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A Comprehensive Report on the Implementation of the Ouagadougou

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A Comprehensive Report on the Implementation of the Ouagadougou Powered By Docstoc
					    AFRICAN UNION                                        UNION AFRICAINE
                                                          UNIÃO AFRICANA
 Addis Ababa, ETHIOPIA   P. O. Box 3243   Te: +251-11-5517 700    Fax: +251-11-5517844



SEVENTH ORDINARY SESSION
OF THE LABOUR AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS
COMMISSION OF THE AFRICAN UNION
28 SEPTEMBER – 02 OCTOBER 2009
ADDIS ABABA, ETHIOPIA

                                                                 LSC/EXP/6(VII)




     THEME : “IMPACT OF THE GLOBAL CRISIS ON EMPLOYMENT
     AND LABOUR MARKETS IN AFRICA”




 REPORT OF THE CHAIRPERSON OF THE AU COMMISSION ON
       OUAGADOUGOU + 5 ON EMPLOYMENT AND
           POVERTY ALLEVIATION (2004-2009)
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Background
Employment took a centre stage at the Extraordinary Ouagadougou Summit of
Heads of State and Government in September 2004. The Summit was a
culmination of efforts by member states, RECs, tripartite social partners as well
as international partners to address the challenge of employment creation and
providing conditions for decent work. It was also a point of departure for more
concerted efforts at national, regional and international levels to step up
employment creation for poverty alleviation. The Summit was particularly
significant for the commitment by member states to place employment at the
centre of their economic and social policies. Prior to this, employment took a
marginal position in the hierarchy of policy priorities. Employment creation and
the promotion of decent work conditions would henceforth no longer be the sole
responsibility of Ministries of Labour and Employment.



The Plan of Action set in place follow up mechanisms at the national, regional
and international levels that included timetables for implementation to monitor the
process at all levels and to report back. These commitments are contained in
these Summit documents:


      the Declaration on Employment and Poverty Alleviation in Africa
       (EXT/ASSEMBLY/AU 3 (111) ),
      Plan of Action for the Promotion of Employment and Poverty Alleviation
       (EXT/ASSEMBLY/AU 4 (111) Rev.4) and
      Follow up Mechanism for Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation
       (EXT/
       ASSEMBLY /AU/5 (111).

The Declaration and Plan of Action (PoA) are wide ranging in their scope.
Employment creation has not always been considered as a major objective for
sustained equitable economic growth and development Therefore, one of the
outstanding features of the Declaration is its integrated approach to social,
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economic    and   governance     issues.   The   challenges,   opportunities     and
commitments indeed require a holistic approach.


Principal Elements in the Plan of Action
The Ouagadougou Plan of Action (PoA) spells out the fundamental objectives
and key priority areas in the promotion of employment and poverty alleviation.
Under each priority area, a principal objective is outlined together with related
strategies and recommended actions.


The primary goal of the PoA is to reverse the trends of pervasive and persistent
poverty, unemployment and under-employment on the continent, and to have
tangible improvement in the living standards of people and their families.
(baseline and targets)The PoA thus provides guidelines and key objectives for
Member States to formulate their own mechanisms based on their national
needs and specificities. The priority areas are structured not only at national
level but also at regional and continental levels of intervention. Member States,
in collaboration with principal stakeholders, are called upon to utilize the PoA to
develop their own short, medium and long-term National Action Plans to create
jobs and eradicate poverty..
The eleven Priority Areas lie at the heart of the PoA. The degree to which the
objectives, strategies and recommended actions of these areas are being
achieved show whether progress is being made in the implementation of the
Ouagadougou process. The measurement of progress is therefore based on the
sets of activities under each Area.
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Box 1: Eleven Priority Areas of the Ouagadougou Plan of Action


1. Ensuring political leadership and commitment to create to create an enabling
environment of good governance for investment, development and poverty
alleviation in the context of NEPAD and the attainment of MDGs.

2. Promotion of the agricultural sector and rural development, sustainable
management of the environment for food security and development of support
infrastructure.

3. Development of an appropriate framework for integration and harmonization of
economic and social policies.

4. Improving and strengthening the existing social protection schemes and
extending it to workers and their families currently excluded, as well as
occupational safety, health and hygiene.

5. Empowerment of women by integrating them in the labour markets and to
enable them to participate effectively in the development of poverty reduction
strategies, policies and programmes.

6. Human and institutional capacity building for public and private institutions in
charge of employment promotion and poverty alleviation, including the social
partners and other relevant actors of the civil society.

7. Utilizing key sectors with high employment potential to generate more jobs and
allocate adequate resources for that purpose.
8. Building International cooperation, fair and equitable globalization, and
partnerships for an enhanced international support to Africa’s efforts towards
achieving sustainable development, putting emphasis on the employment
agenda, poverty alleviation, regional integration and a better participation in the
globalization process.

9. Promoting regional and economic cooperation among the Regional Economic
Communities (RECs) in order to expand economic space, intra and inter regional
trade, markets and exploit the economies of scale.

10. Targeting and empowering vulnerable groups such as persons with
disabilities, aged persons, migrants, children, youth and people infected and
affected by HIV-AIDS, Malaria, Tuberculosis and Other Related Infectious
Diseases, internally displaced persons, refugees, migrants and the working poor.

11. Mobilization of resources at national, regional and international levels.
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Source: AU Ouagadougou (2004) Extraordinary Summit of Heads of State
and Government of the AU on Employment Promotion and Poverty
Alleviation in Africa.

The PoA contains a formidable listing of recommended strategies and actions
leading MS to adopt a selective approach and ranking of the priority areas. It is
recommended that a successful and sustained implementation requires broad
partnerships at Member State (MS), Regional, International and Continental
levels. In particular, each MS is encouraged to forge and sustain partnerships
with the Media, NGOs, Trade Union and Employer Organizations, civil society
organizations (CSOs), faith-based organizations (FBOs), community based
organizations (CBOs) and the private sector. This is imperative.

A review of the implementation process would necessarily use the variables in
the PoA to assess outcomes. However, this assessment has some limitations
because there are no specific targets set for MS, RECs and collaborating
partners. .


Follow up Mechanism and Reporting Process


The Ouagadougou Summit placed special importance on the need for follow up
and reporting mechanisms. This was for several reasons. First, it was observed
that previous African Continental initiatives had not been effectively monitored
partly because of lack of coordination and absence of effective Mechanisms for
Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation. Second, there was an urgent need
for an integrated, interrelated and coherent implementation and follow up of the
Summit recommendations and commitments at national, regional and continental
levels (AU, 2004). Third, the implementation process should be reviewed so as to
identify progress made as well as constraints. The follow up mechanism is
therefore composed of national follow-up institutions, regional follow up
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institutions and the African Union Commission. The three sets of institutions
would report regularly on the implementation process.


At the national level, the expectation was that existing national institutions would
be responsible for the implementation and follow up processes. Where such
institutions did not exist, they should be established. Several functions for these
national institutions were spelt out but the principal one was develop detailed
Plans of Action with clear objectives, milestones, roles and responsibilities of
stakeholders and development partners using the Summit PoA as a guiding
framework. They were also expected to develop indicators to measure the
outcome of national plans, prepare country reports with wide consultation with
relevant stakeholders and submit them to the AU Commission.


At the regional level, each REC was required to establish a regional follow up
institution within its structure where one did not exist. Thus each REC would be
responsible for the implementation of the Summit PoA in its region. Amongst its
functions would be the convening of consultative meetings with national follow up
institutions. Finally, at the continental level, the AU Commission would coordinate
the follow up and reporting on the overall implementation process at national and
regional levels. The Labour and Social Affairs Commission (LSAC), as an organ
of AU, would play a central role in this regard. For its part, the AU Commission
would prepare an annual report on its follow up activities, analytical reports every
two years to assess the status of implementation and a comprehensive
evaluation report on implementation every five years. These reports would also
serve as inputs into the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM). Covering the
period 2004 to 2009, this report is the first comprehensive report. The next
Section of the Report gives the broad economic, social and international
context in which the Ouagadougou Declaration and PoA were implemented
by Member States, RECs, Social Partners and Development Partners. This
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context was a major determinant of the success achieved and constraints
experienced in the implementation process.




                                  PART 1
                   THE BROAD CONTEXT OF THIS REPORT


Macroeconomic Context
1.     This Comprehensive Report should be contextualized.        The macro-
economic and social context in which the Ouagadougou PoA was implemented
between 2004 and 2009 therefore needs to be sketched out albeit briefly. This
is because context provides the necessary background against which to assess
the implementation process. It also points to the underlying dynamics and
imperatives that policy makers and implementers have needed to be sensitive
to. Two distinct periods can be discerned: the period of growth (2004-2007)
period and the period of the crisis (2008-09).


The Period: 2004 - 2007 : Steady Growth but with little job creation content

2.     Significantly, the period between 2004 and 2007 has witnessed steady
economic growth in most African countries. As a whole, Africa has experienced
growth of between 5 and 6 per cent during this period. Leading the growth
trajectory were oil and mineral exporters thanks to high commodity prices. Even
so, non-mineral economies with 36 per cent of the population also performed
reasonably well.

3.     Has there been a corresponding growth in employment to match this
economic growth? This has not been the case. Extractive industries especially
mining are usually not very employment intensive unless they are used as a
basis for further processing.
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4.    While employment growth is very constrained in the absence of economic
growth, it is not automatic either in conditions of growth. You can have jobless
growth. This means that growth should be employment-oriented. Development
policies often still focus on macro-economic variables but not enough on labour
market issues.

5.    The 2008 ILO report on global employment trends made a number of
pertinent observations on labour market conditions in Africa. First, it observed
that in 2007, 8, 2 per cent of those entire active in labour markets were
unsuccessfully looking for work (ILO, 2008a). The rate did not change in 2006
and 2007, a rate that was only slightly lower than 10 years ago when it was 8, 5
per cent. Indeed, in 2007, there were 24 per cent more unemployed people in
Africa than ten years ago. This is sobering. While the 2004 Summit PoA
represents a significant response to the employment creation challenge, the
present indications are that employment growth will take some time.


The Period 2008-2009: Global economic and financial crises

6.    The latest indications are that unemployment will rise in 2009 as a
consequence of the global financial and economic crisis. The 2009 ILO Global
Employment Trends report observed that , after four consecutive years of
decreases, the global unemployment rate increased from 5,7 per cent to 6, 0 per
cent in 2008, rising for men to 5,8 per cent and for women to 6,3 per cent (ILO,
2009a). In Sub-Saharan Africa, the unemployment rate in past five years had
decreased by 0, 6 per cent and stood at an estimated 7,9 per cent in 2008.
However, it is significant that vulnerable employment accounted for more than 75
per cent of those employed (Ibid.).     Vulnerable employment is defined as a
measure of persons who are employed under relatively precarious circumstances
as indicated by status in employment.
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7.    Such workers are less likely to have formal work arrangements, access to
benefits or social protection programmes and are more at risk to economic
cycles. However, an exceptional trend was that in North Africa where progress
had been in reducing the unemployment from a peak of 14, 2 per cent in 2000 to
10,3 per cent in 2008 in line with robust economic growth rates in that region.
Below is a bleak scenario mapping of the effects of the crisis on global
employment. According to the scenario 1, the global unemployment rate may rise
to 6.1% and 198 million will be unemployed, representing an absolute increase of
18 million unemployed in 2007. Under scenario 2 and 3, these figures are
estimated to be respectively 6.3% and 30 million, and 7.1% and 51 million in
comparison with 2007 (ILO, Source: ILO, 2009a, 2009b.

8.    In an update of the three Scenarios in May 2009, the unemployment rate
was raised upwards (ILO, 2009b). The number of unemployed was projected to
increase by an additional of between 29 million and 57 million between 2007 and
2009. Finally, the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment was set to rise
in Sub-Saharan Africa from 73 per cent to 77 per cent in 2009.

9.    Global economic crisis, there had been encouraging signs of employment
expansion in tandem with growth in a number of sectors. The sectors include
tourism and information and communication technology as well as the services.
There will be more significant positive developments on completion of the fibre
optic cable connection to countries in East Africa in 2009.

10.   According to entrepreneurs in the region, the absence of a fibre optic link
has prevented countries such as Kenya and Uganda form creating hundreds of
thousands of jobs in business process outsourcing (BPO). With new fibre optic
links, Kenyans and Ugandans would be able to compete equally for highly prized
call centre jobs against Indians, Ghanaians and South Africans (African
Business, May 2009). In India, for example, the BPO sector had created 1,6
million jobs and in 2007 grossed revenues of USD 47,8 billion. It is projected that
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revenues from the BPO sector could surpass earnings from traditional forex
earners like coffee, tea, tourism or horticulture if Kenya and Uganda could
achieve just a fraction of India‟s success in this field (Ibid.).


The International Context : From Steady Growth to Successive Food, Fuel
and Financial and Economic crises


The Food, Fuel and Financial Crises

11.     We have observed that during the first half of the period under review
(2004 to 2007), international economic growth was relatively robust. The above-
mentioned growth in Africa cashed in on this global growth especially the
increased demand for commodities such as oil and minerals. This growth in
international trade was partly stimulated by a voracious appetite for these
commodities by China, India and other industrializing economies. However,
several developments in 2008 slowed this growth. These relate to significant
price rise in fuel and food products leading to bigger import bills in most African
countries. It is estimated that of the 37 countries affected most by the food crisis,
some 21 were in Africa (African Business, July 2008). There have been food riots
in some of these countries.


12.     At its meeting in April 2008, the Labour and Social Affairs Commission
(LSAC) passed a Declaration on the Food Crisis. The food crisis threatened to
undermine the gains made in poverty reduction efforts and employment growth.
There was a diversion of funding away from infrastructural and employment-
related investment to expenditure on food imports.


13.    However, there was a positive aspect to the crisis. It created an
opportunity for African countries to resuscitate their agriculture and rural
economy and thus in favour of the rural labour market segments. AUC, RECs
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and MS should therefore need to revise their rural economy policies in respect of
the Ouagadougou Instruments and other relevant instruments of the AU.

14.    As we observe below, the adverse impact on financial markets was a
collapse in housing finance which then triggered a recession in countries such as
the US. Some of the immediate repercussions have been a growth in inflation,
and a slow-down in official development assistance (ODA) to developing
countries including those in Africa. It is estimated that a financing of USD 40
billion exists in ODA to African countries.

15.    ODA would thus be particularly useful now when fiscal pressures are
building up, to prevent undue compression of investment budgets and make it
possible to maintain the scope and coverage of social safety nets. It is significant
that about 23 countries in Africa are vulnerable to a decline in ODA flows. Such
flows represented more than 10 per cent of their national income for the period
2000 to 2007. Honouring the Gleneagles Summit commitments would help
sustain growth in Africa and mitigate the impact of the global financial crisis (IMF,
2009). The Gleneagles scenario represents an opportunity to provide financing
for countercyclical fiscal policies so that African countries can maintain their
growth momentum and continue making progress toward the MDGs.

16.    Finally, the growth pattern in African countries needs to be sustainable in
the medium and long-term. There is a view that the type of growth occurring in
most African countries is strongly affected by trends in international markets and
in particular commodity prices. The countries may be growing rapidly but without
a positive process of diversification and structural change (UNCTAD, 2008). As a
consequence, they are vulnerable to the volatility of commodity prices, affecting
both exports and imports as well as Africa‟s growth prospects and capacity to
generate employment and wealth.


The Global Financial and Economic Crisis and Employment
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17.   The 2008-09 financial and economic crises have been the severest since
the Great Depression of the 1930s. Although Africa is not tightly integrated into
the global financial system, it has not been spared the effects of the crisis.
Growth was reduced significantly from over 5 per cent in 2007 to a projected 2
per cent in 2009. As the Background to the 7th LSAC conference explained, the
flows of foreign direct investment as well as migrant remittances have slowed
down. Commodity export prices have weakened during the period under review.


18.   With the onset of the financial and economic crisis in 2008, employment
levels have been directly affected in such economic sectors as mining,
manufacturing and tourism. While the crisis has affected countries and sectors
unevenly, the broad picture is one of an adverse impact. The effects of the crisis
on Employment in Africa are too large and pervasive to ignore.


19.   First, the mining sector was badly affected by the economic crisis due also
to a decline in international demand. There have been many lay-offs in countries
such as DRC (300 000), Zambia (8 000) and Botswana as well as South Africa.
Spin-off industries like the diamond processing industry witnessed considerable
job losses in 2008-09. Decline in commodity exports of manganese were also
experienced in Gabon, and of diamonds in Central African Republic. In Burkina
Faso and DRC, there has been a delay in starting up mining ventures due to low
mineral prices.

20.   Second, key growth industries like manufacturing have been hit due to a
decline in demand. For instance, the motor assembly in South Africa had laid off
about 40 000 workers by June 2009. Tourism has also been adversely affected
by the crisis. Decline in tourist arrivals in countries such as Kenya, Tanzania,
Mauritius and Uganda has adversely affected revenues. Cape Verde and
Gambia have also seen reduced earnings from tourism. A decline of up to 30 per
cent in tourist arrivals has been reported in some of these countries.
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21.   Finally, there has been a slow-down in remittance flows into Africa from
migrant workers and the Diaspora in developed countries. The volume of
remittances had steadily become significant in recent years. It was estimated that
remittances into Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in 2007 amounted to USD 19 billion
dollars or about 2,5 per cent of the regional GDP (IMF, 2009). This amounted to
the total amount of official development assistance (ODA) received in SSA. With
about 80 per cent of its remittances originating in developed countries, SSA is
therefore vulnerable to a recession there. For example, a 1 per cent decline in
those countries has a significant ripple effect on remittance flows. In Lesotho,
remittances account for more than 20 per cent of GDP while in ten other
countries for more than 5 per cent of GDP.


