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Overfishing Threatens European Bluefin Tuna

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					       Overfishing Threatens European Bluefin Tuna
Bluefin tuna disappeared from Danish waters in the 1960s. Now the species could
become depleted throughout the northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean, according
to analyses by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU Aqua) and University of
New Hampshire. The species is highly valued as sushi.




                      Bluefin tuna caught at Sjællands Odde, Denmark, 1928.
                         Source: Blegvad, H. 1946. Fiskeriet i Danmark.
                          Bind 1. Selskabet til udgivelse af kulturskrifter.

Bluefin tuna is a treasured delicatesse. A kilo of its much sought after meat can bring in
prices reaching 130 Euros at fish auctions. The species in the Mediterranean Sea and
northeast Atlantic is caught by fishermen from many countries, particularly France, Spain
and Italy.

But there are fewer tuna left in the sea, and those that are left are younger and smaller. In
2006, the organisation that manages bluefin tuna fisheries (ICCAT; International
Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas) launched a recovery plan whose
main objective is to rebuild the population by 2022. Rebuilding would be achieved by
gradually lowering fishing quotas between 2007-2010 and implementing other fishery
regulations.

The management plan is however insufficient to stop the population from getting even
smaller in the coming years. That is evident from analyses done by Brian MacKenzie
(DTU Aqua) together with colleagues Henrik Mosegaard (DTU Aqua) and Andrew A.
Rosenberg (University of New Hampshire, USA). Their results will be published later
this year in an article in the scientific journal Conservation Letters.

“Our calculations show that the present recovery plan has little chance of reaching its
goal and will not be able to protect the population in the northeast Atlantic and
Mediterranean from declining even further. The population is presently at its lowest level
ever, and the adult biomass has fallen 10 years in a row. Every year we set a new record
low,“ explains Professor Brian MacKenzie, National Institute of Aquatic Resources at
The Technical University of Denmark (DTU Aqua).
Large illegal fishery
In 2006 (the last year for which data are available), the officially reported landings were
30,650 tonnes. On top of that come the illegal landings. ICCAT itself has estimated that
the illegal landings were about 20,000 tonnes so that total landings (legal plus illegal)
were ca. 50,000 tonnes. In 2007, ICCAT suspects the total legal and illegal landings
were 60,000 tonnes.

Professor Brian MacKenzie, DTU Aqua, says: “New regulations and measures need to
protect the fish that are still left in the wild. This will mean a substantial reduction of both
fishing mortality and fishing effort, plus the political will to implement and enforce new
regulations.“

“The longer we wait, the more difficult it will be
to rebuild the population. There is also a risk that
the population might never come back if it
declines too much. That is because the ecosystem
could change so that it is less productive for
bluefin tuna. Such a change happened on the
Canadian East Coast when cod populations
declined but still have not come back, even after a
fishing moratorium.

The scientists have calculated how the bluefin
tuna population will develop under the recovery
plan – assuming that the existing quotas are
enforced, and assuming that the illegal landings
continue at recent levels.

“Even under the recovery plan, the population
will likely fall to new record low levels in the
                                                         Four bluefin tuna wieghing in total 810 kg.
next 2-3 years. The existing quotas are too high
                                                         year and location not stated, but before
and will allow fishing fleets to catch all or nearly     1932. Source: Svendsen, L., 1932.
all of the adult bluefin tuna in the entire northeast    Lystfiskeren: lystfiskeri i vore ferske vande,
Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea. That situation           langs kysterne og paa havet. Hage &
will make reproductive success of the population         Clausens Forlag (J. Fr. Clausen),
                                                         Copenhagen, Denmark
much more vulnerable to bad environmental and
ecosystem conditions,“ says Brian MacKenzie,
DTU Aqua.

Important decision
ICCAT will meet later in November to decide about bluefin tuna fishing regulations, and
whether the present recovery plan needs to be changed.

In June 2008, the EU closed its bluefin tuna fishing season early because 6 EU countries
already had caught their share of the 2008 quota and because the fishing capacity of EU
countries is so large that according to the EU there is a real risk of overfishing.
Bluefin tuna in Denmark
There used to be bluefin tuna in waters near Denmark. They were so abundant and
landings so high that the first tuna cannery could be opened in 1929 at Skagen. In the
1950s, bluefin tuna weighing 100 kg and more were often caught with hooks in the
Øresund and Kattegat. When the fishery in northern European waters (mainly the North
and Norwegian Seas) was at its high point in the mid-1950s, fishermen in Norway,
Denmark, Germany and Sweden landed in total ca. 15,000 tonnes per year. But the “tuna
adventure” ended in the mid-1960s. Today bluefin tuna are extremely rare in the North
Sea and Norwegian Sea.

Read the article
“Impending collapse of bluefin tuna in the northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean” will
appear in Conservation Letters early in 2009. The article is now available online at the
journal website. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119881378/issue.

The study is part of the History of Marine Animal Populations project:
http://hmapcoml.org/ (part of the Census of Marine Life http://www.coml.org/ ) and two
EU Networks of Excellence on marine research (MarBEF http://www.marbef.org/ and
Eur-oceans http://www.eur-oceans.eu/).

See also:
The study has been discussed in the article”Managed to death” in The Economist, 30.
October 2008.
http://www.economist.com/science/PrinterFriendly.cfm?story_id=12502783

Marine Historians Detail Collapse of Once Abundant Bluefin Tuna Population off
Northern Europe (Press release from Census of Marine Life, July 2007)
http://www.coml.org/press-releases-2007

When tuna disappeared from Denmark (news item from DTU Aqua; in Danish only)
http://www.aqua.dtu.dk/Nyheder/Arkiv.aspx?guid=%7b2CAFA470-70AF-4A2A-A2CA-
5ED1CC587C7A%7d

Additional information:
Professor Brian MacKenzie
Technical University of Denmark
National Institute for Aquatic Resources (DTU Aqua) http://www.aqua.dtu.dk/
DK-2920 Charlottenlund, Denmark
Telephone: +45.33 96 34 03
Email: brm@aqua.dtu.dk

About Brian MacKenzie:
Brian MacKenzie holds a joint professorship at The National Institute of Aquatic
Resources at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU Aqua) and the Department of
Marine Ecology, Institute of Biology, University of Aarhus.

				
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