction.
The upcoming World Bank project will provide Many alumni are offering substantial support to
the necessary resources for up gradation of their Alma Maters.
technical education in the country. The role of Technology and Technology
The QIP schemes have contributed significantly Education for national development and
to the upgrading of qualifications of faculty in prosperity is widely acknowledged.
Technical institutions. The scheme has recently THREATS:
been enlarged to cover non-engineering In the emerging GATS scenario, Quality
disciplines also. concerns need to be addressed urgently.
The MODROBS, TAPTEC and R&D schemes Competition from international players.
of AICTE, as well as of MHRD, have served to The non-uniformity in the distribution of
modernize the infrastructure and remove Technical Institutions in the country, causing
regional imbalances, and inter-state migration of Total quality management in education is multi-
students. faceted. . . It includes within its ambit the quality of
The Technical Institutions in the rural and inputs in the form of students, faculty, support staff and
industrially-backward areas are not as popular infrastructure; the quality of processes in the form of the
with students, leading to unfilled capacity in learning and teaching activity; and the quality of outputs
these institutions. in the form of the enlightened students that move out of
The tendency of our students to prefer IT-related the system . The indicators of student, faculty and
courses, and to shun other disciplines. institutional quality are summarized below.
The tendency of research scholars to prefer INDICATORS OF STUDENT QUALITY
computer-based research over experimental -Number of applications per seat
research. -Diverse preparation and background of entering students
The ration of diploma programmes to degree -Number completing degree
programs is on the decline (much unlike other -Time to complete degree
countries.) -Proportion undertaking practical Training
The Science-base in the country is getting -Proportion participating in research and development
weaker, which will have an adverse impact on -Employment profiles and salaries on Graduation
our capacity for technology development. -Number taking up post-graduate studies
-Satisfaction levels of students and Employees
3. DEFINING QUALITY IN ENGINEERING -Perceived reputation of graduates and alumni, nationally
EDUCATION and internationally
Quality in education is a complex concept with -Proportion of foreign students
varying conceptualizations and this poses problems in -Number becoming entrepreneurs
formulating a single, comprehensive definition. INDICATORS OF FACULTY QUALITY
Quality in education has been defined as: -Number of applications for faculty position, at different
Excellence in education levels
Value addition in education -Academic quality, in terms of publications, honors,
Fitness for purpose awards, patents, sponsored projects and consultancy.
Fitness of educational outcome and experience -Retention success; turn-over
for use -Teaching quality, innovative initiatives
Conformance of education output to planned -Publication records
goals, specifications and requirements -Sponsored research, consultancy and continuing
Defect avoidance in education process and education activities
Meeting or exceeding customer‟s expectations -Professional society and public service involvement
of education. -Ability to mobilize resources for
Quality education from a TQM perspective is “total department and institution
quality management in education is multi-faceted – it -Internal and external (national and international) honors
believes in the foundation of an educational institution on and awards
a system approach, implying a management system, a -Quantum of practical experience
technical system and a social system…..It includes within -Effectiveness of student counseling
its ambit the quality of inputs in the form of the learning -Faculty career satisfaction levels
and teaching activity; and the quality of outputs in the INDICATORS OF INSTITUTIONAL QUALITY
form of enlightened students that move out of the -The utilization of strategic planning Processes
system”.  -Interaction with the environment, industry, profession,
The US National Science Foundation (NSF) Task community.
Force on TQM has come up with the following definition -Mobilization of resources for institutional
of Quality Engineering Education: Development
“Quality Engineering Education is the development of -Diversity of external financial support
intellectual skills and knowledge that will equip graduates -Demand from outside agencies for R & D and
to contribute to society through productive and satisfying continuing education
engineering careers as innovators, decision-makers and -Adjunct appointments with Industry
leaders in the global economy of the twenty first -Inter-disciplinary activities
century.” Quality Engineering Education demands a -Self-assessment and accreditation Processes
process of continuous improvement of and dramatic -Alumni involvement
innovation in student, employer and societal satisfaction -Perceived reputation, nationally and
by systematically and collectively evaluating and refining Internationally
the system, practices and culture of engineering education -Use by national agencies as think tanks and for
institutions.  technology development
-Leadership in education and research delayed response to technological advances and
consequent market demands.