22.   The short-term effect of the crisis has been lay-offs and very limited
opportunities for new jobs. There has been a reverse in the decline in the
unemployment rate in Africa. The decline from 8,5 per cent in 2003 to 7,5 per
cent in unemployment in 2008 will be halted (ECA and AU, 2009). There are
concerns that the crisis will increase the unemployment rate in 2009 as forms
reduce production or close factories and mines. In the worst-case scenario,
unemployment in 2009 would increase by about 0,6 per cent compared to the
2008 rate. An increase in unemployment would translate into a jump in poverty
levels and reduced access to education, health and food security.

23.   However, this bleak labour market situation affects certain groups
disproportionately. These are notably women, migrant workers and youth (ILO
and IILS, 2009). Export-oriented sectors which in most African countries are
providers of formal sector jobs, notably for women, faced the prospect of
shrinking world markets. However, informal employment would be likely           to
increase as would „work poverty‟. Conditions in informal economy employment
are often dire. In sum, a prolonged recession would exacerbate the
unemployment situation. There is some likelihood that the long-term effects of
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the crisis will dampen employment growth. Experts have observed that it could
take up to 4 years, after a financial crisis, before employment recovers
sufficiently. There is often a time lag between an economic recovery and full
scale hiring of workers.


The Social Context

24.    The aggregate pattern of labour and employment trends during the period
under review needs to be scrutinized further. The first dimension relates to
gender. Observing that a gender gap exists, a survey showed that male
employment-to-population continued to be higher for males than that of females
(ILO, 2007). Indeed, the gap between men and women has not changed over the
past 10 years; the difference between male and female employment –to-
population ratios has remained at 22 per cent. The unemployment rates were 9,
1 per cent for women, and 7, 5 per cent for men respectively in 2007 (Ibid.).
Agriculture provides the vaster majority of jobs for women with 67, 9 per cent of
them in this sector while female employment in industry has remained
unchanged at about 5, 8 per cent for ten years.


25.    While the share of persons in vulnerable employment in Africa is generally
high, it is even higher for women workers. “Of the women working in 2007, some
81 per cent did so under vulnerable conditions as either an unpaid contributing
family worker or own-account worker…”(ILO, 2007)..There are other pertinent
factors that shape the labour markets in Africa. The first relates to growth in
urbanization as well as to increased rural-urban migration. These are interlinked
processes. Rising from 20, 9 per cent to 33, 9 per cent between 1975 and 2000,
the share of the urban population is projected to increase to 42, 7 per cent by
2015. Outward migration to countries outside Africa has also become a
prominent trend with an estimated 20 000 professionals leaving for overseas
each year since 1990 (ILO, 2003).
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26.   An overview of the social context would be incomplete without reference
to the phenomenon of the Informal Economy. It is a major and fast expanding
segment of the African economies (Meena, 2008; ILO, 2003, 2007). In many
African countries, less than 10 per cent of the labour force is employed in the
formal economy; most workers are engaged in the informal economy. According
to one estimate, the average share of informal employment in non-agricultural
employment is about 72 per cent (ILO, 2003). Not only is employment relatively
high in the sector but the overall contribution to the economy is about 40 per
cent. In some countries, the overall contribution can be higher. At the same time,
however, wage conditions are not as attractive as in the formal economy.


27.   Employment security is also more precarious in the informal economy.
Finally, in both the formal and informal economies, the proportion of the „working
poor‟ is substantial. It ranges from 46 to 61 per cent which is estimated to be
highest proportion worldwide (ILO, 2003). Thus the challenge of „working poverty‟
is one that remains widespread in Africa. One estimate is that the number of the
„working poor‟ has increased over a ten-year period; in 2007, there were 20, 4
per cent more working poor at the 1 USD per day level (ILO, 2008). Between
2006 and 2007, there were an additional 2, 9 million working at the 1 USD per
day level. The remuneration for most jobs is thus insufficient for decent
conditions of upkeep.


28.   Finally, a review of the context in which the Ouagadougou Declaration and
PoA are being implemented and the effects of the crisis are being felt would be
incomplete without brief reference to attempts to mitigate the situation. Several
RECs have been proactive in responding to the crisis. For instance, the EAC
held meetings in November 2008, an ECOWAS Summit in December 2008 and
a CEMAC Summit in January 2009 to focus on how Member States could
respond individually and collectively to the global financial and economic crisis.
Similarly, a Tripartite Summit of EAC, COMESA and SADC was held in October
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2008 in Kampala called for collective action to help African countries to address
the adverse impact of the crisis.


29.    The African Development Bank has provided finance to some African
countries to stem the crisis (AfDB, 2009). It has been proactive in assisting
Member States in mitigating the crisis.


                                PART 2
           INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENTS AND FOLLOW UP AT
                             CONTINENTAL LEVEL


AU COMMISSION
Department of Social Affairs


30.    The African Development Bank has provided finance to some African
countries to stem the crisis (AfDB, 2009). It has been proactive in assisting
Member States in mitigating the crisis.


31.    This section of the Report covers the various activities undertaken by the
AU Commission to coordinate the follow up of the implementation of the
Ouagadougou PoA during the period under review. It covers the role of the
Labour and Social Affairs Commission of oversight over the technical units
dealing with labour and employment issues in the AU Commission itself.

Consultative Meeting, September 2005
32.    In line with Decision (13) of the         Follow   up Mechanism for
Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation, the AU Commission convened a
consultative meeting with the RECs and co-operating partners to popularize the
Summit outcomes at the regional level. With support from ILO, this AU-RECs
meeting was held in Addis Ababa in September 2005. The meeting aimed at
strengthening and enhancing cooperation between the AUC, ILO and RECs on
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follow up activities to the Summit, and especially underlined the need to
strengthen the capacity of RECs in the implementation and monitoring of the
PoA.


Guidelines and Reporting Format
33.    An additional purpose of the September 2005 meeting was to consider
and adopt Guidelines to Member States and RECs on follow up to the
Ouagadougou Summit, a reporting format and a roadmap for immediate
actions. The Guidelines as formulated by the AU Commission were provided
with some guiding principles as set out in Table 2.

Box 3: Guidelines on Follow up Activities

1. Flexibility should prevail while establishing the national institutions responsible
for the implementation of the Summit outcome in case these institutions do not
exist. The intention is not to create an additional bureaucracy but rather to adopt
a flexible mechanism facilitating the involvement of all stakeholders in post-
Summit national activities.

2. National follow up institutions should ensure that they are open to all key
stakeholders that will be able to bring value addition with regard to the 11 priority
areas of the AU Plan of Action.

3. A multi-sectoral approach at national level should be employed as employment
and poverty issues are cross-cutting issues.

4. The national follow up institutions should be closely linked to the national
PRSP processes (it would be envisaged that national PRSP Committees would
be used as follow up institutions).

5. There should be ensured the widest possible dissemination of the AU Summit
decisions and outcomes including through distribution of leaflets, regional and
national events, posting on Websites and translation into local languages.

6. National follow up institutions shall establish their own rules of procedure to
enable them to carry out their functions. But due regard should be given to the
financial implications of the structure. Member States should avoid the creation of
a new „artificial‟ institution requiring resources.

7. There should be identified key short-term, medium-term and long-term priority
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areas among the priority areas of the Summit PoA and develop a national Plan of
Action with objectives, milestones, roles and responsibilities of all national
stakeholders and development partners and indicators using the Summit PoA as
a guideline framework.

8. Due regard should be given to modalities for the funding of the follow up
process at national level. The Plan should indicate how resources will be
mobilized.


Source: AU Commission, 2006
34.    The Guidelines particularly recommended the use of existing inter-
sectoral and inter-Ministerial national institutions to be considered in priority to
assume responsibility for the follow up activities of the Summit PoA at national
level. Where no such national institution existed, the use of alternative existing
national institution (for example a national institution of Social Dialogue) should
be utilized. Similarly, each REC was expected to use its existing Labour and
Social Affairs Department or Unit as a regional follow up institution. If such did
not exist, the follow up functions at regional level would be mainstreamed
through an existing REC internal structure such as a Sub-Committee or Task
Force on social issues.


35.    Finally, the biennial reports by Member States and RECs were expected
to include concise information on the administrative framework as well as
practical measures taken to ensure the implementation of the PoA. The reports
would also identify factual and practical situations, measures taken to implement
each of the priority areas identified, progress achieved, constraints and
limitations experienced, remedial actions needed or taken to fulfill obligations.


Regional Follow up Meetings in 2006
36.    The AU Commission organized a series of meetings in 2006 in the five
RECs to disseminate information on the Ouagadougou Summit outcome and to
support capacity building efforts to assist them to fulfill their mandates. The
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meetings also considered papers on Integrated Regional Employment Policy
Frameworks. The meetings were held in:


         Windhoek (September 2006) for SADC Member States,
         Abuja (September 2006) for ECOWAS Member States,
         Algiers (October 2006) for North African states,
         Khartoum (November 2006) for IGAD Member States,
         Yaoundé (December 2006) for ECASS Member States, and

37.       At each of these workshops, a regional employment policy framework
paper was presented, discussed and adopted. Each of the papers presented an
analysis of the employment issues dominant in the region and the strategies to
address them. These papers were regional in scope and carried recommended
actions to adopt as well as the necessary institutional arrangements to put into
place to tackle unemployment and poverty.


38.       In line with the Joint EU-Africa Strategy 2009-2011, the Department of
Social Affairs in 2008 prepared a Four Year Priority Programme for the
Implementation and Follow up of the Ouagadougou Plan of Action. The
implementation programme is based on five Strategic Themes namely:

         The Improvement of the Efficacy and Transparency of Labour
          Markets in African Countries,
         The Pursuit of an Inclusive Growth and Equity in African Labour
          Markets,
         The Promotion of Productivity,
         Communication and Cooperation as well as
         Implementation, Follow up and Evaluation of the programme.


39.       Each of these strategic programmes is broken down into practical
strategic initiatives for implementation. It is expected that the Programme will
provide the AU Commission with a precious tool for advocacy and resource
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mobilization. This will complement the resources available to Member States and
RECs for investment in priority strategies relevant to the coordinated and
harmonized upgrading of African Labour Markets.


40.   As requested by the Follow-up Mechanism, the Department of Social
Affairs prepared a Strategic Document for Resource Mobilization for the
implementation of the Declaration and Plan of Action. This Document was
drafted in collaboration with the Directorate of Strategic Planning to support
the implementation of the above Four Year Priority Programme.


Informal Economy Study
41.   The Department of Social Affairs sponsored a study on the Informal
Economy in Africa, and this was completed in 2008. The study findings were
presented to the 6th Session of AU Labour and Social Affairs Commission 2008,
whose overarching theme was Improving the Informal Economy: a Key to
Poverty Alleviation (AUC, 2008). There was a substantial discussion of the report
leading to a consensus that it needed to be strengthened primarily through
adding a set of policy recommendations, strategies and a plan of action. The
conference agreed that it would be useful to hold a workshop of experts and
some Member States later in 2008 to review and strengthen the study. The
workshop was held in Dakar in October 2008. Thereafter, the AUC elaborated a
Programme on Upgrading the Informal Economy for the period 2010-2016, with
the global objective of promoting the creation of more and better jobs in the
Informal Economy, including the rural sector, in the framework of Decent and
Productive Employment. The specific objectives are:

      (i)    To Promote pro poor business environment through assessing,
             reforming and adapting policies and institutions to the needs and
             expectations of the I.E, as part of the private sector in Africa;

      (ii)   To Improve and broaden the social and policy dialogue by providing
             the informal and rural workers with the capacity and ability to
             integrate effectively into its processes and mechanisms;
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          (iii)   To develop and increase effectiveness and efficiency of
                  international cooperation in support to the upgrading of the I.E.
                  (AUC, 2009).

Migration
42.       Having received prominence in the Ouagadougou Plan of Action, the
issue of Migration featured highly in the work of the AU Commission in the period
2004 to 2009. The Commission was actively involved in the formulation of a
Migration Policy Framework for Africa and the African Common Position on
Migration and Development. The Migration Policy Framework document
provides a comprehensive and integrated policy guideline on the thematic issues
of
         Labour Migration
         Border Management
         Irregular Migration
         Forced Displacement
         Human Rights of Migrants
         Internal Migration
         Migration Data
         Migration and Development as well as
         Inter-State Cooperation and Partnerships.

43.       The policy framework also provides guidelines and principles to assist
Member States and RECs in the formulation and implementation of their national
and regional migration policies.


44.       Furthermore, the AU Commission was instrumental in organizing a Joint
Africa-EU Ministerial Conference on Migration and Development in Tripoli,
Libya in November 2006. The outcomes of the Conference were a Joint Africa-
EU Declaration on Migration and Development as well as the Africa-EU Plan
of Action on Trafficking in Human Beings. In June 2009, the Department of
Social Affairs facilitated the AUC launch of the AU.COMMIT campaign against
trafficking in Human Beings.
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45.   Finally, other important meetings relating to Migration that the AU
Commission participated in the Global Forum on Migration held in Brussels in
July 2007. The twin themes of that Forum were (a) Migration and Socio-
Economic Development and (b) Strengthening the Links between Migration
and Development Policies. The Social Affairs Commission also held
consultative meetings on Migration and the Challenge of Brain Drain with the
International Organization of Migration (IOM).


46.   Since the recruitment of a Programme Coordinator for Migration in
October 2007, a two-year 2008-2009 Migration Programme Plan of Activities was
prepared and after consultation and approval it is being implemented.
Accordingly the following major activities have been performed. These are:


Launches of AU.COMMIT Campaign

47.   The AU Commission launched the AU Commission Initiative against
Trafficking (AU.COMMIT) Campaign on June 16, 2009. The decision to hold this
launch on the specified date is due to the significance of June 16 as the Day of
the African Child. Joint Launches of AU.COMMIT Campaign. Upon the invitation
by the Government of South Africa, the AU Commission also launched the
AU.COMMIT Campaign in South Africa in the regional conference organized by
the Government of South Africa on the theme: “The implications of implementing
laws and strategies to combat human trafficking in Africa through optimizing
regional and international relationships” conducted in Johannesburg, South
Africa, 13-15 July, 2009.

Consultative Visits to the Regional Economic Communities And Member
States

48.   Consultative visits were conducted to Regional Economic Communities
and Member States in 2007-2008 including to IGAD, to the Community of Sahel-
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Saharan States (CEN-SAD), the Economic Community of the West African States
(ECOWAS), the Republic of Senegal and Popular Democratic Republic of
Algeria, and the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. The purpose of the
consultative visits was to follow-up and monitors the implementation of the four
AU policies on migration and developments. The consultation visits have allowed
the AU Commission to assess the level of implementation of the AU policies, and
to discuss on how to harness and increase the efforts RECs further.
Recommendations were also made for joint activities. Missions to Different
Events on Migration and Development


Towards a Continent-wide Regional Employment Network (REN)


49.   There was momentum towards the creation of an inter-agency Regional
Network on Employment issues in Africa during the period under review. The
process began with a Ministerial Statement adopted at the end of the 39 th
session of the Conference of African Ministers of Finance, Planning and
Economic Development in May 2006. The Ministers recommended the
establishment of Regional Employment Forum later renamed Regional
Employment Network (REN) to facilitate the formation of a network of technical
experts and policy facilitators to assist Member States in developing capacity and
facilitate learning and sharing of country-specific experiences. The African Union
Commission is involved in this initiative together with ILO, ECA, AfDB and UNDP.
A study on how to operationalize REN was completed in early 2008. With its
secretariat housed at ILO, REN will be composed of specialists, academics,
policy makers, research institutes, employer organizations, labour unions,
employment-focused NGOs, regional bodies and international agencies with a
strong interest in promoting productive employment and decent work (including
informal economy, youth employment and skills development).
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Department of Economic Affairs
50.    The Department was involved in several initiatives to complement follow
up activities relating to the Ouagadougou PoA. First, it sponsored several
studies, one on the Micro Finance system in Africa and another on a Common
Investment Strategy in Africa. The study findings on the Micro-Finance Sector
included the observation that the micro-finance system in Africa has yet to realize
its full potential. Even after growing rapidly and extensively throughout Africa
since the mid-1990s, access remains limited. As of December 2006, just 4 per
cent of the potentially eligible population had access to micro-finance. This
amounted to about 26, 5 million people. The study also observed that an
improved access to finance for the low-income population segment could lead to
significant increases in new job creation, increased incomes and poverty
reduction. An African indigenous private sector can flourish if the thousands of
micro-entrepreneurs who invest and run micro-enterprises were facilitated and
enabled to acquire part ownership in privatized state corporations. It was also
argued that from its demonstrated impact, microfinance could be the intervention
that finally helps Africa to achieve the MDGs.


