Drivers and barriers to water recycling and conservation

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Drivers and barriers to water recycling and conservation Powered By Docstoc

              Compiled by:

              Prof. Susan Roaf and Suchita Ghosh
              Oxford Brookes University

              With the aid of:

              Paul Shaffer, Paul Jeffrey, Sue Craddock,
              Christopher Tattersall and Nick Grant
STAKEHOLDERS                                    DRIVERS                                                  BARRIERS

ARCHITECTS,      Rise in environmental awareness. Customers willing to pay a 'green      Lack of knowledge and information on the
DEVELOPERS AND   premium'.                                                               subject.
                 Water conservation increasingly seen as part of 'green credentials'.    Lack of knowledge of what 'Sustainability'
                 Desire for 'innovation', eg. new products, regardless whether they
                 have been tried / tested.                                               Cost of construction and maintenance. Not the
                                                                                         cheap option.
                 Intelligent homes trendy
                                                                                         Concerns about public health - water quality
                 Flood Control may require water conservation and storage                standard for grey water/rain water i.e.
                 strategies for building eg. on flood plains.                            disinfecting.
                 Urban flooding requires water retention strategies that may involve     Previous bad experiences, e.g. Linacre
                 attractive 'green building elements' such as green roofs that appeal
                                                                                         College advertised in the press
                 to designers. They also have other environmental selling features
                 in that they can help to enhance local climate and absorbing the        Lack of common ground on which engineers,
                 CO2 over cities thereby reducing greenhouse effect. (NB. Green          planners and architects can discuss water
                 roofs not desirable for water conservation – recycling, v. poor         systems.
                 water quality).
                                                                                         Cheap mains water
                 Security of supply issues may influence developers to include
                 additional water sources for a) the case of a break down of central     Lack of sense of ownership of the resource
                 system if the supply infrastructure deteriorates or b) if the 90 year
                 drought becomes a 3 year drought and garden water etc. are
                                                                                         Lack of easily understood benchmarks
                                                                                         Lack of legislation for developers to install
                 Good examples such as Gusto in Nottingham                               water efficient fittings
STAKEHOLDERS                               DRIVERS                                            BARRIERS

TEACHING AND    Money can be earned by exploiting these bodies as effective     Related bodies reactive rather than proactive
                conduits for knowledge transfer between regions and countries   in designing curricula and research projects.
                and continents
ORGANISATIONS                                                                   Relative lack of advanced skills and
                New emphasis on water eg. from climate change issues, will      knowledge in the areas of environmental
                stimulate the demand for new products that must be              performance
                researched leading to new money
                                                                                Lack of consistency in what constitutes Best
                Opportunity to research or work in partnership with new         Practice.
                organisations, eg. industrial partners, and release new money
                for research and curriculum development.                        Lack of perception of need.

                Trickle down of Government’s Sustainable Development            Lack of co-ordination in what is taught in
                Strategy.                                                       schools of architecture, planning and
                                                                                engineers removing 'common ground for
                Regulatory regime supporting demand management and              understanding'.
                related teaching and research
                                                                                Competitive practices - lack of 'sharing' of
                Getting own house in order - eg. the 'Green Campus              information between water companies and
                Movement' enabling an effective 'Learning by Doing'             research bodies
                                                                                Water saving is a poor relation in the family of
                                                                                environmental sciences with a low profile
                The Professions, eg. Architects, are now requiring that
                'Sustainability' is included in teaching modules and courses    Cheap mains water
                and so steps must be made to ensure that water issues are
                included here.                                                  Bad experiences with research systems ie.
                                                                                Black toilet bowls and smelly systems not
                                                                                attractive to most.
STAKEHOLDERS                              DRIVERS                                          BARRIERS

REGULATORS/    Government introduce legislation., i.e. Water Resources Act,    Government has lost control of the policy
               Environment Act, and Water Bill, Ofwat and the Environment      levers.
               Agency are responsible for enforcing the legislation eg.
               DWI (Drinking Water Inspectorate)                               Political acceptability of legislation.