4. EFECTIVENESS OF PRESENT ENGINEERING o Failure to attract and retain high quality faculty
EDUCATION due to archaic recruitment and promotion
Before discussing the issue of improving quality of procedures, absence of incentives for quality
engineering education, it is appropriate to discuss the performance, and nonexistent staff development
effectiveness of present engineering education. Education policies in most institutions.
is not just about enrolment numbers. What is the quality o The quality of education and training being
of education provided by the present engineering imparted in the technical education institutions
institutions? While there are excellent institutions that varies from excellent to poor, with some
have been established over the years like IITs, RECs, institutions comparing favorably with the best in
NITs, the concern is about the large number of institutions the world and others suffering from different
that have mushroomed in the last decade or so. The degrees of faculty shortages; infrastructure
following note is an eye opener….. “Industry has not deficiencies; curricula obsolescence; lack of
been happy with the quality of engineering graduates, autonomy in academic, financial, administrative,
more than 80 per cent of whom are from private and managerial matters; poor involvement in
colleges. The NASSCOM-McKinsey Report of 2005 knowledge creation and dissemination, and poor
found that only 25 per cent of Indian engineers were interaction with community and economy.
employable in the offshore IT industry. But the boom in
the industry has been such that even those with the 5. EFECTIVENESS OF CONTROLLING
poorest education have been finding jobs”. USA‟s MECHANISMS
perception is that only one in four engineering graduates While the standard set by AICTE is not difficult to
in India are employable in the IT -enabled services follow, many institutes, once they get the approval,
industry. An article titled "Skills Gap Hurts Technology simply would not adhere to the standards prescribed. As
Boom in India" in The New York Times on October 19, AICTE is only a statutory body in the form of adviser and
2006, said the rest were found to lack required technical supervisor, it unfortunately does not have the power or
skills, English fluency, teamwork skills or oral authority to penalize or punish the erring institutes. At the
presentation skills.  The National Knowledge most it can withdraw the recognition it has given to the
Commission (NKC), an advisory body was set up by the institute. Even to do that, a lengthy procedure is involved,
Government in 2005 to examine issues related to and bureaucratic hassles occur. Hence quality becomes
education. The NKC recommendations on engineering the casualty in the process. AICTE, however, insists on
education find the standards of a very large proportion of affiliation every year, which is usually obtained by the
institutions "at the bottom of the pyramid" to be institutes as a ritual, without any serious commitment.
abysmal. The hallmarks being lacking in vision or 
mission, staffed mostly with inexperienced and The role of quality assurance of existing
temporary faculty and with no R&D capability. It raises institutions through issuing guidelines has taken a back
concerns about the consequences of rapid expansion of seat. Industry body FICCI has proposed an overhaul of
engineering education without investment in faculty regulatory framework for technical education in India in
development and R&D.  order to ensure delivery of quality higher education. In a
In the report, “Technical Education Quality paper on "Regulatory Framework for Technical
Improvement Programme of Government of India”  Education", the chamber has called for dissolution of the
prepared by National Project Implementation Unit and All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) and
submitted to HRD, Govt. of India has talked about setting up a single regulatory authority, independent of
following concerns: the government, as recommended by the National
o Resource constraints, low efficiency of Knowledge Commission (NKC).  The same fact is
utilization of existing resources and lack of also endorsed by National Project Implementation Unit
mechanism for sharing physical and human  stating…. “Multiple control mechanisms and
resources of sister institutions have led to large controlling regulations have stifled innovative initiatives
scale obsolescence of physical resources, in recruitment of faculty, admission of students, curricula
deterioration of quality of teaching/learning revision and up gradation, and financial management in
processes and lowering of competence of most institutions”. The AICTE has constituted another
teachers. body, the National Board of Accreditation (NBA), to
o Low internal efficiency of most institutions due certify quality of technical institutions. It is critical that
to large drop outs and failure rates. Regulatory and Accrediting bodies be free of corruption
o Rapid obsolescence of curricula and course and insulated from political influences. As of now neither
contents due to infrequent revision and much AICTE nor the NBA satisfy these criteria. 