51.    The study on „Development of a Common Investment Strategy for
Africa‟ aimed at making Africa an investment zone through harmonization of
investment regimes including policies, laws and practices. The regulatory
framework for Labour Markets impinges on investment conditions, as do other
aspects of the Ouagadougou PoA. It was anticipated that findings from this study
would have some relevance to follow up activities on the PoA.


52.    The Department of Economic Affairs was further involved in the
formulation of a Declaration of the African Private Sector Forum in 2008. The
Declaration related to the role of the private sector in supporting the promotion of
regional integration in Africa, the acceleration of Africa‟s industrial development
and economic transformation. It also called for the promotion of women
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entrepreneurship and their capacity enhancement through appropriate legislation
and incentives. The Declaration was considered by a Summit of Heads of State
and Government in January 2008.


53.    In addition, the Department of Economic Affairs organized an EU-African
Business Forum in 2007 in Accra. The Forum focused on encouraging regional
integration of markets in Africa, on infrastructure development, ICT with rural
access programmes and on entrepreneurship. Finally, the Department was
instrumental in drawing up a „Charter on African Statistics‟ aimed at
harmonizing the production and dissemination of statistics at national, regional
and continental levels. The Charter provides a sound basis for the harmonization
of African Labour Market Information Systems.


Department of Rural Economy and Agriculture
54.    One of the key priority areas of the Ouagadougou PoA is promotion of the
agricultural sector and rural development, sustainable management of the
environment for food security and development of support infrastructure. The
Department of Rural Economy and Agriculture is involved in programmes that
have a bearing on this important priority area. The first relates to increased
investment in agriculture and food security. The Department is tracking
expenditure on Agriculture by member states in the light of the target set in the
Ouagadougou Plan of Action. It is encouraging Member States to allocate 10 per
cent in their national budget to agriculture as specified under the Comprehensive
Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP). The Department has
prepared a technical Guidance Note to facilitate country reports in the calculation
of the share of agricultural spending in total government expenditure. Adopted by
Heads of State and Government in 2006, about 19 countries have used it in
tracking their expenditure and making submissions to the AU Commission. Most
countries, with the exception of seven, were spending under the threshold of 10
per cent for their agriculture.
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55.       In 2006, a special Summit was organized by the AU to adopt the Abuja
Declaration on Fertilizer for the African Green Revolution. It was organized
in cognizance of the fact that Africa needs a Green Revolution which is largely
overdue. This is seen as constituting the only way of getting African farmers out
of the poverty trap by achieving food security and the MDGs.             It was also
envisaged to set up an African Farmers‟ Forum . The Forum would reinforce
the capacity of rural people and their partners to engage directly in policy
dialogue. There is potential here for capacity enhancement in areas such as
Social Dialogue in rural labour markets, and in the formation of cooperatives. As
we will see below, some RECs are taking an active part in initiating programmes
of investment in agriculture and food security.


Department of Human Resources, Science and Technology
56.       This department is involved in a number of programmes related to
employment. It was associated with the Plan of Action for the Second Decade
of Education in Africa, which was adopted in 2006. The Plan includes
strategies relating to Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET)
and addresses the promotion of entrepreneurship as well as knowledge and
skills related to the world of work. An Implementation Strategy for TVET has
been developed with pilot projects begun in 2008 in post-conflict Liberia, Congo
and Burundi. Special attention is being given to vulnerable groups such as the
youth and girl ex-combatants especially in the Congo.


Other activities with a bearing on employment and skills training relate to:


         A continental strategy for boosting vocational training linked to the labour
          market and the private sector. and
          The adoption of the African Charter for Youth in 2006 at the AU
          Summit in Banjul. Amongst other things, it is aimed at the development of
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       skills of young people, sustainable livelihood and employment of young
       people, their health and security.


Department of Peace and Security


57.   The Department has produced a Framework Document on Post-
Conflict Reconstruction and Development (PCRD) accompanied by a Needs
Assessment Guide. The two include strategies and actions specific to
employment promotion and labour market revitalization. Some of the envisaged
activities have been jointly undertaken by the Departments of Peace and Security
and of Social Affairs. In 2008 a mission was jointly undertaken by the Department
of Social Affairs and the Department of Peace and Security to Liberia, Sierra
Leone and DRC to assist in the reconstruction of their labour markets. In 2009,
the AUC dispatched a Multi-disciplinary Team of Experts to the same countries,
at their request. The mission focused on 6 specific areas of concern for both
countries, and youth employment and education were among these areas. The
mission assessed the situation of the labour market in the countries and made
proposals of actions to be undertaken in the short, medium and long run. It is
expected that other MS and the RECs identify the actions in which they can
contribute to implement through various kinds of intervention, namely technical,
expert or financial assistance. There is also opportunity for the concerned
countries to develop labour market projects, if needed with the AUC assistance
within the framework of the AU-EU Action Plan and Joint Strategy (2008-2010),


Directorate of Gender
58.   The Directorate of Women and Gender Development is a focal point that
identifies women‟s concerns and by effective interventions incorporate them into
AU policies, programmes and activities at the level of the AU Commission, other
AU organs, RECs and Member States. It encourages and assists AU MS to
implement policies aimed at achieving equity between the sexes by ensuring that
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men and women have equal access to the power structures that control society
and determine development issues.
One key conference organized by the Directorate in 2008 on women
empowerment made some important recommendations that:


         Employment opportunities and income generating activities should take
          centre stage in women‟s economic empowerment programmes and
          PSRPs,
         Target support to women entrepreneurs managing small and micro-
          enterprises to expand into the formal sector, creating investment funds for
          women and promoting gender-sensitive legislation on women‟s economic
          empowerment and
         Develop policy frameworks that allow women to move away from the
          informal sector and to encourage them to join the formal labour market
          (WGDD, 2008).


Department of Infrastructure and Energy
59.       A major highlight in the role of the Department of Infrastructure and
Energy is its cooperation with the EU on Infrastructure Partnership. The
partnership has approved 6 inter-regional projects with the major ones being the
Port Moresby package, the AUC-AfDB-NEPAD programme on a continental
Infrastructure Masterplan and Policy Harmonization. This has been
complemented by a strategic study on Harmonization of ICT Policy and
Regulation framework. These projects and programmes are expected to lead to
considerable job creation. The same expectation relates to the Africa-EU
Partnership Programme on Energy which will include the ECOWAS Gas
Pipeline project, the Gas pipeline between Nigeria, Niger, Algeria and Europe
and a number of hydro-power projects.
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                                     PART 3
           ACTIVITIES AND DEVELOPMENTS AT REGIONAL AND
                           INTERNATIONAL LEVELS


Activities by Regional Economic Communities (RECs)
60.   The Ouagadougou Summit identified the RECs as being responsible for
the coordination of the Declaration and PoA in their various regions. The main
activities of the RECs during the period under review related to their central role
in the formulation of regional employment policy framework papers and creation
of units for implementation of follow up activities under the Ouagadougou PoA.


Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS)
61.   A regional workshop on the follow up to the Ouagadougou Summit was
held in Douala in Cameroon in December 2005 to provide an opportunity to
ECCAS Member States to prepare their national reports. The workshop provided
an opportunity for the dissemination of Summit outcomes, a session on the
strategies for integration of employment issues into PRSPs. The regional
workshop also addressed the links between employment policies and human
resources development, and the global agenda for employment and cooperative
entrepreneurship.


Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
62.   ECOWAS has sought to translate the Summit outcomes into feasible
programmes and projects in the Western African region. An ECOWAS Summit in
June 2007 placed special emphasis on infrastructure development and regional
projects to generate employment opportunities for youth in the region. The
involvement of ECOWAS in a Gas Pipeline Project worth USD 620 million
reflected a determination to optimize utilization of the huge energy endowments
of the region to promote employment. Furthermore, ECOWAS has created a
special fund of USD 100 million for investment in agriculture and food security, as
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we will see below. Additional funding is envisaged as a response to the food
crisis.


63.       ECOWAS Member States have committed themselves to setting up an
ECOWAS Social Dialogue Forum for dialogue on labour and social affairs as
envisaged under the Ouagadougou PoA. Furthermore, a regional agreement on
migration has been nurtured. Member States believed that a joint management of
migratory flows would enable West African migrants to have access to labour
markets based on opportunities available in the region. It is estimated that West
Africa harbours about 7, 5 million migrants (or about 3 per cent of the population)
from within the region.


East African Community (EAC)
64.       The EAC set up A regional follow up committee consisting of Ministers of
Labour and Employment. The follow up committee meets annually and provides
a linkage between EAC partner states and the AUC. During the period under
review, the Ministers issued a Declaration on Harmonization and Labour
Policies.


IGAD
65.       The AUC undertook a Follow-up mission to the IGAD, in 2009. The IGAD
Secretariat did not prepare its obligatory biennial reports in 2006 and 2008, due
to lack of institutional capacities and financial constraints. Likely, the IGAD has
not yet put in place its follow-up institution and requests support from the AUC in
order to update and build owner ship of the Regional Integrated Policy
Framework and engage in its adoption by the competent organs of the IGAD. Out
of the seven (07) IGAD Member States, only Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia have
forwarded their biennial report on the implementation of the Ouagadougou
extraordinary Summit outcomes, in 2006 and 2008. This makes a reporting
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performance estimated at 42.85%, in a region affected by conflicts. This score
can be easily improved.


66.    The MS reports are not available at the IGAD Secretariat which did not
receive them from its MS. Beyond, its own institutional capacity and financial
gaps, this is not to facilitate for the IGAD Secretariat to discharge its coordinating
and reporting responsibilities, functions and roles.


67.    The Region is handicapped by a great capacity gap, with only one
permanent staff as head of the Social Affairs Service. She is holding a
large/broad portfolio with health, Education, Employment/Labour, Migration and
Gender. The staffing approach of the structure is project based and relationships
with the MS are facilitated through project resources. Thus, the Head of the
Social Affairs Desk is assisted in Health and Migration areas with consultants
seconded through:


       -   The Regional HIV-AIDS project supported by the World Bank (USD
           15 000 000) and the CIDA/Canada (USD 8 000 000);
       -   The Migration project supported by the IOM, with one seconded staff
           dispatched to Djibouti.


Ministerial and experts sectoral Committees were established in the course of
these projects.


68.    Furthermore, the Social Affairs Desk is very recent, as it results from the
24th Ordinary Session of the IGAD Council of Ministers, Nairobi, 17-18 March
2005. The Council adopted a resolution for the “establishment and the
operationalization of the Health and Social Affairs Desk at IGAD” However,
It should be mentioned that the IGAD is running an important project on
Social Protection, with the support of the European Commission.
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69.       The IGAD is willing to be assisted by the AUC in elaborating and adopting
its Regional Social Policy Framework, in line with the Continental instrument in
this area, adopted in Windhoek in October 20081.


70.       There was a consultative visit made to IGAD Secretariat by a
representative of AU Commission in 2008 to discuss issues pertaining to
Migration and Employment. There were follow up consultations in July 2009.


Southern Africa Development Community (SADC)
71.       A number of important meetings on Employment-related issues were held
during the period under review. For instance, in 2007, SADC Ministers of
Employment and Labour examined the following issues: the SADC Employment
and Labour Programme and the SADC Declaration on Productivity. The
Ministerial meeting in 2007 reviewed the implementation of the Ouagadougou
PoA and urged Member States to formulate and adopt National Plans of Action
as well as adopt structures to implement them.


72.       In 2008, the SADC Employment and Labour Committee of Ministers
and Social Partners was approved as a permanent structure of the newly
restructured SADC to address challenges of employment and labour in the
region. Two tripartite technical subcommittees were set up, one on Social
Protection and the other on Employment and Labour.


73.       Finally, a SADC conference in 2008 adopted the Integrated Employment
Policy Framework for the region as a basis for Member States to address
employment and poverty in the region. The Regional Policy Framework was
developed in conjunction with the AU Commission. The components of the Policy
Framework were incorporated into the SADC Employment and Labour Policies

1
    AUC, 2009, Report of Follow-up Consultative Visit to the IGAD,
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within the context of the Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan
(RISDP).


ROLE AND ACTIVITIES OF INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS


         UN Economic Commission for Africa (ECA)


74.       The ECA published a major report on Employment Promotion in 2005.
With the theme ‘Meeting the Challenges of Unemployment and Poverty                 in
Africa’, the Report argued that African countries needed to grow by about 7 per
cent a year to reduce poverty enough to achieve the MDG goal of halfing the
number of poor people by 2015. It also observed that prerequisites for creating
decent employment include the transformation of African economies from low
productivity agriculture to high value agriculture and agro-processing –and to the
growing industrial and services sectors, taking advantage of the opportunities
presented by globalization (ECA, 2005).


         ILO


75.       ILO has contributed significantly to the Ouagadougou Process (before and
after the Summit in 2004). It has been actively involved in all the 11 priority areas
identified for enhanced employment creation.


76.       Following   the   Summit   in   2004,   ILO    prepared     the   „African
Guidance/Orientation Note‟ on support to the follow up at continental, regional
and national levels. The Guidance Note provides a blueprint for ILO‟s
operational and strategic support to the implementation of the Ouagadougou
PoA. It focuses on establishing the Decent Work agenda as a model of policy
coherence and identifies employment within the context of fair globalization and
gender equity, as an essential cornerstone to sustainable poverty reduction.
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Henceforth, ILO aligned its work plans with the Summit outcomes and
recommendations and to assist the AUC and its members in implementing the
programme.


77.       ILO has continued to cultivate close cooperation with the AU Commission,
RECs and Member States on employment and labour issues during the period
under review. An AU/ILO Joint Task Force was launched in February 2006 with
the aim of providing a forum for strategic thinking, analysis and formulation of
proposals to stimulate employment creation in Africa based on the Ouagadougou
Summit commitments. The Task Force meets periodically. In addition, in order to
better support the implementation of the Ouagadougou Summit commitments,
ILO Regional Office for Africa recruited a Macroeconomist in 2006.


78.       Furthermore, ILO assisted the AU Commission in the production of the
Ouagadougou outcome documents in the form of brochures and CD-ROMs in
the four official languages of AU: English, French, Portuguese and Arabic. In
addition to providing support to the AUC to hold the above-mentioned five
workshops of Regional Employment Policy Frameworks, ILO seconded a
Consultant to the Division of Labour, Employment and Migration from May
2007. In a capacity building related activity, the role of the Consultant is to
provide analytical, policy and technical support to the Department of Social
Affairs in the field of employment.

79.       At the national level, ILO continued to support the mainstreaming of the
Decent Work Agenda into national development plans and frameworks, and the
integrating of employments issues into PRSPs. Support has also been provided
in such areas as:


         Formulation of national employment strategies and policies,
         Improving labour market information and analysis,
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             Entrepreneurship training including of women,
             Inputs into the development of a framework for harmonization of economic
              and social policies and
             Youth employment and action plans.


80.           In addition, as observed above, ILO has worked closely with RECs like
ECOWAS, ECCAS and SADC on employment-related matters and follow-up
matters in the post-Ouagadougou period.


81.           A re-dedication by ILO‟s constituents to the implementation of the
Ouagadougou Summit commitments featured prominently at the 11th African
Regional Meeting (Addis Ababa, April 2007) during which the Decent Work
Agenda in Africa 2007-2015 was adopted. The Decent Work Agenda in Africa
2007-2015 constitutes a consolidation of the actions undertaken by ILO and its
constituents to follow up on the Ouagadougou Summit of 2004.


82.           Finally, ILO was involved in a sub-regional initiative, the Employment
Promotion and Poverty Reduction Project (APERP) launched in March 2007
within the framework of the Ouagadougou Declaration and PoA. The project
covers nine countries in Francophone Africa: Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi,
Cameroon, Cote d‟Ivoire, DRC, Gabon, Mali and Niger. Specifically, the
projects aims at the:


              Development of employment policies which are more effective and
               efficient particularly by improving labour market policies and labour
               market information systems,
              Strengthening the capacity of constituents in the area of employment and
               poverty reduction strategies and
              Encouraging employment targets within public investment policies and
               projects.
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83.    The activities of RECs and international Development Partners were more
extensive than could be captured in a Report of this scope. These follow up
activities complemented the specific and systematic activities undertaken at
Member State level to implement the PoA. The next Section provides a detailed
picture of those activities.


                                      PART 4
      ACTIVITIES BY MEMBER STATES AND OTHER STAKEHOLDERS IN
                               THE 11 PRIORITY AREAS


Priority Area 1: Ensuring political leadership and commitment to create an
enabling environment of good governance for investment, development
and poverty alleviation in the context of NEPAD and the attainment of
MDGs.


84.    This Priority Area relates to the creation of a conducive environment for
investment, development and poverty alleviation as well as substantial
employment creation. The institutional dimension for this is important.
Governments have sought to create or readjust existing institutions for the
creating of this enabling environment.


85.    Some countries demonstrated a strong political leadership in employment
policies through high level involvement of the Heads of State (See Box 1).
Box 3: High Political Leadership in Employment Policy
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At the occasion of the celebration of the 58th anniversary of the international
Declaration on human rights, a “Tunisian Presidential Pogramme” was put in
place in December 2006, in order to ensure jobs to one or more unemployed
young person(s) issued from low income households. The program started in
2007 and 17 400 beneficiaries were selected after an identification process. One
thousand six hundred (1600) of them held a university degree, 1550 a vocational
training diploma and 14 240 were without any diploma. Their professional
insertion was facilitated through apprenticeship, vocational training, self-
employment aid and wage employment. Ninety three (93%) of them were
inserted in the labour market by 2007.

