United States Board on Geographic Names - DOC by uyk41809

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									   Romanization Systems and Roman-Script Spelling Conventions          February 15, 2008




The following is the approved romanization system for deriving standard spellings of Urdu
geographic names for Pakistan. It was jointly adopted by the BGN and PCGN at the 23rd
BGN/PCGN Joint Conference in Washington, DC, in 2007. The romanization system is based
on the Hunterian system of Urdu romanization, which has been used by the Surveys of India and
Pakistan for romanizing Urdu geographic names for more than one hundred years. The
BGN/PCGN system has two forms: a simplified form designed for desk users, and a rigorous
form, which is fully reversible and is appropriate for databases. In every case the same base
characters are kept as are used in the Hunterian system. The rigorous forms have further been
designed to harmonize with the BGN/PCGN Persian romanization system.




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                  Romanization Systems and Roman-Script Spelling Conventions     February 15, 2008




                                                   Simplified Rigorous
                                  Inde-    Unicode                                                      Rigorous
     Final   Medial    Initial                     Romaniz- Romaniz-           Urdu Example
                                 pendent    Value                                                     Transliteration
                                                     ation      ation
1    ‫ـت‬         ‫ـجـ‬       ‫ثـ‬       ‫ة‬        0628       b          b                  ِ
                                                                                   ‫ثْْٟػی‬                 Boghdī
2    ‫ـپ‬         ‫ـپـ‬       ‫پـ‬       ‫پ‬        067E         p           p              ‫ی‬
                                                                                    ‫پب ِؿ‬
                                                                                      ‫ل‬                    Pālīr
3    ‫ـت‬         ‫ـتـ‬       ‫تـ‬       ‫ت‬        062A          t           t         ‫فّت کلے‬   ‫ی‬
                                                                                          ‫ة‬             Bezot Kale
4    ‫ـٹ‬         ‫ـٹـ‬       ‫ٹـ‬       ‫ٹ‬        0679          t           ṭ          ‫ٝول کْٹ‬                ‘Amal Koṭ
5    ‫ـج‬         ‫ـخـ‬       ‫حـ‬       ‫ث‬        062B         s            s̄       ‫ىبہ ًخبؿ م لہ‬
                                                                                ‫ی‬                    Shāh Nas̄ār Melah
6    ‫ـذ‬        ‫ـزـ‬       ‫رـ‬        ‫د‬        062C          j           j          ‫ثـرْ م لہ‬
                                                                                  ‫ی‬                    Barjū Melah
7    ‫ـچ‬        ‫ـچـ‬       ‫چـ‬        ‫چ‬        0686         ch          ch            ‫چپـی‬                   Chaprī
8    ‫ـش‬        ‫ـضـ‬       ‫صـ‬        ‫س‬        062D         h           ḩ         ‫اصوؼ عبى کلے‬          Aḩmad Khān Kale
9    ‫ـظ‬        ‫ـغـ‬       ‫عـ‬        ‫ط‬        062E         ḳh          kh           ‫آکب ط ل‬
                                                                                   ‫ی‬                    Ākā Khel
10   ‫ـؼ‬         ‫ـؼ‬        ‫ػ‬        ‫ػ‬        062F          d          d             ‫ی‬‫ػؿاى‬                  Durānī
11   ‫ـڈ‬         ‫ـڈ‬        ‫ڈ‬        ‫ڈ‬        0688         d           ḍ             ‫ڈًگال‬
                                                                                    ‫ی‬                    Ḍangīlā
12   ‫ـؾ‬         ‫ـؾ‬        ‫ؽ‬        ‫ؽ‬        0630         z           z̄            ‫ی‬‫ؽؿاى‬                  Z̄arānī
13   ‫ــ‬         ‫ــ‬        ‫ؿ‬        ‫ؿ‬        0631          r           r            ‫ی‬‫ثـک‬                   Burkī
14   ‫ـڑ‬         ‫ـڑ‬        ‫ڑ‬        ‫ڑ‬        0691          r          ṛ             ‫گػڑہ‬‫ی‬                 Gīdaṛah
15   ‫ـق‬         ‫ـق‬        ‫ف‬        ‫ف‬        0632         z           z           ‫ی ی‬
                                                                                  ‫ٝل فائ‬                 ‘Alī Zā’ī
16   ‫ـژ‬         ‫ـژ‬        ‫ژ‬        ‫ژ‬        0698         zh          zh             ‫ژّة‬                    Zhob
17   ‫ـل‬        ‫ـنـ‬       ‫مـ‬        ‫ك‬        0633         s            s            ْ‫ثنبت‬                  Bisātū
18   ‫ـو‬        ‫ـيـ‬       ‫ىـ‬        ‫ه‬        0634         sh          sh         ‫اصوؼی ىبهب‬            Aḩmadī Shāmā
19   ٌ‫ـ‬       ‫ـَـ‬       ‫ٍـ‬         ً        0635         s            ş        ‫اٍبلت کلے‬               Aşālat Kale
20   ِ‫ـ‬       ‫ـْـ‬       ‫ّـ‬         ُ        0636         z           ẕ           ‫عْـ عبى‬               Khaẕar Khān