6. A SYSTEM DYNAMIC APPROACH The dynamic interaction of teacher and students and the
Analyzing engineering education as a system reveals fact that the products of the system themselves have
its complexity. Figure 2 depicts a causal diagram direct effects on the process again, are among the reasons.
developed to show the dynamic behaviour of quality- Difficulties in defining customer requirements, while
related factors in an engineering education system. When there is a variety of stakeholders (e.g. students, parents,
positive feedback loops are present in the system, employers, faculty members, government, and
changing a variable in one direction (either an increase or general society) having different interests, adds to the
a decrease) will inevitably lead to more and more change complexity. This characteristic of a higher education
in the same direction. Suppose, for example, that a system, however, cannot overshadow the need for an
institute is educating a better quality of graduates than it operational definition of quality, one that provides a way
has previously, i.e. the loop is entered at the “quality of for improvement.
graduates” stage, and this would result in a higher job An important point which can be observed in the
performance for graduates in industry which, in turn, model is the presence of a strong link between quality and
improves the institute‟s reputation. The enhanced market issues; higher quality can be gained through
reputation increases the number of applicants to the attracting more capable students and hiring higher quality
institute (market share) enabling it to select more capable staff, as well as absorbing more industrial grants which
students, which in itself leads to higher quality graduates. are all market related. This proposes the possible
Quality of entering
Quality of graduates Market Share
Teaching quality Financial power
Grants and funding
Staff capability Quality of research Absorption
Fig.2 Quality Related Factors in Engineering Education: A System Dynamics
Quality of teaching also affects the quality of adoption of commercially-based approaches such as
graduates which, in turn, is affected by the level of staff TQM in a public sector like engineering education.  By
capability in addition to the quality (and quantity) of using TQM principles, many facets of engineering
equipment and support services, both influenced by the education also can be scrutinized and discussed . The
financial power of the institute. But, more financial power educational system may be looked on as a transformation
is gained through higher market share as well as the system, with inputs, processes and outputs. This
capability to absorb grants and funding which depends on transformation system can be examined and evaluated so
the research effectiveness. The loop is closed when as to identify the set of design elements/technical
considering the fact that quality staff are normally more descriptors synonymous to “quality components”, the
able to carry out more effective research. All the loops implementation of which could lead to the application of
can have an opposite effect once one variable starts going TQM in education. 
wrong. For example, low quality graduates can lead to a
poor reputation for the university, resulting in a worse 7. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT- THE
situation for the quality of entrants and hence the CONCEPT
graduates again. The word “Quality” is derived from the Latin word
Although in this model there are some “qualis”, meaning, “what kind of”. With a wide variety of
similarities with a manufacturing system, the more meanings and connotations attached to it, quality is a
humanistic nature of education makes it more complex. difficult and elusive term to define. It has been referred to
as a “slippery concept”. The term has been defined from organization. Quality starts with customers and is defined
different perspectives and orientations, according to the by customers. So one must obviously be able to identify
person making the definition, the measures applied and one‟s customers, to be able to meet their needs and satisfy
the context within which it is considered. It has been them. In engineering education Students, staff, faculty,
defined as “excellence”, “value” (Feigenbaum), “fitness organizations, parents, industry, government and society
for use” (Juran), “conformance to requirements”, “defect at large – all have a stake in the quality of education
avoidance” (Crosby), and “meeting and/or exceeding being delivered by educational institutions.
customer‟s expectations”. 
Total quality management (TQM) is a management 9. TQM IMPLEMENTATION MODEL
philosophy developed by Deming based on his The TQM implementation model given by Jaideep
experiences in US industry before and during the Second Motwani and Ashok Kumar  consists of the following
World War. The subsequent adoption of TQM by five phases: deciding, preparing, starting, expanding or
Japanese industry is widely credited for the miraculous integrating, and evaluating.
post-war economic reconstruction and the current In the first phase of the model, referred to as
massive trade imbalance between the two countries. “deciding”, the top management must develop a complete
Deming (1986) published a book entitled Out of the understanding of what TQM is and how they plan to
Crisis, in which he summarized his ideas and exhorted achieve it. For example, why should the institution
US industry to adopt them as the Japanese had done so implement TQM? Would the institute like to start the
successfully. The TQM philosophy has also been TQM process at the administration level or in a particular
promoted by a number of prominent writers, principally discipline? Once the understanding and commitment is
Crosby, Ishikawa, and Juran.  The manufacturing made, in the second or “preparing” phase of the model,
industries have been benefited by implementation of the administration should:
TQM. The TQM is about: Perform an internal quality assessment of the
An intense focus and bias to customer institution to identify strengths and weaknesses;
satisfaction. Provide education to key personnel;
The dedication to provide the customer with Set visions and objectives in writing; and
quality goods or services as defined by the Design a new system.