The President of Niger initiated a “Special Presidential Initiative”, in the
framework of the PRSP. The purpose is to open opportunities for the beneficiary
populations to have access to income generating activities and to basic social
services. The initiative consisted of a number of infrastructure construction in
education, rural infrastructures, health and reforestation, and in micro credit for
women. As results in all regions of the country, in the first phase, 2000 people
were recruited in health and education, 1000 young rural workers were trained
and provided with start-up aid, and 3000 professionals were recruited every
year in the public service. In the second phase, 278 152 jobs were created out of
which 133 517 are salaried jobs and 144 653 non salaried ones.

In 2007, the President of the republic of Djibouti put in place the “National
Initiative for Social Development (NISD)”, as the strategic framework for
poverty reduction in the country. This was a strong political leadership which was
supported by new and strong institutions ensuring the necessary operational
leadership required for the success of the “NISD”.
To this effect, the following structures were created by law:
       The State Secretariat of Social Solidarity (SSSS)
       The Djiboutian Agency of Social Development (DASD)
       The National Solidarity Fund (NSF)
       The National Agency of Employment, Training and Professional Insertion
        (NAETPI)
The NISD has four Priority Axes: (i) Promotion of access to basic social services,
(ii) Restructuring of the national productive infrastructure in order to create the
necessary and enough employment for poverty eradication and unemployment
reduction, (iii) Assistance to highly vulnerable people or with specific needs and
(iv) Promoting good Governance.

Sources:
Tunisian Information Note for the Ouagadougou +5 Report
Niger Information Note for the Ouagadougou +5 Report
AUC, 2009, Report of Follow-up Consultative Visit to the Republic of Djibouti,
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86.    It is significant that a sizeable number of Member States have sought to
incorporate employment into their PRSPs. (Note that in 2006, of the 60 countries
globally that had developed full or interim PRSPs, some 31 were in Africa). For
instance, employment targets were incorporated into Tanzania‟s PRSP entitled
National Strategy for Growth and Poverty Reduction. Employment has been
mainstreamed      into   Ethiopia‟s   Sustainable   Development     and    Poverty
Reduction Programme (SDPRP) and 5- year Plan to Accelerate Sustained
Development to End Poverty (PASDEP). Lesotho has used its Poverty
Reduction Strategy (PRS) as the basis of its employment creation programmes.
Other countries that have similarly integrated employment into PRSPs include
Burkina Faso, Ghana, Madagascar and Liberia.


87.    The Liberian experience in integrating employment challenges and
strategies in its PRS is a comprehensive one, under the Pillar II: “Economic
Revitalization.

Box 4: Generating Productive Employment in Liberia


One of the government‟s most important goals during the PRS period is to
promote the rapid creation of productive employment that will reduce poverty,
ensure peace and stability, and enhance the overall well being of the Liberian
Population.

Rapid job creation is central to maintaining security (specially jobs aimed at the
conflict-affected and youth), reducing poverty, and generating income for
women, persons with disabilities, and other marginalized groups…The challenge
is to shape the revival of the growth process in a way that promotes to the fullest
extent possible the creation of productive and remunerative employment. The
major source of job growth will be the private sector employment agriculture,
mining, forestry, and construction and other services. This will be completed by
emergency short-term measures that focus on labour intensive infrastructure
projects, urban sanitation and clean-up projects.

The major challenges are: (I) outdated labour laws, weak labour administration
machinery and poor communication between employers and employees, (ii) lack
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of labour market information systems and labour market data including
employment data,


(iv) inadequate and inappropriate skills and knowledge in the labour force, (iv)
     weak linkages between education and labor market needs, (v) unequal and
     limited opportunities for women, youth and persons with disabilities, and
     (vi) the impact of malaria, HIV and AIDS, and other diseases on productive
     segments of the population.
To face these challenges, the Liberian PRS outlined 3 strategies:
   1. To strengthen overall labour policy and administration;
   2. To create more and better jobs for Liberian men, women and youth, and
   3. To develop a National Labor Market Information System.

Source: Liberia Poverty Reduction Strategy, Government of Liberia


88.   The Government‟s Economic Recovery Strategy (ERS) in Kenya sought
to create 500 000 new jobs by 2007 (Zepede, 2007; Pollin et. al., 2007). For its
part, Zimbabwe has sought to implement the Ouagadougou PoA through its
Ministry of Public Service, Labour and Social Welfare where a structure was
created specially for that purpose. Three ministries (MPLSW, Youth and
Employment Creation) have closely cooperated in mainstreaming employment in
all economic interventions.


89.   While some Member States organized National Consultations on
Employment during the period under review, it would appear that some did not
indicate whether they had done so. Countries such as Zambia established
working relationships with NGOs and the private sector in the formulation of its
National Employment and Labour Market Policy. Lesotho set up a Working
Group drawn from the Ministry of Employment and Labour, the Central Bank,
Chambers of Commerce and parastatals to draft a National Employment Policy
in 2008. In 2007, a National Employment Forum in DRC recommended an
Employment Promotion Plan which was subsequently transformed into a
National Employment Policy.
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90.    In fact, a considerable number of Member States formulated national
employment strategies or national employment policies during the period under
review. By early 2008, about 22 Member States had designed such employment
strategies or were in the process of doing so. Clearly, the Ouagadougou PoA lent
some urgency and momentum to the process of designing and implementing
these strategies and policies.


91.    In sum, it is notable that while some countries put in place new structures
to implement the Ouagadougou PoA, a majority of them made use of existing
and incorporated a number of other stakeholders. Amongst the countries that set
up inter-ministerial committees were Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Central
African Republic and Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) to follow up
on the PoA commitments. A few countries like Egypt has put in place a High
level National Committee on the Ouagadougou 2004 Summit implementation and
follow-up chaired by the Prime Minister. Furthermore, Egypt has developed a
tremendous set of investment and export employment oriented policies that have
led to a significant increase of foreign and local investments and jobs creation.


92.    Burkina Faso, Tanzania and Burundi developed a gender-sensitive
employment action plan in their PRSP process.           Cameroon developed an
employment strategy in its PRSP while Ethiopia developed a pro-poor strategy
as part of its national employment policy. Other countries that incorporated
national employment strategies or plans into PRSPs were Liberia, Madagascar
and Zambia.


93.    Yet institutional and financial constraints continue to hamper the effective
implementation of National Employment Policies adopted by the countries. There
are also countries which have not yet elaborated a National Employment Policy.
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The AUC should request from MS to provide their national employment policy in
order to establish a database and be able to assist its MS in case of necessity
and at their request, or to issue general advice in the field.


Priority Area 2:        Promotion of the Agricultural Sector and Rural
Development, Sustainable Management of the Environment for Food
Security and development of Support Infrastructure


94.    Several countries highlighted the centrality of their agriculture and rural
development sector to their employment creation strategies. For instance,
Ethiopia stated that its economic growth had been led by the agricultural sector
and that agriculture-led industrialization (ADLI) was a major pillar in those
strategies (Ethiopia Government, 2008). There was also serious attention paid to
agriculture by Tanzania whose Agriculture Sector Development Programme
focused on improving agribusiness, agro-processing and quality extension
services during the period under review. Other countries that mentioned
significant developments in their agriculture were Zambia, Zimbabwe, Lesotho,
Burkina Faso, Tunisia, Madagascar and South Africa. In 2007, Rwanda was
the venue of the first country round-table of CAADP at which the Rwanda
compact of the programme was signed. Through the compact, Rwanda
committed itself to increasing budgetary support to the agricultural sector. Egypt
has undertaken an ambitious multi- sectoral program of rural property rights and
land cession in a great number of villages along side with health services
targeting 40 per cent of the rural areas in the five coming years and with rural
electrification programme and micro credit schemes involving the poor rural
households.


95.    An interesting phenomenon in agricultural producer countries was that of
agricultural market exchanges. They sprouted in a number of countries during
the period under review. The agricultural exchanges in Ethiopia, Kenya and in
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other countries enhance a more efficient marketing of commodities. The Benin
Strategic Framework for the economy gives priority to the rural areas. Burkina
Faso has launched an Assistance Programme on Rural Employment that
aims to promote youth employment in the rural area through rural micro
enterprise and cooperative development. The ILO took considerable interest at
its 2008 Conference in Geneva in examining how the promotion of rural
employment contributed to poverty reduction. The Conference observed that:

    Rural areas are characterized by great diversity and should not be conceived
of as being exclusively agricultural… Rural employment strategies should form
an integral part of national employment strategies and should aim to eliminate
poverty…’’ (ILO, 2008b).


96.    The national biennial reports do not give evidence on how employment is
integrated with agriculture policies. It seems that there is a need to have
institutional and political mechanism for integrating and coordinating agriculture
sectoral development policy with employment policy.

97.    Despite the clear spill-over benefits that agriculture growth provides,
government budgetary support is still tardy in some countries. In 2007, a survey
of budgetary allocations by 19 countries showed that 63 per cent of them
allocated less than 5 per cent, while 21 per cent allocated between 5 and 10 per
cent (UNECA, 2007). Clearly there was need for a comprehensive mechanism
for monitoring progress towards the 10 per cent target. While a tracking system
has been tested in 19 countries, data collection from other countries remained a
challenge (Ibid.). It is worth recalling that India and China spent about 10 per cent
of their budgets during the Green Revolution which helped these countries to
significantly increase food production in the 1960s and 1970s.


98.    A review of state support policies for agriculture should highlight some
successful „good practice‟ cases. During period under review, Malawi made
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enormous strides in stepping up food production. It attained food self-sufficiency
and produced surpluses for export as well as is explained in the Box below:


             Box 5: Malawi Agricultural Success Story
________________________________________________________________
Four years ago Malawi faced starvation… Then the National Assembly decided
to give 3, 4 million coupons to small-scale farmers to subsidize inorganic fertilizer
and improved seeds. The programme was aimed at empowering small-scale
farmers and households were limited to two 50 kg fertilizer bags each. When the
2006 season started, the country held its breath. The strategy worked – Malawi
more than doubled its maize production. Government repeated this in 2007.
There was enough maize in 2007 for the country to start exporting…

Source: Mail and Guardian, 19 June 2009


Table 1:    Level of Agricultural Investment per GDP, 2007

At least 10 per cent:

Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Chad Ethiopia, Mali, Malawi and Niger

From 5 to less than 10 per cent:

Benin, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar,
Mozambique, Senegal, Sudan, Gambia, Tunisia and Zimbabwe

Less than 5 per cent:

Algeria, Botswana, Burundi, DRC, Egypt, Gabon, Liberia, Mauritius, Nigeria,
Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia.



CAADP newsletter (2008) ‘The 10 per cent that could change Africa’


99.    In discussing the developments in agriculture and how they contribute to
employment creation, the new phenomenon that has been termed „land grabs‟
cannot be ignored. Some African countries including Ethiopia, Sudan and Mali,
amongst others, have provided land for overseas countries to undertake
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production. One report observed that one of the lingering effects of the food
price crisis of 2007-08 on the world food system is the proliferating acquisition of
farmland in developing countries by other countries seeking to ensure their food
supplies (von Braun and Meinzen-Dick, 2009). The land acquisitions have the
potential to inject much needed investment into agriculture and rural areas in
poor developing countries, but they also raise concerns about the impacts the
local people who risk losing control over land on which they depend.


100.   It was added that food importing countries with land and water constraints
but rich in capital, such as the Gulf States, were at the forefront of new
investments in farmland abroad (Ibid.). Furthermore, countries with large
populations such as China, South Korea and India are seeking opportunities to
produce food overseas. One perspective is that most of the land deals tend to be
designed to benefit local elites than local farmers (Economist, 21 May 2009).
Some use foreign labour and export most of their production harming local
markets. So until they show otherwise, a dose of skepticism should be mixed
with the premature hopes that the land deals have engendered (Ibid.). There
need to be international guidelines or code of conduct on how the land deals and
projects are negotiated and implemented.


Priority 3: Development of an appropriate framework for integration and
harmonization of economic and social policies;


101.   The overall objective of this priority area is to achieve an integrated and
holistic approach in social and economic development in order to effectively
contribute to employment creation and poverty alleviation. The recommended
actions to achieve the objective were spelt out as:

      Development of a social policy framework for Africa;
      Promoting multi-sectoral structures; and
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      Advocacy for employment promotion and poverty reduction through,
       increased media coverage of issues of poverty and employment and
       special events/promotional activities targeted to the issue.

102.   Specific activities that would facilitate the process of attaining progress in
this priority area included the development of a social policy framework for Africa,
the promotion of multi-sectoral approaches as well expanded advocacy for
employment promotion and poverty reduction.


103.   The AUC made progress in developing a Social Policy Framework for
Africa. After extensive consultations by the AU Commission and with Member
States, the Framework would be debated and adopted at the Meeting of Social
Development Ministers held in Windhoek in October 2008. This will facilitate the
integration of elements of the Social Policy framework into national and regional
Plans of Action on social and economic issues including employment creation
and poverty reduction.


Box 6: AU Social Policy Framework in Africa, a summary


Drawing upon the strategic objectives of the AUC social programme, the Social
Policy Framework aims to provide an overarching policy structure to assist AU
Member States in the development of their national social policies to promote
human empowerment and development. The framework moves away from
treating social development as subordinate to economic growth, but justifies
social development as a goal in its own right. It acknowledges that while
economic growth is a necessary condition of social development, it is not
exclusively or sufficiently able to address the challenges posed by the multi-
faceted socio-economic and political forces that together generate the continents
social development challenges.
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The Social Policy Framework focuses, in no particular priority, on 15 key
thematic social issues: population and development; labour and employment;
health; HIV-AIDS, TB, malaria and other infectious diseases; migration;
agriculture, food and nutrition; the family; children, adolescents and youth;
ageing; disability; gender equality and women‟s empowerment; indigenous
culture; urban development and environmental sustainability. In addition, the
following issues deserve particular attention in Africa: drug abuse and crime;
sport; civil strife and conflict situations; the impact of globalization and trade
liberalization and foreign debt.

Source: AU Commission, 2008


104.   What progress have individual Member States made on this front?
Tanzania has mainstreamed its employment creation strategy into its
Development Vision 2025 into its PSRP (Mkukuta) sectoral policies relating to
SMEs and empowerment of entrepreneurs. These were accompanied by policy
reforms that recognize the private sector as an engine of growth and employment
creation. Tanzania was also conducting media advocacy on employment
creation. Through its PASDEP programme, Ethiopia has eight pillar strategies
that included building an all-inclusive implementation capacity, a massive push to
accelerate growth, strengthening the infrastructure backbone of the country and
strengthening human resource development (Ethiopia Government, 2008). A
steady growth (7 per cent) of industry and trade had been registered during the
period under review.


105.   Linkages between agriculture and industrial sectors provided an
opportunity for the expansion of service sectors such as transport, finance and
tourism. Several challenges were outstanding: how to manage the dynamics of
population growth and the expansion of labour-intensive productive activities,
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and the promotion of MSE sector and its integration with the TVET system to
increase youth employment.


106.    In the case of Zambia, employment issues were integrated into the Fifth
National Development Plan (2006-2010). Other forms of integration included
decisions taken at REC level to harmonize policies on migration and employment
creation as in the cases of ECOWAS and SADC. Harmonizing of labour and
social policies in SADC has been given a fillip by adoption of a plethora of the
following documents:


       Policies, Priorities and Strategies on Employment and Labour in
        SADC,
       Charter of Fundamental Social Rights in SADC,
       SADC Code of Conduct on Child Labour,
       Code of Conduct on HIV-AIDS and Employment.


107.    There has also been some movement towards the harmonization of
investment strategies at the regional level. A project on ‘Social Dialogue and
Foreign Investment’, for instance, seeks to enhance the capacity of the SADC
Secretariat and the umbrella employers‟ and workers‟ organizations to implement
a SADC Social Charter through dialogue and regional consultative mechanisms
(SADC, 2008). This dialogue led to the formulating of a regional policy proposal
for a framework for Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in SADC. The expectation in
2008 was that this process would lead to the development of regional rules,
institutions and policy framework for FDI.


108.    Member States view the SME sector as one possessing high employment
potential. Policies have been formulated in some of them to provide a conducive
environment for their growth. Amongst others, South Africa, Uganda,
Zimbabwe and Burkina Faso have active programmes to encourage growth in
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this sector. Namibia sought to provide support for the SME sector through
improved access to credit, training, market outlet development and product
innovation. In 2008, Mauritius sought to set up One-Stop Shops to facilitate the
setting up micro-enterprises.

109.   Some of the Member States that have invested resources into
employment creation through support of enterprise especially for women and
cooperatives are Burundi, Congo and Uganda, Some 5 000 informal economy
workers were beneficiaries of the programme in Uganda.. The SIYB programme
of ILO was implemented in Benin, Burkina Farso, Cote d‟Ivoire, Guinea, Mali,
Mauritania, Senegal and Togo resulting in the training of over 7 500 women
entrepreneurs. The WEDGE programme run in Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania,
Uganda and Zambia assisted women entrepreneurs access to financial
services, and sought to build capacity of their entrepreneurial organizations.