               Commitment to sustainable development                           Cautious approach adopted by companies
                                                                               overseeing water efficiency
               Minimising environmental impact of water abstraction

               Balancing stakeholder requirements, including environment and   Correct information needed to base
               customers                                                       legislation on; Research cycle out of
                                                                               synchronisation with legislation.
               Concerns about climate change
                                                                               No consensus on cost and impact of
               Agenda for Action 1996 – Twin Track Approach                    water saving options.

               Ofwat – encourage water companies to use water efficiently to
               manage the water supply demand balance at least cost.           Regulations introduced to prevent bad
                                                                               practice, not promote good practice.
               Environment Agency – statutory body with a duty to secure the
               proper use of water resources in England and Wales.             Obtaining information

               Water supply regulations 1999

               Minimise utility bills e.g. Watermark
 STAKEHOLDERS                                 DRIVERS                                         BARRIERS

MANUFACTURERS       1999 Water Supply Regulations                              Provision of information.
(White good
                    Ecolabel Scheme                                            Life of machine
manufacturers and
sanitary ware       Customer demand, marketing                                 Fear of unknown

PRIVATE             Making money
                                                                             Water saving is a poor relation of energy
CONSULTANTS                                                                  efficiency and has less earning potential
                    Rise in environmental awareness
                                                                             Economics and paybacks, poorly understood
                    Government’s Sustainable Development Strategy
                                                                             Lack of standards for greywater recycling.
                    Building Capacity- skills, knowledge and understanding
                    of the issues to earn revenue.

                                                                             Reactive consumers
CUSTOMERS /         Saving money
CONSUMERS                                                                    Lack of information
                    Environmental awareness
                                                                             Disenfranchisement from water company
                    Changing perception of the value of water
                                                                             Lack of water Standards- high perception of
                    Conservation is becoming trendy

                                                                             Perception of low value due to the abundance
                                                                             of water

                                                                             Apathy – laziness
STAKEHOLDERS                                   DRIVERS                                                  BARRIERS

WATER COMPANIES   Rising demand and adoption of ‘Twin Track’ options.                       Need to drive down costs, low cost of
                  Increasingly stringent legislation to control water sales by Privatised
                  Companies, eg. Water supply regulations 1999 and 2002.                    Lack of flexible cost tariffs

                  Duty to promote water conservation to customers, e.g. Environment
                  Act 1995, Ofwat MD118                                                     Trade off between water conservation
                                                                                            and returns to share holders. –
                  Metering in industrial and commercial properties and in new build         Economics
                  residential provide financial incentive to save water.
                                                                                            Impacts of water conservation still need
                  Limiting of ground and river water abstraction licence limiting total     to be quantified.
                  amount of water available. Abstractors need to ensure they make
                  efficient use of water.                                                   Increasing population, affluence and
                                                                                            ownership of water using appliances.
                  Public opinion against building new dams.
                                                                                            Water conservation requires
                  Government’s Sustainable Development Strategy, eg. Water Summit           partnerships with customers which can
                  10 point plan 1997.                                                       be time intensive and costly to set up

                  Need to get own house in order. Eg. Leak reduction, rebuilding of         Utilities see that it does not ensure for
                  supply infrastructure etc. results in water conservation.                 them the security of supply the same
                                                                                            way developing a new resource would.
                  Competition Act 1998 allows water companies to operate outside
                  traditional boundaries. If conservation undertaken widely, could
                  provide more water to sell to new customers.

                  Impact of Climate Change, hotter summers, greater demand.
STAKEHOLDERS                             DRIVERS                                                 BARRIERS

LOCAL          Water recycling:                                                     Cost involved in storage tanks and
                                                                                    maintenance water quality standard for
               Prevent scarcity of water resources                                  grey water/rain water i.e. disinfecting
               Enrich low water flows in rivers

               Prevent flooding                                                     Additional disinfection needed for
                                                                                    drinking water
               Rainwater conservation and planning:

               Reduce overflows from combined sewers
                                                                                    Lack of water quality standard for grey
               Save costs for storm water detention tanks - not costs borne by      water/rain water

               Save costs for building storm water or combined sewers - not costs
               borne by government

               To have additional water source for the case of a break down of
               central system

               To avoid long distance supply systems for drinking water

               Save detergents from the laundry and chemicals for water treatment
               to make water visible

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