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                  Romanization Systems and Roman-Script Spelling Conventions      February 15, 2008


                                                   Simplified Rigorous
                                  Inde-    Unicode                                                       Rigorous
      Final   Medial   Initial                     Romaniz- Romaniz-            Urdu Example
                                 pendent    Value                                                      Transliteration
                                                     ation      ation
21    ٔ‫ـ‬       ‫ـٖـ‬       ‫ٕـ‬        ٓ        0637       t          ţ                 ‫ملٖبى‬                   Sulţān
                                                                                                      ‘Az̧am Sayyid Nūr
22    ٘‫ـ‬       ‫ـٚـ‬       ‫ٙـ‬        ٗ        0638         z           z̧                ‫كػ‬
                                                                               ‫ٝٚن ی ًْؿ کلے‬                 Kale
23    ٜ‫ـ‬        ‫ـٞـ‬      ‫ٝـ‬        ٛ        0639          ‘           ‘            ‫ٝلن هؿ‬
                                                                                   ‫ی‬                     ‘Alam Sher
24    ٠‫ـ‬        ‫ـ٢ـ‬      ‫١ـ‬        ٟ        063A         g̣h         gh             ‫ی‬‫ث٢بک‬                  Bghākī
25    ٤‫ـ‬        ‫ـ٦ـ‬       ‫٥ـ‬       ٣        0641          f           f           ‫هٚ٦ـ کْٹ‬              Muz̧afar Koṭ
26    ٨‫ـ‬        ‫ـ٪ـ‬       ‫٩ـ‬       ٧        0642         q           q              ‫ص٪ؼؿہ‬                Ḩaqdarah
27    ‫ـک‬       ‫ـکـ‬       ‫کـ‬        ‫ک‬        06A9         k           k              ‫ی‬
                                                                                   ‫کچکًہ‬                 Kachkīnah
28    ‫ـگ‬       ‫ـگـ‬       ‫گـ‬        ‫گ‬        06AF         g           g               ‫ثبگي‬                  Bāgan
29    ‫ـل‬        ‫ـلـ‬       ‫لـ‬       ‫ل‬        0644          l           l             ‫ثلجلک‬                 Bulbalak
30    ‫ـن‬        ‫ـوـ‬      ‫هـ‬        ‫م‬        0645         m           m              ‫ثلام ى‬
                                                                                    ‫یی‬                    Bilyāmīn
31    ‫ـي‬        ‫ـٌـ‬       ‫ًـ‬       ‫ى‬        0646         n           n               ‫ًہـ‬                    Nahr
32    ‫ـں‬       ‫ـںـ‬       -         ‫ں‬        06BA         n           ñ         ‫روْں اّؿ کين ؿ‬
                                                                               ‫ی‬                      Jamuñ aur Kashmīr
33    ْ‫ـ‬        ْ‫ـ‬        ّ        ّ        0648         w           w             ‫ی‬ ‫اؿّال‬                Arawālī
34    َ‫ـ‬        ‫ـِـ‬      ‫ُـ‬        ٍ        0647         h           h                  ‫ی‬
                                                                                   ‫ہ ؿّىبہ‬                Heroshāh
34A   ‫ـہ‬        ‫ـہـ‬       ‫ہـ‬       ‫ہ‬        06C1         h           h             ‫هہـػی‬                   Mahrdī
35    َ‫ـ‬        ‫ـِـ‬      -         ُ        06BE         h           h               ُ‫ثڑ‬                    Baṛh
                ‫ـئـ‬                         0621/
36     ‫ء‬                 ‫ء‬         ‫ء‬                      -           ’              ‫ی‬
                                                                                   ‫هّاؤ‬                   Shīwā’o
               ‫ـؤ‬                           0626
37     ٔ‫ـ‬       ‫ـيـ‬      ‫يـ‬        ٓ        0649         y           y            ‫اؿػا کلے‬
                                                                                         ‫ی‬               Yārdā Kale