Priority Area 4: Establishing, improving and strengthening Social
Protection schemes and extending them to workers and their families
currently excluded.


110.   This Priority Area relates to establishing, improving and strengthening
social protection schemes and extending them to workers and their families as
well as occupational safety, health and hygiene. The overall objective is to
extend and enhance safety nets including social protection for better working
conditions for men and women, in particular, the most vulnerable including youth,
women and those infected and affected by HIV-AIDS, Tuberculosis and other
infectious diseases. The strategies that were pursued included ensuring the best
working and living conditions of all men and women as a tangible aspect in the
fight against poverty, and increasing productivity by improving safety, hygiene
and health of workers.
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111.        There have been a series of important initiatives in the provisioning and
strengthening of social protection during the period under review. Most Member
States have some social protection programmes of one kind or another. Some
have pension and medical assistance schemes, others have schemes for the
disabled and so forth. In Southern Africa, SADC reported that some countries
have introduced comprehensive social security schemes aimed at providing
contingencies such as unemployment, sickness and maternity benefits (SADC,
2008). However, the African Union Commission initiatives known as Livingstone
1and 2 have played an important part in developing continent-wide consensus on
Social Protection between 2006 and 2008. At those consultations, Member
States resolved to:

             Strengthen social protection and cash transfer interventions,
             Explore linkages with national programmes on social protection, Africa-
              wide social development programmes and targeted AU policies,
             Adopt comprehensive social protection schemes for older people,
             Introduce universal social pensions and
             Coordinate implementation of social protection measures involving
              ministries through a comprehensive national coordination framework
              (AU and HAI, 2008).


112.        There followed six national consultations (in Burkina Faso, Cameroon,
Mozambique, Rwanda, Sierra Leone and Tunisia) to extend social protection
for the poorest people in those countries. Each of the consultations reviewed
national social protection policies, plans and budgets, discussed past and future
challenges and successes as well made recommendations for future action. In
short, each national consultation

           affirmed the importance of political will to raise the profile of social
            protection as national priority area;
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       reflected a need for a shared and coherent vision of social protection in
        Africa; highlighted the challenges of social protection programmes being
        located in distinct ministries that do not operate within an overarching
        social protection policy;
       agreed that there is an urgency for policy makers in finance and planning
        ministries to engage with social development and social security experts
        to draw up strategies, design pilots and calculate the budgetary
        requirements of programmes (Ibid.).

113.    Finally, the national consultations highlighted that a vital element of
extending social protection should be more investment in capacity building (in
structures, administration     and technical issues; the importance of greater
sharing of evidence to inform future policy as well as underlined the importance
civil society and state partnerships in scaling up social protection to a national
level) (Ibid.).


114.    From the three regional meetings of experts on Social Protection held in
Kampala (April 2008), in Cairo (in May 2008) and in Dakar (in June 2008),
several key recommendations emerged. These were on:
       Building political consensus for social protection – establish appropriate
        legislative and political frameworks for Social Protection where it does not
        exist, review and amend National Constitutions, and political manifestos to
        include the right to social protection;

       Design and targeting of social protection programmes: develop and
        implement a minimum package of social protection programmes that take
        into account the unique circumstances of each country, existing social
        security and humanitarian assistance measures and compliance with
        agreed regional and international Conventions and treaties;

       Securing Financing: Develop costed and prioritized national plans and
        strategies for social protection within the planning cycles of each country
        and establish specific budget lines for social protection that should not be
        less than 2 per cent of GDP;
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      Strengthening capacity, coordination and communication: put in place
       effective inter-ministerial and inter-sectoral mechanisms to improve
       coordination and harmonization of the roles of all stakeholders, including
       ministries of Finance. AU Commission will provide leadership to address
       Social Protection opportunities and challenges in Africa in collaboration
       with all stakeholders and hold biannual conferences to assess progress on
       the implementation of Social Protection programmes (AU and HAI, 2008).

115.   Various Member States included reporting on the state of their social
protection programmes. Amongst others, they include:


Namibia extended its social security system to include pension funds and
medical aid schemes, and activated a Social Security Development Fund for job
creation.
Tanzania drafted a Social Security Bill in 2008 and efforts were undertaken to
establish Social Security Schemes to cover the informal sector, as the Social
Security schemes available cover only formal sector employees. This gives an
opportunity for the informal sector and other privately employed individuals to
enter in a number of social security benefits, and other vulnerable groups like the
poor families, PLWDs, unemployed Youth, elderly and rural poor. The
Occupational Health and Safety Authority (OSHA) have been established as a
government agency to deal with occupational Safety and Health issues currently
in the formal sector. In addition, a National Aging policy and a National disability
policy are in place.
In Zambia the coverage of Social Protection in the formal expanded during the
period under review. A good proxy for the coverage of social protection indicates
that 495,000 people are covered in the formal sector, Current Factories Act does
not include the informal sector.
Lesotho strengthened its existing social protection schemes and finalized a
Social Welfare Strategic Plan and a National Action Plan for Orphans and
Vulnerable Children.
In Nigeria, the National Social Insurance Trust Fund (NSITF), was established
as the sole government agency statutorily vested with the function of providing
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social security, social protection for the poor, the aged, the disabled and other
disadvantaged members of the population. It is pursuing a strategic plan
entailing: the enactment of the Employee Compensation Bill (ECB), the Youth
Opportunities Program (YOP), the Informal Sector Programme (ISP), a
Micro Finance Scheme for the physically challenged, and a Mass Housing
Scheme Owner/Occupier as part of the Family Benefit, etc.


Box 7: Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS)

The Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme resulted from a process that led
to a policy framework engineered by the Ministry of Health to promote „Multi
Scheme Health Insurance System‟. The goal was to create a system that
embraced both the formal and informal economies, providing affordable health
insurance to the majority of Ghanaians and exemptions for the indigents. The
framework envisaged that „community based health insurance schemes and
mutual health organizations for the informal economy will be a component of the
multi scheme health insurance system that will meet the needs of the rural and
urban informal economy operators‟
The planning, monitoring and evaluation of the Ministry of Health is charged with
facilitating and supporting districts and regions that wish to establish insurance
and prepayment schemes for the population they serve. The new policy
framework created room for baseline studies that were used to inform the
process. These included household surveys of willingness to pay, for health
insurance, studies for district health accounts and studies for drug prescribing
and stock levels of districts health insurance. This process is what finally led to
the Ghana National Insurance Scheme.

The Ghana National Insurance Scheme was passed by an Act of Parliament in
2003 and came into force in November 2004. The purpose of the Insurance
policy was “to secure the provision of basic health care services to persons
resident in the country through mutual and private health insurance schemes and
to accredit and monitor health care providers operating under health insurance
schemes; to establish a National Health Insurance Fund that will provide subsidy
to licensed District Medical Health Insurance Schemes (DMHIS)‟‟. The NHIS,
defines the national minimum benefit package, accredits medical providers in
health insurance system, approves and oversees the operation of DMHIS. The
funding of the scheme comes from multiple sources, including payroll tax
imposed on informal employees, transfers from the core government budget as
authorized by Parliament, investments from the National Insurance Schemes,
gifts and grants.
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 In addition to the National Health Scheme, the government of Ghana established
 the Ghana Social Trust Fund with the aim of supporting development of pluralist
 health care financing system and the extension of social protection benefits to
 those who were excluded before particularly workers in the informal economy. A
 subsidizing mechanism for the poor was developed to ensure that the general
 and financial governance mechanisms of DMHIS are adequate to ensure viability
 and sustainability. The government of Ghana aims to incorporate 50-60% of the
 residents within a period of five years. As of December 2007, 47% of the national
 population had registered. Of this population, more than half, is exempted
 (63.7%) of those exempted, 20% are from informal sector and 9.6% from the
 formal sector .The extension of the scheme to cover the total population will
 depend upon availability of resources, continued political will to support the
 scheme as well as long term empowerment programs which will enable citizens
 to contribute to the scheme without sacrificing the welfare needs of other
 aspects.



Source: Improving the Informal Economy, LSC EXP 4 (VI), African Union,
        2008




    Box 8: Conclusions of the Dakar Conference on Social Protection, June
            2008


       Political will is necessary for extending coverage, securing budget and
        delivery of good quality and sustainable programmes.
       There is need for a shared vision, for public debate on need for social
        protection in public policy and it is important to link media, civil society and
        government on issues of rights and solidarity.
       Inter-ministerial coordination is needed to avoid duplication, scattered
        approaches and to improve data gathering and analysis.
       Financing and budgeting: it is imperative to have accurate costing based
        on national data, to refer to costing scenarios by ILO and others, and links
        between policy makers in Ministries of Finance, social policy and social
        security experts.
       Capacity building: the need to extend Social Protection requires
        investment in capacity of people, structures, administration, technical
        expertise and monitoring by government and citizens.
       Evidence and monitoring: there is particular need to share evidence to
        support and inform policy between governments, and between citizens
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       and governments, and need for accurate data collection and analysis
       necessary for improved evidence frameworks for monitoring.
      Civil society has a role to support and inform policy development and
       complement government programmes. It is important to encourage civil
       society engagement for effective implementation of programmes.




Member States which have established various social protections schemes
include the following: Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cape Verde, Lesotho,
Mozambique, Senegal, Algeria, Libya, Tanzania and Zambia.


116.   The IGAD is running a Project on social protection with the support of the
European Commission: the Regional Food Security and Risk Management
Programme (REFORM). Its purpose is to improve regional and national trade,
social protection and disaster risk management strategies and policies. The
responsibilities for REFORM‟s components are split between IGAD and
COMESA. IGAD's focus includes enhancing the core capacities of Regional
Integration Organisations (RIOs) in Food Security, and in implementing a Social
Protection and a Disaster Risk Management component. The components of the
Reform are structured on four Support Modules:


   The Policy Support Module (PSM) which has two components; support to
   social protection awareness building and policy dialogue and support to
   regional cooperation.


   The Information Support Module (ISM), supporting activities for:

       -   Development and dissemination of national inventory structure and
           guidelines
       -   Financial (and technical?) support for national mapping workshops,
       -
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       -   the creation of a web based information network on social protection
           and vulnerability assessment

   The Capacity Support Module (CSM) for social protection skills development
   in the IGAD, particularly in vulnerability assessment and analysis
   The Research Support Module (RSM), responding to the need to evaluate,
   document and disseminate existing social protection experience within
   the IGAD region and to undertake evidence based research to identify
   lessons and best practices for the design and implementation of social
   protection legislation, policies and instrument. In addition, a regional
   evidence based research fund could provide the necessary resources to
   engage national researcher in undertaking such work.
   The REFORM has conducted a series of activities:
       -   Social   Protection    Country     Reviews,     prepared     by   national
           consultants in five IGAD countries – Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan
           and Uganda.
   A three day Regional Synthesis Workshop on “Social Protection Policies &
   Instruments”, held in Nairobi from the 4th to the 6th of May.
   The Social Protection Technical Advisory Committee (SP‐TAC) meeting,
   held in Nairobi on the 7th of May.


Priority No. 5: Empowerment of Women by Integrating them in the Labour
Market and to enable them to participate effectively in the development of
Poverty Reduction strategies.


117.   The overall objective of this priority is to mainstream gender issues into all
the poverty reduction and employment promotion policies and programmes by
investing in human capital development, especially young women and men. The
recommended actions for implementation are:
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      Promote women‟s entrepreneurship through better training in basic
       business skills and improved access to market opportunities in non-
       traditional sectors and access to capital and skills development;
      Support an entrepreneurial culture which helps potential women
       entrepreneurs make better informed decisions and to organizes
       themselves as well as to engage in social dialogue;
      Assist exchange of information and facilitate learning on youth
       employment policies and initiatives and develop synergies for concrete
       results through the Youth Employment Network (YEN) and provide
       support to youth empowerment programmes;
      Advocate and implement legislation guaranteeing land rights for women,
       access to credit facilities, increasing their access to collateral capital,
       property and inheritance rights and access to extension services;
      Develop active labour market policies and support institutions which can
       assist young new entrants into the labour market;
      Support the implementation of Decision EX/CL/117(V) and Declaration on
       Gender Equality in Africa adopted by the Fifth Ordinary Session of the
       Executive Council and the Third Ordinary Session of the Assembly of
       Heads of State and Government; and
      Promote the establishment of co-operatives and youth and women
       associations.

118.   Member States have instituted programmes to enhance capacity for
employment creation especially for women. They include South Africa, Angola
and Mozambique. Women‟s entrepreneurship training has been conducted in
Zambia, Egypt, Tunisia, Zimbabwe, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda,
Mali, Mauritania Namibia and Senegal. In Zimbabwe, women‟s organizations
were coordinated by the Ministry of Women‟s Affairs, Gender and Community
Development. They were also consulted in the formulation of a new development
strategy in 2008. In the world of work, it was estimated that 40 per cent of middle
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to top management positions were occupied by women in that country. In
Tanzania, a number of initiatives to promote women empowerment had been put
in place:

      Gender-sensitive budgeting were put into pale,
      Women Development Bank was set up,
      A Gender Development Policy was drawn up,
      A National Youth Employment Action Plan of 2007 had become
       operational, and
      Labour Exchanges had been expanded to cater for both female and male
       job seekers.


119.   In its country report, Zambia pointed to a high level of labour force
participation rate of 74 per cent of women workers. The rate compared favorably
with that of the male participation rate. A SADC report referred to national
programmes     for    human   capital   development     through   vocational   and
entrepreneurship training at various institutions to impart a myriad of skills
especially to youth and women (SADC, 2008). Amongst the countries engaged in
such were Botswana, Malawi, South Africa and Lesotho. Finally, ILO
programmes such as Youth Employment Network (YEN) have played an
important role in providing information that has value for women empowerment
programmes.


120.   The Egypt report pointed out many initiatives for women empowerment
such as breakthrough of their representation and leadership in workers and
employers organizations, the Women Competencies and Skills Development
Centre, the Women National Council‟s programs on entrepreneurship, female
discrimination at workplace grievances bureau. The Government has put in place
5 regional Counseling and Orientation Centers dedicated to the enhancement of
women cultural standards for better awareness of their rights as workers, and
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700 women‟s clubs. CSOs are also very active, with more than 1 677 pioneers
involved in rural women social and economic promotion. Many regulations have
been adopted to promote gender equity and equality, and promote women
access to administrative and political responsibilities.


Box 9 : Fonds National de l‟Entrepreneuriat Féminin (Senegal).

L‟entreprenariat féminin est aujourd‟hui un véritable réservoir de croissance, un
levier essentiel de création d‟emplois et un facteur de cohésion sociale. C‟est
dans ce cadre que le Fonds de l‟entreprenariat féminin a été crée par décret du
14 avril 2004. Sa mission principale, entre autres, est de faciliter l‟accès au
financement des femmes entrepreneures urbaines et rurales. En tant
qu‟instrument de promotion et de développement de l‟entreprenariat féminin, le
FNPEF a accentué son intervention sur le potentiel de création d‟emplois
(activités intenses en main d‟œuvre féminine) des projets et l‟aptitude à les
pérenniser en vue d‟une redistribution permanente de revenus aux bénéficiaires.
Toute augmentation de revenus des femmes contribue positivement et
directement à l‟amélioration du cadre de vie familiale. Ainsi, les besoins
élémentaires de santé, d‟éducation et de nourriture sont mieux assurés. Le
Fonds est constitue d‟un Fonds de financement qui intervient a hauteur de 95%
du montant du crédit sollicité avec un plafond maximal de 50 000 000 fcfa et un
taux compris entre 5 et 7%, pour une durée de prêt de 3 ans. Il comprend aussi
un Fonds de garantie qui peut intervenir a hauteur de cinq (5) fois le montant du
projet. A coté de ce dispositif est adjoint un package de services non financier
qui vise à renforcer et faciliter le développement de l‟entreprise (suivi régulier des
activités, formation permanente). Le Fonds travaille en partenariat avec un
réseau de 12 mutuelles reparties sur l‟ensemble du territoire comme structures
relais. Un montant de 2 320 541 718 FCFA a été injecte pour le financement de
842 projets, touchant plusieurs secteurs d‟activités tels que l‟agro alimentaire, les
services, la transformation des céréales etc.… Un dispositif d‟appui conseil et
d‟orientation des femmes qui souhaitent disposer plus d‟informations par rapport
à leur projet et/ou à leur secteur d‟activité. Un dispositif de suivi rapproché
trimestriel et un accompagnement permanent à trouver des niches de
marché (participation à des foires et salon).
Source: Senegal Information Note for the 2009 Ouaga+5 Comprehensive
           Report, January 2009
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Box 10: Youth Employment in Senegal and in Mali

Senegal, a lead country in the YEN programme, launched a youth
employment programme in 2001. Since then, the national youth
employment agency has assisted 25 000 young people in their job search.
A national fund to facilitate finance for youth micro-enterprises (with a
special focus on young women) has helped to create 12 000 jobs. Public-
private partnerships have improved vocational training through business
internships for 600 graduates. Other African countries that have
volunteered to prepare youth employment action plans include Mali,
Rwanda, Namibia and Nigeria.
L‟Agence pour la Promotion de l‟Emploi des Jeunes (APEJ) au Mali : C‟est
un établissement public à caractère administratif, doté de la personnalité morale
et de l‟autonomie financière. Il est l‟organe d‟exécution du Programme Emploi
Jeunes, un programme qui résulte d‟une volonté politique forte, financé par le
budget national du Mali, pour une durée initiale de cinq (5) ans (2004 – 2008).
Doté d‟un budget prévisionnel de 18 572 340 468 francs CFA, le PEJ, avec un
budget effectif de 1 250 000 000 de francs CFA en 2004, 1 250 000 000 de
francs CFA en 2005, 2 250 000 000 de francs CFA en 2006, 2 250 000 000 de
francs CFA en 2007, et 3 000 000 000 de francs CFA en 2008, a pu créer plus
de 39 000 emplois directs et indirects, renforcer l‟employabilité de 14 465 jeunes,
faciliter le financement de 1 688 projets qui ont permis la création de 1 688
entreprises, l‟octroi de 100 tracteurs aux jeunes ruraux entre autres. L‟APEJ
développe également un programme dit « Volontariat » qui s‟adresse aux jeunes
diplômés en quête d‟une première expérience de travail. Ce programme
concerne 2000 jeunes annuellement et est mis en œuvre dans les services
publics ou para publics.
Source: Commission for Africa (Blair), 2005


121.   Amongst countries that have developed and implemented youth
employment plans and programmes are the following: Cote d‟Ivoire, Lesotho,
Liberia, Mozambique and Rwanda. Tanzania, Senegal and Lesotho
developed youth employment policies, strategies and action plan, in the
framework of the YEN Initiatives. Post-Conflict countries also such as Liberia,
Sierra Leone, Cote d‟Ivoire and DRC elaborated youth employment policies
and programmes which became operational (ILO, Report of the DG, 2007-08).
The first three post conflict countries are engaged in the Mano-River Union Multi-
Stakeholders Employment Program. (AUC, Report of the Multidisciplinary Team
of Experts‟ mission to Sierra Leone and Liberia, 9-20 February, 2009). It is worth
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to note that Ghana began implementation of the National Youth Job Corps
Programme aimed at creating more than 150 000 jobs for unemployed youths in
38 districts.