customer. Administrators should take care to ensure that the
A programme of continuous improvement. organization‟s culture is suitable to foster TQM. Its
An understanding that any organization‟s culture has to agree with basic TQM values and visions.
greatest assets are its people. In the third or “starting” phase, the administration should:
Name the process;
8. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN State purpose through a new quality framework;
ENGINEERING EDUCATION provide training to all levels of personnel;
Although TQM was originally intended for the Conduct internal and external customer surveys
industrial sector, Deming pointed out in the preface to his to evaluate the current process and make
book „Out of the Crisis‟ that his management principles necessary adjustments;
could be applied equally well in service sectors, including Formulate a quality council to oversee and
education. . In fact, whenever an organization has a regulate the TQM process;
sequence of activities directed towards a defined end Perform competitive benchmarking to compare
result, it has business processes which can be analyzed its performance with that of other organizations;
and improved by TQM techniques. The literature reports Form quality improvement teams; and
the conceptual studies [2, 4], implementation models [1, Establish measures and quality indicators that
3], and applicability to higher and engineering education validly measure the objectives and goals of the
[6, 7, and 9]. In spite of the reservations and argument institution.
against the usefulness of TQM in education , the The fourth phase, referred to as
engineering education system will be benefited by “expanding/integrating” should involve:
implementation of TQM,  provided have some quality Providing ongoing education and training;
assurance mechanism.  Forming new committees, new teams, new
departments, or hiring new specialists to help the
8. 1. CUSTOMERS OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION process as and when required; and
Recognizing and rewarding quality
In order to focus on the customer‟s needs and improvements.
satisfaction, one needs to know just who the customer is. Recognition can be a valuable tool for improving
In a service industry, a customer is anyone being served. employee morale, self-interest, and interest in TQM. The
Customers may be both internal and external, depending reward system, however, must be managed carefully.
on whether they are located within or outside the
Remember that you are dealing with a highly educated knowledge – the fervor to acquire knowledge
staff, and that monetary rewards can and will be must be matched with fervor to transmit it.
STAKE HOLDER PROCESS VALUE ADDITION
Students Manpower Development Engineering Professionals
(Education and training)
Employees Employment Livelihood
(Faculty, Staff) Career Development Prosperity
R&D Technologies, Products,
CEP Up to date Workforce
Consultancy Technology Solutions
Government Manpower Development Industrial and Economic
Manpower Development Social and Economic
Fig. 3. Stakeholder relationships in the engineering education system 
manipulated for personal gains without regard for the 3. Campus facilities: Utmost attention is to be
institution‟s wellbeing. The final or “evaluation” phase of shown in providing excellent infrastructure and
the model should involve evaluating success or failure of physical facilities in the campus for student
the programme. This should be conducted annually. For learning, co-curricular and extra curricular
example, if the programme is not achieving its goals, it activities – equal attention is to be shown in their
should be redesigned.  upkeep
4. Courtesy: an emotive and positive attitude
10. A CONCEPTUAL TQM MODEL FOR towards students will lead to congenial learning
EXCELLENCE IN ENGINEERING EDUCATION environment.
In a TQM model developed by Sakthive et. el  for 5. Customer feedback and improvement: Constant
academic excellence form students perspective for feedback from the students leading to continuous
satisfaction of academic performance, have considered improvement in the process is the key to
following five variables which leads to student achieving excellence
1. Commitment of top management: Top In this model only students are considered as a stake
Management, through their first-hand holder in the system. But the broader perspective is
supervision of all the processes, should ensure missing. The other stake holders in the engineering
non-dilution of the stated objective at any of the education system include employees (staff and faculty),
level of the hierarchy. industries, government and society at large. We propose
2. Course delivery: Expert knowledge must be the conceptual model as shown in fig.4 for imparting a
matched with expert skill to transmit that quality technical education which will maximize the
satisfaction of internal as well as external customers. Four processes for continual improvement. In this regard, the
additional variables added to the model include: authors believe that course quality assurance management