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                  Romanization Systems and Roman-Script Spelling Conventions      February 15, 2008



                                                          Simplified   Rigorous
                                  Inde-     Unicode                                                     Rigorous
     Final   Medial    Initial                            Romaniz-     Romaniz-   Urdu Example
                                 pendent     Value                                                    Transliteration
                                                            ation        ation
38    َ‫ـج‬      ‫ـجِـ‬      ‫ثِـ‬       َ‫ث‬      0628+06BE         bh           bh        ‫ی عبى‬  ‫ثِبئ‬         Bhā’ī Khān
39    َ‫ـپ‬      ‫ـپِـ‬      ‫پِـ‬       َ‫پ‬      067E+06BE          ph          ph           ‫پِبىک‬              Phāshk
40    َ‫ـت‬      ‫ـتِـ‬      ‫تِـ‬       َ‫ت‬      062A+06BE          th          th             ‫تِل‬              Thall
41    َ‫ـٹ‬      ‫ـٹِـ‬      ‫ٹِـ‬       َ‫ٹ‬      0679+06BE          th          ṭh        ‫پٹِبى ؿی‬
                                                                                     ‫ا‬                  Paṭhān Ryā
42    َ‫ـز‬     َ‫ــز‬      ‫رِـ‬        َ‫ر‬      062C+06BE          jh          jh            ‫رَ ل‬
                                                                                        ‫ی‬                   Jhīl
43    َ‫ـچ‬     ‫ـچِـ‬      ‫چِـ‬        َ‫چ‬      0686+06BE          chh         chh       ‫ثبػىبہ چِن‬        Bādshāh Chhum
44    ُ‫ـؼ‬     ‫ـؼُـ‬      ‫ػُـ‬        ُ‫ػ‬      062D+06BE          dh          dh            ُ‫مٌؼ‬              Sindh
45    ُ‫ـڈ‬     ‫ـڈُـ‬      ‫ڈُـ‬        ُ‫ڈ‬      0688+06BE          dh          ḍh            ‫ڈٌُڈ‬              Ḍhanḍ
46   ‫ـڑُـ‬     ‫ـڑُـ‬      ‫ڑُـ‬        ُ‫ڑ‬      0631+06BE          rh          ṙh       ‫١ْف گڑُی‬             Ghozgaṛhi
47    َ‫ـک‬     ‫ـکِـ‬      ‫کِـ‬        َ‫ک‬      06A9+06BE          kh          kh’      ‫ػّ١ل گبکِـ‬         Doghal Gākh’ar
48    َ‫ـگ‬     ‫ـگِـ‬      ‫گِـ‬        َ‫گ‬      06AF+06BE          gh          gh’      ‫عبى گِڑی‬            Khān Gh’aṛī
49     ‫ال‬       ‫ال‬        ‫ال‬       ‫ال‬      0644+0627          lā           lā      ‫١الهک کلے‬          Ghulāmak Kale
50     ‫ﰷ‬        ‫ﰷ‬        ‫ﰷ‬         ‫ﰷ‬       06A9+0627          kā          kā          ‫کبؿاط ل‬
                                                                                       ‫ی‬                 Kārākhel
51     ‫گب‬       ‫گب‬        ‫گب‬       ‫گب‬      06AF+0627          gā          gā           ‫ًگب‬
                                                                                         ‫ی‬‫عپ‬            Khapyangā
52    ‫ﰻ‬        ‫ﰻ‬        ‫ﰻ‬          ‫ﰻ‬       06A9+0644          kl          kl         ‫گٌؼہ کلے‬          Gandah Kale
53    ‫گل‬       ‫گل‬        ‫گل‬        ‫گل‬      06AF+0644          gl          gl       ‫گلًْب ڈُ ؿی‬
                                                                                      ‫ی‬                Gulonā Ḍherī