122.   The Social Policy Framework for Africa (Windhoek, October 2008)
further called for the accelerated implementation of the Priority Area 5 for women
empowerment in the African labour markets. It is also stressing the priority for
Youth employment in the same vein. The African Union Plan of Action for
Gender contains provisions for women promotion in the labour market, and the
African Youth Charter is defending the same approach for youth empowerments
promotion.


123.   The Department of Social Affairs will collaborate with the Department of
Human Resource, Science and Technology, and the Directorate of Women and
Gender Development to elaborate specific plan of action on employment
promotion for these two vulnerable groups.


Priority Area no. 6: Human and Institutional Capacity Building


124.   The main objective under this Priority Area is to strengthen the capacity of
local, national, regional and continental institutions in promoting participation,
voice, tripartism, social dialogue and partnership to ensure an equitable and
efficient representation of important socio-economic interests and beneficiaries in
the formulation and implementation of inclusive development policies. To achieve
the objective, the following recommended actions would be pursued:

      Involve employers‟ and workers‟ organizations and the private sector more
       closely in discussions on training policies and skills development;
      Promote lifelong learning, entrepreneurial and vocational training and
       youth employment;
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      Assess capacity needs Review and/or develop and implement plans for
       strengthening stakeholders including Ministries of Labour, NGOs, Civil
       Society Organizations, as well as Employers and Workers‟ Organizations
      Involve workers, employers, private sector and local communities in
       bringing about change, through social dialogue and supportive active
       labour market policies;
      Encourage exchange of country experiences and best practices in the
       area of employment and poverty alleviation;
      Strengthen data collection and analysis as well as labour market
       information systems; and
      Encourage the incorporation of WHO Health personnel/population ratio as
       well as UNESCO teachers/students ratio at national level to create
       employment opportunities and to improve the social welfare of the
       population.

125.   Some Member States have taken steps to develop national baseline data
on labour and employment information. They include Mauritius, South Africa
and Zimbabwe amongst others. Employment Observatories were set up and
strengthened in Algeria, Chad, Cameroon, Mauritania and Rwanda. Burkina
Faso intended to integrate this monitoring mechanism within the framework of
the PRSP which is periodically reviewed.


126.   We can point to other instances of human and institutional capacity
building in public and private institutions in charge of employment creation.
Lesotho sought to strengthen its Ministry of Labour and Employment through
adding new areas of focus namely Child Labour, Youth Employment Programme
and Employment Studies. In Namibia, the Ministry of Labour was being
strengthened to enable it to monitor effective implementation of labour-related
legislation as well as develop internal expertise for collection and analysis of
labour market information.
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127.   During the period under review, there were activities related to labour
market studies in Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Madagascar, Mauritius, Uganda,
Algeria and Tunisia. Namibia sought to develop internal expertise for data
collection, processing, analysis and report production, management and further
development of the labour market information system. During the period under
review, labour force surveys were undertaken in a number of countries including
Lesotho, Libya, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania and Liberia. Improvements
were made in the generation of labour statistics in Botswana, Burkina Faso,
Kenya and Egypt. In addition, Ghana had undertaken Living Standards Surveys
while Egypt had conducted a survey on migration.


Box 11: Quest for Labour Market Information

Africa faces huge challenges in addressing the need for sustained data
collection, analysis and dissemination… In 2006, the Forum on African
Statistical Development adopted the Reference Regional Strategic Framework
for Statistical Capacity Building in Africa, through which resources would be
mobilized, personnel trained and data collection functions integrated as part of
national development efforts. In this context, the ILO has initiated work on
African Labour Market Indicators Library Network (ALMMIL). The project
would allow all partners, on a sustainable basis, to compile, maintain and analyze
labour market information in an efficient and cost-effective manner by sharing
resources and gaining access to information stored in the global Labour Market
Indicators Library network (LMIL) and the Key Indicators of the Labour
Market (KILM) database, which captures 20 key indicators covering
employment, poverty, education and labour costs.

By 2015, African Member States should be able to generate basic annual data
on the size and composition of their workforce. At least half of Member States
should have mechanisms in place by 2010 to produce and statistics for the
monitoring of progress on the core dimensions for the monitoring of progress on
the core dimensions of the Decent Work agenda.

Source: ILO, 2007b
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The AUC will organize, in collaboration with the Government of Malo and the
ILO, a workshop on the harmonization of labour market information systems in
Africa, in November 2009 in Bamako. The objectives are to:

      propose a harmonized nomenclature of Labour Market concepts,
       definitions and Indicators in Africa
      propose a Methodological Guide to statistics and studies on the labour
       market;
      propose a format of Statistical Yearbook on the Labour market;
      exchange and discussion on the organizational, technical, human
       resources and financial aspects of the production, the analysis and
       diffusion of labour market statistics and data in Africa and define a model
       of statistical unit for the organization of the statistical service in labour
       market;
      exchange and discuss on the feasibility of an Harmonized Occupational
       Directory.

128.   In Zimbabwe, the government and its partners together with UNDP
addressed the issue of institutional capacity building through strengthening the
Ministry of Public Service, Labour and Social Welfare. Particular attention
was paid to the Ministry‟s Policy and Special Programmes division whose
capacity needed to be strengthened. In Cameroon a Ministry of Employment
was created immediately after the Summit. In Tanzania a fully fledged
department was set up to deal specifically with Employment matters.


129.   Paying attention to the education and training sector and especially
access to technical, vocational educational and training (TVET) schools was a
strategy by some countries such as Lesotho to expand skills training and raise
employability of job market entrants.


130.   However some countries have experienced some constraints in human
and institutional capacity building. For instance, Zambia encountered challenges
of inadequate budget allocation and of „brain drain‟. These are challenges not
confined to one country as budgetary pressures and a considerable number of
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 professionals and other experienced staff migrate to „greener pasture‟. No less
 than 20 000 African professionals enter the ‟brain drain‟ every year. This has a
 direct implication for institutional capacity building.

 131.   More and more Member States are establishing and/or enhancing
 capacity in social dialogue, as it is the case in South Africa (National Economic
 Development and Labour Commission-NEDLAC), Algeria (National Economic
 and Social Pact) Senegal (National Social Dialogue Committee), etc.

 132.    Some MS undertook significant initiatives in improving the labour market
 information systems either through strengthening the national statistical
 service, or more specifically by establishing or enhancing a National
 Observatory on Employment and Training (Mali, Benin, Algeria, Tunisia,
 Chad, Niger, etc).

Box 12: The Benin National Employment and Training Observatory

 The Benin government created the National Employment and Training
 Observatory as an autonomous structure. Its main missions are (a) to
 collect, analyze and disseminate information in the relationship between
 the vocational/education training system and the labour market needs, (b)
 formulate advice and proposals in guidance to employment and skills
 development policies, and (c) facilitate ideas exchange between the labour
 market stakeholders. The Observatory realized a series of studies relating
 to the evaluation of educational projects, capacity enhancement of the
 labour market information system, the modular integrated survey
 household living conditions, etc. It also produced a database on
 employment based on labour market indicators and employment
 prospects.
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Box 13: The NAETPI Agency in Djibouti
In 2005, the Djiboutian Government undertook series of institutional
reforms for liberalizing the labor market, in order to support enterprise
development and stimulate job creation. These entail revising the labor
code for more flexibility in terms of recruitment and dismissal procedures,
and suppression of the minimum wage scale. This went further with the
suppression of the public service employment monopoly for placement of
workers. Thus around twenty (20) private employment agencies were
created, without a coherent legal framework for their coordinated and
transparent intervention. Later, a ministerial agreement procedure was put
in place to begin rationalizing the private employment agencies activities.

This situation makes difficult to collect, compile and analyze labor market
data, specifically on both sides of the placement activities. The NAETPI
was created in 2007 (Law No 203/AN/07/5eme L, 22 decembre 2007), in view
of correcting the Djiboutian less job content growth estimated at 4-5%. The
same Law created the National Observatory of Employment and
Qualifications as a structure of the NAETPI. As well as the Djiboutian
Agency of Social Development (DASD), the NAETPI stems from the
National Initiative for Social Development (NISD) which is a presidential
decision and commitment to face the non inclusiveness of growth and
promote simultaneously economic performance with social justice and
equity through more inclusive labor market measures. Another outcome of
the NISD is the establishment of the State Secretariat of Solidarity under
the Prime Minister.

Through a partnership Framework, the DASD supported funding of training
and skills development for young people in order to increase their
employability and facilitate their insertion in the labor market. The DASD
support consists in training fees covering transport and food for the
beneficiaries, training tools and insurance coverage against work injuries.

The NAETPI is supported by a SWISS-UNDP Project which contributed a lot to
speed up its modernization and its technical cooperation with the Tunisian
National Agency of Employment and Independent Work.

Sources:
Benin Information Note for the 2009 Ouaga+5 Comprehensive Report,
February 2009
AUC, 2009, Report of Follow-up Consultative Visit to the Republic of Djibouti
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Priority Area 7: Sectors with High Employment Potential
133. Utilizing key sectors with high employment potential to generate jobs and
to allocate adequate resources for this purpose is another major priority area
under the Ouagadougou PoA. The overall objective is to provide an enabling
environment to create productive and decent jobs. The strategies specified for
this effort include:

      Promoting public and private sector reforms for employment creation;
      Promoting public works programmes in infrastructural development;
      Reorienting public sector investment and restructuring the industrial and
       agricultural sectors;
      Creating productive labour absorbing jobs through labour intensive
       approaches;
      Upgrading the informal sector by developing support mechanisms through
       training and access to finance and
      Encouraging African investors and providing them with the necessary
       facilities, protection and conducive environment.

134.   This Priority Area is one of the most demanding with potentially the most
rewarding tangible results. Which are the areas in which most jobs could be
created at minimal cost? There has been considerable activity amongst Member
States to harness opportunities in sectors such information communication
technology (ICTs), tourism and labour-intensive infrastructure development.
Mauritius has identified ICTs as one of the country‟s economic pillars and began
a programme to train a mass of IT literate workers. In countries such as Egypt,
Tunisia, Namibia and South Africa, tourism has proved to be one of the most
significant contributors to employment during the period under review. Tourist
earnings contributed about 5 per cent to Lesotho‟s GDP in 2007-08. Until the
global economic and financial crisis broke out in 2008-09, in East Africa, tourism
was also on the upswing in Member States such as Kenya, Tanzania and
Ethiopia where its employment creation potential is high.


135.   An AU Commission regional workshop held in Abuja in 2006 observed
that the ICT sector provides a large potential for generating employment in that
region as the demand for ICT products and services is increasing. It was
recommended that it was necessary to build an efficient and adequate ICT
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infrastructure from telecommunications to investing heavily in ICT education from
primary to university levels in order to reduce the digital gap. In addition,
indigenous research and development within the sector should be promoted by
linking universities to the ICT industrial sub-sector while creating an appropriate
policy environment to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) into the sector.


136.   Most Member States identified agriculture and agro-related industry as
a major potentially high employment area. For instance, Tanzania stated that
agriculture and livestock is an important growth area in its economy. Zimbabwe,
Lesotho and Ethiopia, amongst others have agricultural sectors in which there
is substantial employment creation.


Benin has drawn up the map of youth and women employment potent (See Box
14).
Box 14: The Benin Employment Potential Mapping

Le Benin a initie la Carte des potentialités d‟emplois des jeunes et des femmes
des 77 communes du pays, avec l‟appui du PNUD. Cette carte se veut un aperçu
général sur les potentialités économiques, els créneaux porteurs et les
opportunités d‟emploi de chaque commune du Benin, ainsi que les activités
leviers du développement susceptibles d‟impulser l‟émergence des communes.
Elle permet de mieux informer les citoyens sur les perspectives en matière de
création d‟emplois. L‟objectif vise est de mettre a la disposition des jeunes et des
femmes un outil efficace d‟information sur les potentialités qui leur sont offertes
pour les aider dans leur décision en matière d‟entrepreneuriat et d‟auto emploi.
Les conditions de l‟exploitation de ces créneaux porteurs et des opportunités
sont aussi mises en évidence. La carte est présentée par département (12
Départements) et par communes (77 communes). Elle fait ressortir les structures
techniques intervenant en matière politique.

Source: Benin Information Note for the 2009 Ouaga+5 Comprehensive
Report, February 2009
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Box 15: Employment Generation: the case of the Cameroon National
        Employment Fund (FNE)


The main aim of the National Employment Fund, set up during the difficult period
of structural adjustment and devaluation of the CFA Franc, is the promotion of
employment. One of the principal routes to the achievement of this goal is
creating jobs by providing support in the process of setting up self-employment
and micro-enterprise situations. The Freelance Employment Service (SEI) is the
arm of the National Employment Fund (FNE) entrusted with the task. So far the
FNE has funded 3 009 self-employment projects and micro-enterprises creating
6 513 direct jobs and 9 770 indirect jobs.

A project which has met with considerable success is known as PADER (Rural
Employment Development Support Programme) which operates only in rural
areas. This is a programme with a high potential for job creation which also has
the advantage that it to bring together the players involved.
The PADER system has so far funded 24 969 candidates creating 41 967 direct
jobs and some 62 950 indirect jobs.

Source: National Employment Fund, 2007, Yaoundé


Box 16: The Self-Employment Programme in Tunisia

Tunisia has set up and developed productive tools and programmes to foster and
fund micro-enterprises, consolidated and structured the SME funding
programmes, established mechanisms for backing and encouraging the creation
of enterprises, and consolidated structures designed to train promoters…In order
to support this process, the National Agency for Employment and Freelance
Work (ANETI) has undertaken a large number of training initiatives in
entrepreneurship, developed measures for backing and monitoring promoters
and instituted specialist structures within the regions. The system set up by
ANETI is complete, since it supports the promoter throughout the various start-up
steps from the project idea to setting up. Under ANETI, 82 independent
employment units have been set up in different parts of Tunisia and 6
entrepreneur spaces set up in the large cities.

Source: ANETI, 2007, Tunis


137.   Other areas that have shown a large capacity for employment generation
are infrastructure projects and programmes. In SADC, Member States
reported that they had introduced labour-intensive public works programmes.
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The following countries did so during the period under review: Angola,
Botswana,       Lesotho,   Malawi,   Namibia,   South   Africa,   Tanzania   and
Zimbabwe. Other large-scale public works programmes were run in Ghana and
Madagascar. In the latter, 3 million working days were created in 2007. In South
Africa, 400 000 jobs were created in 2006-07. It is significant to note that in
2007, there were 17 country programmes receiving assistance from ILO in the
execution of public and community works in urban and rural infrastructure and
construction.


138.   Finally, the employment creation capacity of the informal economy has
already been addressed in an earlier section. As it was pointed out, the AU
Commission was actively involved in commissioning a study on the job-creation
potential of the sector while the LSAC has had a longstanding interest.


Box 17: Member States that have set up Employment Intensive
            Programmes

CAMEROON: adopted a policy to promote Employment Intensive
Investment Programme in public investment programmes and established
an inter-ministerial committee to promote and oversee the implementation
of the strategy. Applied labour-based methods for road and urban
infrastructure works.