can be achieved through the use of the ISO 9001:2000
1. Faculty Development system. ISO 9001:2000 provide the basic list of essential
2. Equipments and support services for R&D and requirements for building a quality assurance
Consultancy management system. This system can be built via a
3. Industry-Institute Interaction documented system which establishes and maintains an
4. Soft Skill and Spiritual Development. effective operation during the “delivery”.
Satisfaction of Internal and
Commitment of top management External Customers
Course Delivery In terms of
- Quality of graduates
Campus Facilities - Quality manpower
- Improved quality of
Courtesy - Quality of research
- Research papers
Faculty Development - Grants and Funding
- Improved Financial
Equipments and support services for power
R&D and Consultancy
- Brand Equity
- Products and
Industry-Institute Interaction processes
Soft Skill and Spiritual - MoUs
Development - International /
- Short term courses
Customer Feedback and - QIP
Improvement - Scholarships
- Professional society
- Role Model
Quality of Engineering education
Fig.4 Conceptual TQM model for excellence in engineering education
11. QUALITY ASSURANCE THROUGH Compliance with this set of documents should
IMPLEMENTATION OF ISO 9001:2000 provide the necessary consistency, irrespective of
The conceptual model depicted in fig. 3 is administration and location. A set of documented
designed to deliver the quality of engineering education. manuals ensure that core activities are carried out as
But to ensure that the programme is actually doing what it planned.
was meant to do, we need a quality assurance Quality Assurance Manual, Operation Quality
management. ISO 9001:2000 standard specifies the Procedure, and Work Instructions can be developed to
requirement for a quality management system wherein an ensure that the core and support activities are carried out
organization needs to demonstrate its ability to effectively. The Quality Assurance Manual is a set of
consistently provide the product that meets the customers documents which state the quality policy and describe the
need and aims to enhance customer satisfaction through quality system used by an organization. A quality manual
the effective application of the system, including may relate to the totality of an organization‟s activities or
some sub-systems of its operations. The title and scope of academic, financial, administrative, and managerial
the quality manual developed reflects the operations of matters; poor involvement in knowledge creation and
and terminology used by an educational institute. The dissemination, and poor interaction with community and
operation quality procedures and work instructions economy need to be addressed. There should be
specify the way to perform the activities related to all deliberate attempts to attract and retain the qualified staff
operational aspects of the programme. and faculty. To develop existing employees, the
For ISO 9000 certification an internal audit is formulated promotion procedures, incentives for quality
required which compares the actual operations with performance, and staff development policies should be
documented procedures. The system can be developed to developed and implemented effectively.
carry out a comprehensive set of planned and documented The possible adoption of commercially-based
internal quality audits. This is to verify, through objective approaches such as TQM in a public sector like education
evidence, that quality activities comply with planned can be useful to revitalize the engineering education
arrangements. systems. In order to maximize the satisfaction of internal
The use of quality management system like ISO and external customers, which includes students,
9001:2000 in a TQM environment is complementary and employees, industries, government and society at large,
supportive. TQM models are compatible and the system dynamics and the interlinking of quality
complementary with models like ISO 9000, and favor related factors, should be addressed while designing a
implementing a quality system in accordance with the quality management system. The conceptual TQM model
ISO 9000 norms to launch the TQM process. Many has been developed keeping in mind the diversified
researchers believe that ISO 9000 is a subset of TQM. interest. If implemented effectively and using quality
A survey was conducted by Sakthive et. el  to assurance systems like ISO 9001:2000, the TQM
study how does students in ISO as well as non-ISO excellence model should lead to Quality of graduates;
engineering institutions perceive the quality of education Quality manpower; Improved quality of intake; Quality
offered to them, and is there any difference in the levels of research; Research papers; Grants and Funding;
of quality of education offered between these institutions. Improved Financial power; Reputation; Brand Equity;
They found that there is significant difference in the Products and processes; Patents; Books; MoUs;
students‟ perceptions of quality of educational service International / National Conferences; Short term courses;
between the ISO 9001:2000 certified and non-ISO QIP; Scholarships; Credibility; Professional society
institutions; the ISO certified institutions are performing activities; and Role Model. It will move us forward to
better. This supports the notion of implementing TQM as have economy to that of economy of developed nations
a quality philosophy for engineering education wherein such as USA, UK, France, Germany and Japan.
the ISO 9001:2000 will be quality assurance mechanism.
12. CONCLUSION  Ramona Kay Michael and Victor E. Sower, “A
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