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                      Romanization Systems and Roman-Script Spelling Conventions    February 15, 2008


                                      Inde-                   Simplified Rigorous
                                                Unicode                                                   Rigorous
     Final   Medial        Initial   penden                   Romaniz- Romaniz-      Urdu Example
                                                 Value                                                  Transliteration
                                        t                       ation      ation
54   ٔ‫ِـ‬       ‫ِـيـ‬          ‫ِيـ‬‫ا‬      ِٓ      0650+0649          ī          ī         ‫ط ؿہ ػ ى‬
                                                                                       ‫ی ی‬                Kherah Dīn
55   ِ1          ِ            ِ
                              ‫ا‬         ِ         0650              i          i       ‫هْؿپتَ ی‬            Maurpithī
56   ‫ـے‬        ‫ـيـ‬           ‫ايـ‬       ‫ے‬          06D2              e          e      ‫ػؿے پالؿی‬            Dre Plārī
57   ‫ـب‬         ‫ـب‬            ‫آ‬        ‫ا‬       0627 / 0622          ā          ā          ‫آگـہ‬              Āgrah
58   -           َ            ‫ا‬
                              َ         َ         064E              a          a          ‫ڈًڈؿ‬              Ḍanḍar
59   ْ‫ـ‬        ْ‫ـ‬            ّ‫ا‬        ّ          0648              o          o          ّ‫گػ‬
                                                                                           ‫ی‬                 Gīdo
60   -           ُ            ‫ا‬
                              ُ         ُ         064F              u          u        ‫گجبفاًہ‬           Gubāzānah
61   ْ‫ُـ‬       ْ‫ُـ‬           ُّ ‫ا‬      ُّ      064F+0648            ū          ū         ْ‫اّى‬                Ūsho
62   ‫َـے‬       ‫َـيـ‬          ‫َيـ‬‫ا‬      ‫َے‬      064E+06D2            ai        ai     ‫س ػؿ ی کلے‬
                                                                                           ‫ی ٝل‬         Ḩaidar ‘Alī Kale
63   ْ‫َـ‬       ْ‫َـ‬           َّ ‫ا‬      َّ      064E+0648            au       au        ‫تْػہ چ ًہ‬
                                                                                        ‫ی‬               Taudah Chīnah
                                                                   Not      Not
64     ْ        ْ              ْ       ْ          0652            Roman-   Roman-
                                                                   ized     ized
65     ٰ       -             -         ٰ          0670               a        á     ‫ی عبى کلے‬‫هْك‬        Mūsá Khān Kale
                                                                           Double
                                                               Double
66     ّ        ّ            -         ّ          0651
                                                              Consonant
                                                                           Conso-        ٟ‫هال ثب‬          Mullā Bagh
                                                                            nant




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Romanization Systems and Roman-Script Spelling Conventions              February 15, 2008




1.   When the vowel sign zīr ( ِ ) occurs word-finally in the first element of a compound, it is
     assumed to mark the Persian izafat morpheme, and is romanized -e, not i.
2.   Source of all example names is the 1951 Census of Pakistan, Village List, Northwest
     Frontier Province, Chitral State. Office of the Provincial Superintendant of Census,
     North-West Frontier Province, Peshawar.
3.   No examples of aspirated dental r (rh, ُ‫ ) ؿ‬were found, though this phoneme is assumed
     to be part of the phonology of Urdu, and was therefore left out of Table 2.
4.   Because of technical font problems, the Urdu examples are not pointed. Future drafts of
     this document will contain pointed Urdu examples.
5.   Occasionally, sequences of z or s plus h may be encountered, i.e. z·h, s·h. These are
     romanized with the Unicode 'center dot' (U+00B7) separating the two letters, to
     distinguish them from the digraphs 'zh' and 'sh'.




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