DRC:      integrated EIIP approaches in reconstruction programmes.
Established a central unit to promote employment in public works. Used
EIIP approach in reinsertion programmes for ex-combatants through
rehabilitation and construction of infrastructure.

GABON: adopted an EIIP policy and created a national commission to
promote EIIP in public investment programmes.

MADAGASCAR: EIIP approach verified through comparative studies and
integrated into the Madagascar Action Plan (equivalent of PRSP) and in
 programming and budgeting for multi-sectoral public investment
programmes.
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RWANDA: established EIIP as a major instrument to                    support
decentralization of infrastructure development to the local level.

SOUTH AFRICA: adopted national policies on employment-intensive
investment. Expanded public works programmes up-scaled in selected
provinces. Enhanced capacity of national and provincial government
(Lampoon Province) and other key stakeholders to develop and implement
labour-intensive approaches. More than 700 000 additional jobs created
from municipal investments.

SUDAN: a labour-based unit was reactivated within the Ministry of Labour.
An urban infrastructure development programme was designed for
Southern Sudan.



TANZANIA: a national policy put in place to scale up the use of
labour-based approaches and established related
programmes.

CONGO: integrated Employment Intensive Investment Programmes (EIIPs)
in construction programmes for urban infrastructure.

ETHIOPIA: expanded labour-based approaches to road construction.
Adopted solid waste management policy and strategy for urban areas.

GHANA: EIIP approach was mainstreamed in road motor works allowing
labour-based contractors to carry out reconstruction and maintenance
works.

LIBERIA: implemented the LEEP/Liberia Employment Action Plan (LEAP)
which includes an EIIP approach to public investments in infrastructure.
Temporary jobs were generated for war-affected women and men in
emergency repairs and maintenance of roads. Results are being replicated
in other labour-based road sector programmes.

MALI: implemented a multi-sectoral programme to create and promote
employment for youth through infrastructure works.

MAURITANIA: implemented a successful demonstration project on road
paving using EIIP approaches.

SENEGAL: implemented street stone paving and rural roads programme to
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create employment for youth.

SIERRA LEONE: started an employment programme covering employment
intensive investments, small enterprise development and youth
employment.

BURUNDI: developed a programme of labour-based                     practices    for
infrastructure Rehabilitation and reforestation.
Source: ILO Report of the DG, 2007-08.

139.    In order to tap the job creation opportunities of the labour intensive
programmers investments, national coordinating and promoting units were put in
place    by   Madagascar     (inter-ministerial   committee),   Gabon    (National
commission), Sudan(labour-based unit reactivated), etc. labour intensive
programmers were also utilized as means to provide employment and income to
youth and women in post-conflict countries(Sierra Leone, Liberia, DERC…ILO
report DG, 2008).


140.    Another possible high employment multiplier is value-chains based on
agriculture and agri-business related enterprises. Regional value chains and
markets for strategic commodities would not only increase competitiveness of
agriculture at farm level but would also trigger development of agro-processing
and agribusiness venues at the regional level (ECA and AU, 2009).

141.    It has also been observed that intra-African trade data show that a growth
strategy for higher-valued products destined for domestic and regional markets
as well as non - African markets could revitalize agriculture in all regions of
Africa. Instead of raw agricultural commodities and related jobs and processing
industries being exported, the expansion of forward-linked agribusiness and
agro-processing could significantly increase employment and non-farm incomes
for rural populations in many African countries (Ibid.). For instance, the value of
traditional and non-traditional exports to non-African destinations represents the
minimum revenue that could be captured by processing agricultural commodities
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in the respective regions. It is estimated that this value could triple if domestic
and intra-regional markets were taken into account, contributing to rapid job
creation and poverty reduction.


Priority Area 8: Building International cooperation, fair and equitable
globalization and partnerships


142.       The overall objective of activities in this priority area relate to
strengthening capacities to meaningfully participate, contribute to and influence
global decision making and evolve a new vision of partnership for employment
creation and sustainable development. The strategies that are being pursued
are:
           Coordinating efforts between international organizations, bilateral donors
            and the AU, RECs and Member States;
           Strengthening the role of the AU including its NEPAD programme in
            coordinating policies and having a common position for Africa in global
            debates and
           Enhancing policy coherence and partnership at the local, national,
            continental and international levels for a fair globalization.


143.       This agenda set out under this theme is an ambitious one. It could not
have been easy to set targets and measure outcomes. However, there has been
considerable progress in building international cooperation and partnerships for
enhanced support for Africa‟s efforts towards achieving sustainable development.
In its coordinating role, the AU Commission developed and strengthened good
working relationships with various international organizations especially with ILO
in employment and labour matters. Other agencies that it has collaborated with
include ECA, IOM and UNDP as well as AfDB on employment and migration-
related issues.
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144.   The AU-ILO partnership was evident during the 2004 Ouagadougou
Summit and during the next 4 years. A joint task force was launched in 2006 with
the aim of providing a forum for strategic thinking, analysis and formulation of
proposals to stimulate employment creation in Africa based on the Ouagadougou
Summit commitments. African Member States and the AU Commission have
been active participants in ILO conferences as well as in the ILO African
Regional Conference, the last which was held in 2007 in Addis Ababa.


145.   Other key institutions in the promotion of cooperation are the Labour and
Social Affairs Commission (LSAC) which meets annually to consider policy
matters and implementation of programmes relating to labour and social affairs.
The LSAC oversees the implementation of decisions and programmes of the AU
Commission under which the Department of Social Affairs falls. Its international
partners take a strong interest in its proceedings.


146.   Another important relationship is that between the AU Commission and
the European Union (EU). The cooperation between these two institutions
includes their joint programme on Employment and Migration. Under a Joint
Partnership relating to Migration, Mobility and Employment, several activities
were initiated during the period 2007 to 2009. Those activities include capacity
building in the AU Commission and substantial funding that has contributed to
effective implementation of the Ouagadougou PoA. Other major partners include
the Sweden and Norwegian cooperation agencies. The Cooperation Protocol
between the AUC and India entails areas of cooperation in employment
promotion and poverty alleviation. The Afro-Arab cooperation is also aligning
actions in employment promotion.


147.   The AU Commission continued to play a pivotal role in conducting
consultations with the RECs, and ensuring coordination in implementation of the
regional employment policy frameworks. The RECs take an active part in the
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programmes on employment and migration as well as in other activities of the
LSAC. The AUC also closely follows cooperation between the RECs and
international development partners.


148.   In international discussions on globalization and trade, the AUC was
active in mobilizing Member States in arriving at common positions. One of those
areas was trade although, in practice, it was difficult for them to take a single
position on Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs). Many Member States
have developed technical and financial cooperation with various development
partners in various employment promotion areas. They include agencies such as
the German Technical Cooperation (GTZ), United States Agency for
International Development (USAID), United Nations Children‟s Fund
(UNICEF), and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), etc. However, the
needs are still at high level in comparison with the level of cooperation in the area
of employment. For instance, although governments and international partners
often state that job creation, in particular for youth and women, is a high priority,
this is not fully reflected in the national budget allocation process.


Box 18: Example of Coordinating and Cooperating efforts between Member
States

Djibouti and Tunisia concluded a Cooperation Programme on employment
through their respective National Agency for Employment and Independent
Work (NAEIW), and the National Agency for Employment, Training and
Professional Insertion (NAETPI). The cooperation partnership signed in Tunis
in June 2009 specifies the areas where Djibouti is in need of technical assistance
and where Tunisia possesses the required capacity to support the recipient
country. These cover, amongst others, technical assistance to the Djiboutian
National Employment Observatory, support to enterprises and job seekers,
training of trainers in micro enterprises promotion, improvement of job seekers
employability, job creation programmes elaboration and implementation.

The partnership is funded on cost sharing basis of the missions to partner
countries: the receiving country takes in charge the internal cost of the experts‟
mission while the travel costs are supported by the origin country of the experts.
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Both parties commit to act together in search of additional funding opportunities
with international donors. This can lead to triangular cooperation scheme, as
experienced through the Swiss Assistance Project to the Republic of Djibouti.
Currently, the Tunisian Agency is assisting the Djiboutian sister organization in
elaboration a National Insertion and Professional Adaptation Programme
which will be passed into a presidential decree. The execution of the partnership
rests on annual action plan agreed between both parties.

The Djiboutian experience of cooperation with the republic of Tunisia provides
guidance for developing a comprehensive cooperation programme in support to
RECs and African countries, involving international partners. The AUC can
extend this cooperation through initiating a continental program with EC and
European Member States.

Source: AUC, 2009, Report of the Follow-up Consultative Visit to the
Republic of Djibouti

Priority Area 9: Promoting regional and economic cooperation among
RECs


149.       Under this Priority Area, the stated objective is to strengthen the role of
RECs to promote more economic opportunities through harmonization of labour
laws and regulations, establishing mutual recognitions of training and skills
development systems, business and investment opportunities. The strategies
chosen towards achieving this objective include:
           Strengthening the role of RECs in promoting regional integration,
            mobilizing regional and foreign investments in the key sectors that
            generate employment;
           Developing an enabling environment at RECs;
           Integrating the employment dimension in regional initiatives; and
           Promoting regional projects in the field of power generation, particularly
            solar energy, as a means of creating jobs on a regional scale.


150.       The principal activity in this area was the convening of regional
employment policy framework workshops in 2006 in five RECs, as observed in
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an earlier section. The main outcome of those workshops were regional
employment policy frameworks which spoke to issues of mobilization of
investments, integrating of the employment dimension in regional initiatives and
of harmonizing labour codes and employment policies. The regional policy
frameworks took into account the specific conditions and comparative
advantages of each REC. They contain sets of strategies and recommended
actions that Member States are expected to implement. Some of the RECs have
made periodical reports on progress and challenges on implementation to the
LSAC, as we saw in earlier section.


151.   It stemmed from the Report on follow-up mission to the SADC, it appears
that regional labour market governance as regards with efficacy, efficiency and
transparency, are handicapped by the lack of harmonization of labour laws and
regulations, business laws, and the absence of strategy for mutual recognition of
training skills development systems inside the regions and between the regions.

152.   The overall objective of the Regional Employment Policy Frameworks is to
achieve development and economic growth, alleviate poverty, enhance the
standards and quality of life of people and support the socially disadvantaged
through promoting more and better employment. Employment and the promotion
of the enterprises that creates it is the most effective route to poverty eradication.

Box 19: Regional Employment Policy Frameworks: Building Blocks in
Employment Strategy


   Therefore:

        The goal is to promote full employment as a priority in all the regions‟
         economic and social policies and to enable all men and women who
         are available and willing to work to attain secure and sustainable
         livelihoods through full productive and freely chosen employment.
        There is need for secure improvement in the productivity of labour so
         that the regional workforce is afforded decent and well-remunerated
         employment consistent with productivity.
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    The fullest possible opportunity should be made available to each
     worker to qualify for and use of her/his skills and endowments in a job
     for which she/he is well suited, irrespective of race, sex, religion,
     political, physical disabilities and ethnic or social origin.
    The basic rights and interests of workers and employers should be
     safeguarded. To that end, there should be respect for national labour
     laws in the regions as well as the promotion of relevant International
     Labour Standards including co-Conventions.
    There should be secured maximum cooperation with the regional
     employers‟ federation as well as the employees associations and other
     interested bodies in decisions relating to employment promotion and
     economic development in the region.
    Economic growth and development should be stimulated so as to
     eradicate poverty and improve the living standards by minimizing the
     rate of unemployment, if not eradicating in all the regions.
    Finally, there should be promotion of the development of human
     resources that would continually meet the needs of the region.


Box 20: Regional Employment Policy Frameworks: Principles
                            Principles
   The regional integrating employment policy frameworks would be coordinated
    and implemented within the frameworks of the regional economic and social
    policy. These frameworks would be consistent with the overall development
    strategies of the regions as outlined in the RECs‟ plans such as those of
    ECOWAS and the SADC Regional Indicative Strategic Plan (RISD) amongst
    others.
   The regional employment frameworks in line with economic policies and reforms
    in member states would emphasize the provisions of a favourable environment
    for private investment and job creation. These relate to the stabilization of the
    economy by checking inflation, having an exchange rate determined by the
    market, encouraging savings and higher productivity. The promotion of the
    relevant institutions charged with job creation or promotion capacity should be
    continually supported to enable them to perform their roles effectively.
   The private sector should play a leading role in investing in productive
    enterprises that provide employment and generate incomes. The enterprise
    culture should be promoted because it induces self-reliance, risk taking and an
    environment that rewards initiative and effort. Individuals and groups should be
    encouraged to create their own jobs so that they move away from being job
    seekers to being job creators.
   Each country in a region should take necessary measures to assist workers,
    including young people and other new entrants to the labour force, in finding
    them suitable and productive employment and in adapting to the changing needs
    of the economy.
   Employment policy should be coordinated with, and carried out within the
    framework, overall economic and social policy, including economic planning or
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        programming in countries where these are used as instruments of policy.
       Each country should, in consultation with and having regard to the autonomy and
        responsibility in certain of the areas concerning employers and workers and their
        organizations, examine the relationship between measures of employment policy
        and other major decisions in the sphere of economic and social policy, with a
        view to making them mutually reinforcing.
       Each country should, to the fullest extent permitted by its available resources and
        level of economic development adopt measures taking account of international
        standards in the field of social security to help unemployed and underemployed
        persons during the period of unemployment to meet their basic needs and those
        of their dependents, and to adapt themselves to further useful employment.
       Regional employment policy should be an essential element of a policy for
        promoting values contained in international labour standards, economic growth
        and fair sharing of national incomes.
       Further principles presented in the regional framework papers relate to decent
        work, equal employment opportunity, participation and sustainability. In relation
        to decent work, this requires that labour is rewarded according to its productivity
        and is provided with a healthy and safe work environment. The principle affirms
        quality of work life and requires that fundamental rights of workers in the
        workplace are provided. The principle of equal opportunity is to ensure that
        labour at all levels has equal access to gainful employment. The principle of
        participation recognizes the need to synergize the efforts of all stakeholders in
        the labour market in relation to policy formation, implementation, monitoring and
        evaluation of strategies. The principle of sustainability relates to the effective use
        of labour market information to monitor, evaluate performance and
        implementation of employment policies and programmes.
Source: AU Commission, 2007


153.    As we observed in Part 3 above, the AU Commission conducted
consultative visits to the RECs during the period under study. The purpose was
to disseminate information on employment frameworks as well as exchange
information on the implementation of the Ouagadougou PoA. These consultative
meetings enhanced the working relationship between the Commission and the
RECs.


154.    In this respect, the AUC experienced some difficulties to establish
effective communication and information with the RECs, in spite of continuous
efforts. This affected the handling of the AUC roles and functions on follow-up
with the RECs as well as with the MS. It should be considered that as long as the
RECs and MS have not designated their focal point/person and established their
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follow-up institutions, this institutional gap will continue hindering the effective
and harmonized implementation of the Ouagadougou PoA. Therefore, the AUC
should work closely with RECs and MS to assist them in forming their follow-up
institutions through agreed roadmap and development of joint AUC-RECs
activities.

155.    Individual country reports have also highlighted certain aspects of regional
cooperation in which they have been involved. Tanzania confirms that
employment issues have been routinely included on agendas of SADC and EAC
meetings, and that there were initiatives to harmonize policies at EAC and
SADC. In the same context, the labour law reforms in Tanzania had taken into
consideration other laws at regional level. Zambia noted that its collaboration
with the RECs continued on employment and migration matters.

156.    On the whole, the RECs have made substantial achievements in trade,
infrastructure, and regional public good, particularly peace and security.
However, it has been observed that only a fifth of the RECs had achieved their
targets for communities, and most were lagging on almost all critical elements for
the success of an economic union, except the establishment of regional
development banks (ECA, 2006). According to this study, progress in
harmonizing tax policies, deregulating financial sectors, liberalizing the financial
account and other areas had been insufficient (Ibid.). Even in sectoral
programmes needed to deepen African integration, a third to a half of the RECs
acknowledge shortcomings in the effectiveness of their initiatives towards the
integration goals. The factors behind these shortfalls were identified as the
REC‟s internal deficiencies, little national support and poor coordination across
RECs.
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Box 21: RECs and Employment Policy Matters


SADC: SADC Secretariat organized tripartite constituents to participate in
Policy Development Dialogue on a Balanced Framework for Foreign Direct
Investment (FDI). Tripartite constituents undertook research to consolidate
their views on FDI policies in order to harmonize investment policy rules at
SADC level.
SADC: Employers group and workers‟ group agreed on a work plan for a
SADC/Corporate Social Responsibility project.
EAC: Established annual forums for EAC ministers responsible for labour
and employment in which social partners participate.
EAC: tripartite constituents made commitments to consolidate the
emerging common market with a regime of free movement of persons
based on international standards.

Source: ILO, 2008


Priority Area 10: Targeting and Empowering Vulnerable Groups


157.   The Ouagadougou Plan of Action defines its purpose under this area as
targeting and empowering vulnerable groups such as persons with disabilities,
aged persons, migrants, children, and people affected by various diseases
including HIV-AIDS, TB and malaria. Other vulnerable persons that are
mentioned internally displaced persons, refugees, migrants and the working
poor. The strategies chosen to address this matter are:


      Involving vulnerable groups in national policy making particularly those of
       employment creation and poverty alleviation;
      Identifying and integrating their needs in policies and programmes through
       income and food security, affordable social protection, fight against HIV-
       AIDS and equality of opportunity;
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      Mainstreaming targeted programmes and formulation of policies and
       income-generating programmes for vulnerable groups and
      Fighting against child labour and trafficking in humans.


158.   The focus on vulnerable groups is deliberate. The emphasis on targeting
is also deliberate. The vulnerable groups require special attention in order to
bring them back into the mainstream of the development process.


159.   Various Member States are implementing aspects of this thematic area
according to their capacity. In Tanzania, a number of steps had been taken to
increase state capacity to address the vulnerable. A National Social Protection
Framework had been developed, and a Tanzania Social Action Fund
established to target the vulnerable groups in rural areas. In addition, tailor-made
programmes had been undertaken by different stakeholders to impart skills to
increase the employability of the vulnerable. In Zimbabwe, vulnerable groups
were being assisted with education and health. There was also assistance for the
vulnerable sections from the National AIDS Council. For its part, Zambia had
increased its social welfare budget and put some pilot social transfer schemes in
place during the period under review. Those measures would benefit a significant
section of the vulnerable population.
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Box 22: TUNISIA and Health Coverage for Vulnerable Groups

The Tunisian government has put in place social initiatives guaranteeing rights of
vulnerable categories of populations to full health coverage targeting needy and
low-income households. In fact, in 2007, some 171 162 needy families benefitted
from a card of free health care and 548 000 low-income families were granted
with reduced health care tariffs cards. Furthermore, those young persons in
these categories interested in starting income generating projects in the
framework of the fiscal incentive code but confronted with self-funding
shortcomings, could have access to an interest free loan.

Source: Tunisian Information Note for the 2009 Ouaga+5 Comprehensive
Report, February 2009

160.   For its part, the AU Commission and specifically the Department of
Social Affairs has run several programmes for vulnerable groups during the
period under review. The groups towards which programmes have been directed
include the elderly and the aging, people living with disabilities as well as
children. The Department ran activities on follow up to the 2006 Abuja Summit
on HIV-AIDS, TB and Malaria. The activities in these various areas have included
capacity-building, advocacy, monitoring and evaluation of the variety of
programmes for the vulnerable groups.        The activities which have included
meetings of experts and Ministers have involved close collaboration between the
AU Commission and Member States.


161.   Finally, with the onset of a global food crisis in 2008 and the global
financial and economic crisis which deepened in 2009, the population of
vulnerable people was set to increase worldwide. An estimated 100 million
people would have difficulty to access food. African countries would be
significantly affected by the food price increases and efforts to provide relief and
long-term support to vulnerable groups would need to be stepped up. In
response to the food crisis, the AU issued the Sharm el Sheikh Declaration on
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High Food Prices at its summit in July 2008. The Summit identified some short-
term measures as:

      Providing immediate assistance to the vulnerable segments of populations
       through targeted food assistance and safety measures;
      Intensifying agricultural production and productivity through the use of
       targeted input subsidies, preferably fertilizer, improved seeds and
       enhanced access to water and small-scale irrigation for agricultural
       production and
      Improving post-harvest management to minimize storage losses and
       increase processing.

162.   Some member states have provided such food relief as have many
humanitarian organizations. The long-term solution would be to provide means of
production and incentives to the vulnerable groups themselves to enable them
step up production.


163.   Developments in the cooperative sector are encouraging in terms of the
range of production but also of employment opportunities created as a result. Up
to date statistics are difficult to obtain the African cooperative sector. However,
one study in the late 1990s estimated that the sector in 15 African countries
accounted for 158 000 direct jobs, about 6 000 indirect jobs and supported 467
000 self-employed people (Schwettman, 1997). A more recent survey, observed
that cooperatives employed 77 000 staff in Kenya, 28 000 in Ethiopia, 9 500 in
Egypt, 3 130 in Ghana, 2820 in Uganda and 800 in Rwanda (Develtere, et. al.,
2008). In Kenya and Ethiopia, employment in the sector is most likely much
higher than official figures suggest. For instance, over 21 000 people are
recruited for casual labour services every year by Ethiopian cooperatives while in
Rwanda about 4 400 seasonal tea workers are recruited (Ibid.).
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164.   According to some country studies, the number of people who are self-
employed through membership in coops were about 209 000 in Ghana, 150 000
in Rwanda and up 15 000 in Uganda. In sum, compared to the traditional private
and public sectors, the contribution of cooperatives to employment and income is
not negligible in many member states (Ibid.). Indeed, their contribution to an
increase in jobs is notable in countries such as Ghana, Ethiopia, Rwanda,
Egypt, Cape Verde and Nigeria (see Box 23).


Box 23: Some Facts and Figures about African Cooperatives
1. The Mwalimu Savings and Credit Coop Society of Kenya with 44 000 members
   has accumulated savings of up to USD 100 million.
2. The largest coop in Africa is believed to be Harambee Savings and Credit Coop
    Society in Kenya with 84 900 members.
3. Mooriben in Niger provides 25 000 households with affordable and nutritious
    food.
4. In Cape Verde, UNICOOP coop is the country‟s largest supplier of consumer
    goods.
5. In one 11-country sample, there are 150 000 listed collective socio-economic
   undertakings most of them as cooperatives.
Source: Delvetere, Pollet and Wanyama, 2008
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Box 24: Sample of Coops and their Membership in 11 African countries

Cape Verde                                              6 000
Egypt                                              10 150 000
Ethiopia                                           4 500 000
Ghana                                              2 500 000
Kenya                                              3 370 000
Nigeria                                             4 300 000
Niger                                                 332 000
South Africa                                           75 000
Rwanda                                              1 600 000
Senegal                                             3 000 000
Uganda                                                323 000
                                                  __________
Total                                              30 136 000
Source: Develtere, Pollet and Wanyama, 2008


165.    The    CoopAFRICA       ILO    Project    demonstrates      concretely    how
Cooperatives can be used as means to create productive jobs, alleviate poverty
and mitigate the impacts of the Global economic and financial crisis on the living
conditions of the vulnerable groups.



Box 25: CoopAFRICA ILO Project

Cooperatives as means to create productive jobs, alleviate poverty and mitigate the
impacts of the Global economic and financial crisis on the living conditions of the
vulnerable groups.

The Cooperative Facility for Africa - CoopAFRICA - is a technical cooperation
programme of the ILO, principally financed by DFID for a three-year period (2007-2010).
CoopAFRICA works in partnership with the International Co-operative Alliance (ICA), the
UK Co-operative College, the Committee for the Promotion and Advancement of
Cooperatives (COPAC), the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC-Africa), the
International Organization of Employers (IOE) and the African Union Commission. The
objective of CoopAFRICA is to advance the decent work agenda and progress the
MDGs through the cooperative approach. CoopAFRICA is a major contribution to the
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effective implementation of the Ouagadougou 2004 Plan of Action on Employment
Promotion and Poverty Alleviation, in particular to the Priority Area 10 with the
recoemmendation to “establish economically viable cooperative enterprises in the
framework of the Decade of Cooperatives adopted by the Plan of Action of the Pan
African Conference on Cooperatives (Yaounde, 2000).”

As a regional programme Coop AFRICA focuses on nine countries Sub-Sahara Africa,
including Botswana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Rwanda, Swaziland, Tanzania,
Zanzibar, Uganda and Zambia. The Program assists people to improve their living and
working conditions through cooperatives.Areas of intervention include: (i) establishing an
enabling legal and policy environment, (ii) promoting effective horizontal and vertical
structures and (iii) improving services for cooperatives through supporting Centres of
Competences.

Coop AFRICA is mainstreaming Tripartism, Social Dialogue and Gender in its
interventions. It develops also partnership to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS in the
world of work though cooperatives. Through its Challenge Fund, Coop AFRICA allocates
grants via a competitive process, in areas concerned with cooperative development for
1) services, 2) innovation and 3) training. The Challenge Fund has approved about 33
Projects in 2008 and 2009 in the beneficiary countries.
Coop AFRICA is supporting institutional development by facilitating Knowledge Sharing,
exchange of experience and expertise among African cooperative leaders, operating
through different means, such as production of publications and advocacy materials,
facilitation of workshops, seminars and study tours and through use of email lists and
knowledge sharing facilities. The support extends also to identification, selection and
upgrading the quality service standards of Centres of Competence for cooperatives.
The Global Financial Crisis shows clear evidence that the cooperative model
(particularly cooperative banks) is more resilient in times of crisis and mitigates the
impact of crisis for members and their communities.

Source: Report on Progress in Five Key Policy Areas, of the DIFD-ILO
Partnership Framework Agreement (PFA) 2006-2009

Priority Area 11: Mobilization of Resources


166.   This priority has a straightforward but daunting objective namely the
mobilization of sustainable resources for implementation, follow-up, monitoring
and evaluation of the Ouagadougou Plan of Action. The mobilization of resources
would be at national, regional and international levels. The strategies and
recommended actions were:
      Identifying priority programmes on employment and poverty alleviation for
       possible funding;
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      Developing projects, plans and programmes for their implementation in
       consultation with funding partners;
      Formulating the required level of resources required;
      Involving the UN Agencies, financial and technical cooperating partners,
       the private sector and the international community in resource mobilization
      Encouraging the implementation of the G8 Action Plan for Africa.


167.   Not many country reports speak to activities recommended under this
Priority Area. While there may have been resource mobilization to support the
Ouagadougou PoA at national level, it is less clear whether there has been much
activity at other levels with perhaps one or two exceptions. One exception is ILO
which has provided technical support, through seconding a consultant, to the AU
Commission in the period 2007-2009, and another is EU support to the AUC
Employment programme.


168.   Several Member States reported on their local raising of funds for
programmes designated under various Priority Areas. Zambia reported that it had
budgeted 150 billion kwacha for the Five Year Development Plan in 2006-2010.
But it should be pointed that these budgetary resources were for the
Development Plan, and not specifically directed at Priority Area Programmes.
Lesotho highlighted several donor-funded projects that fell under several Priority
Areas. Some USD 362 million was to be provided through the Millennium
Challenge Corporation, some USD 164 million was to be invested in water
development, USD 122 million into a Health programme, and some USD 36
million into private sector development.


169.   Tanzania set up national committees to guide development partners in
financing poverty and employment generation initiatives. This was in response to
uncoordinated financing mechanism by the developed country partners in the
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country. The challenges were delays in financing of projects due to failure to
meet conditional ties tied to financing.


170.   On the whole, however, there has been little resource mobilization for the
Ouagadougou PoA during the period under review. The implementation of the
various Priority Areas has largely fallen on national governments, RECs and a
few international agencies. In recognition of the paucity of funding raised, the
Department of Social Affairs developed a Concept Note on „Resource
Mobilization for the Implementation, Follow up and Evaluation of the
Ouagadougou PoA. The Note guided the development of a funding proposal to
be used by the AU Commission, RECs and Member States in the mobilization of
resources.


171.   The Ouagadougou PoA has been supported by the ILO and ECA as well
as by Norway and Sweden during the first few years of its implementation.
Africa's needs for job creation are very important, in consideration of the realistic
ambitions of the PoA. Hence, the interest of mobilizing internal and external
resources that could contribute to its implementation in order to achieve its
objectives on promoting employment for reducing poverty.



172.   To this end, the African Union Commission, in accordance with relevant
provisions of the Follow-up Mechanism and Action Plan of the Ouagadougou
PoA, will develop in 2009 a Strategic Document for Resource Mobilization,
though consultant service. The Document will be used to assist MS and RECs in
improving their resource mobilization policies, strategies and procedures. It will
also facilitate the implement the DSA.
The AU Strategic Plan 2009-2012 in relation to Employment Promotion and
Poverty Alleviation.
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Box 26: Resource Mobilization for the Implementation of Ouagadougou
PoA

A study would be undertaken to develop a Strategic Document for Resources
Mobilization. The objective of the study will be to:

- Provide the African Union Commission with a technical and financial cooperation
framework that enables it to mobilize the required resources and play its crucial role on
coordination, harmonization and monitoring of the implementation of the Action Plan of
Ouagadougou, in a close relationship with the Regional Economic Communities; the
framework will address internal sources and external partners;

- Provide the African Union Commission with means to support Member States and
RECs in implementing the DSA Strategic Plan 2009-2012 as well the AU Strategic Plan
2009-2012, as they relate to the Ouagadougou 2004 Declaration and Plan of Action on
Employment Promotion and Poverty Alleviation through participation in the financing of
national strategies, programs and projects on employment promotion;

The results expected from the study will be:

- Guidance on financial strategies for the implementation of outcomes of the

Ouagadougou Summit for employment promotion and poverty reduction;

- Availability and deployment of a Strategic Document on Resources Mobilization for the
implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the Ouagadougou Action Plan;


- Trust and commitment of development partners in the DSA Strategic Plan 2009-2012
as well the AU Strategic Plan 2009-2012, as they relate to the Ouagadougou 2004
Declaration and Plan of Action on Employment Promotion and Poverty Alleviation;


- Greater visibility of the African Union among African populations with its commitment to
solving the challenges of unemployment, underemployment and poverty;

- Establishing results based approach in employment policy funding for easier
accountability;

- Effective implementation of the DSA Strategic Plan 2009-2012 as well the AU Strategic
Plan 2009-2012, as they relate to the Ouagadougou 2004 Declaration and Plan of Action
on Employment Promotion and Poverty Alleviation (DSA, 2009).



173.   The broad range of activities that Member States and Developed Partners
are engaged in to implement the Ouagadougou PoA is extensive, as this part of
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the Report has illustrated. That there is a great deal that is being undertaken
under each of the 11 Priority Areas is quite. However, the activities outlined here
are far from exhaustive. This is why it would be urged that Member States, Social
Partners and Development Partners provide Biennial Reports and updates on
their activities to enable the AU Commission to compile even more
comprehensive reports. The AU Commission would particularly wish to identify
„best practices‟ in employment creation and promotion for wider dissemination.
There is enormous in Member States in learning form each others in creating
productive and decent employment to alleviate poverty.


                                       PART 5
   THE OUAGADOUGOU IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS IN RETROSPECT


Follow up Mechanism
174.   The implementation of the Ouagadougou PoA is largely the responsibility
of national governments of Member States. They are expected, indeed required,
to work closely with social partners and civil society organizations in the
implementation    process.   As   we    have    seen   from   the   information   on
implementation of the Priority Areas, some Member States have been more
active than others. Similarly, other Member States have cooperated more
effectively with social partners than others. In this section, we briefly review the
Follow up Mechanism; describe the strengths and weaknesses in the
implementation and Reporting process. For instance, there has been no use of
Indicators and setting of Targets to guide and assess the implementation
process. We then identify some emerging lessons from the implementation of the
Follow up Mechanism, and how the process could be strengthened in the future.


175.   The Ouagadougou PoA document pointed that there was an urgent need
for an integrated, interrelated and coherent implementation and follow up at the
national, regional and continental level. At the national level, a major instrument
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of implementation would be a National Follow up institution that would, among
other things, develop a National Plan of Action (NPA) with clear objectives,
milestones, roles and responsibilities of all stakeholders and development
partners. The NPA would be developed by a national Follow up institution
consisting of government and social partners.


176.   As we saw in Part 2 above, other tasks of the National Follow up
institution were to review, revise and propose national employment and poverty
alleviation policies and programmes in line with the decisions of the 2004
Ouagadougou Summit. In addition, the National Follow up institution was
expected to provide advocacy in favour of the unemployed and working poor as
well as disseminate and popularize the Ouagadougou PoA and Declaration. In
sum, the National Follow up institution was required to play a pro-active role in
employment policy matters. Unfortunately, this aspect of the PoA that
recommended the setting up of a National Follow up institution that drew
membership from beyond government ministries and departments was not
followed up in most MS. The same was the case with a Regional Follow up
institution. Most RECs did not set up such an institution.


177.   Most MS established inter-ministerial committees and tasked them with
the implementation of the PoA. While some MS have confined the membership
of such committees to government ministries and departments, others have
broadened the participation to include social partners and civil society
organizations. However, as we saw from implementation activities, the latter
cases are few. This has had an impact on the quality of National Level dialogue
on employment and the Ouagadougou Process as a whole. It does not appear
that the Country Reports from most MS were subject to discussion and
endorsement by social partners and other stakeholders as is recommended in
the PoA.
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Indicators
178.   Although the PoA advises MS to define indicators to guide them on
measuring progress (or lack of it) in implementation of the various Priority Areas,
few MS have established such indicators. The reports from MS also do not give
an indication whether there exist National Plans of Action as envisaged under the
Ouagadougou PoA. It is also not clear from reports to what extent the
Ouagadougou Declaration and PoA were disseminated and popularized at
national level during the period under review.


Targets
179.   The Ouagadougou PoA does not set targets for the achievement of the 11
Priority Areas that it defines. Without targets, it is difficult to measure
achievements and failure. Discretion left to national level authorities to develop
detailed Plans of Action with clear objectives, indicators, milestones, roles and
responsibilities of stakeholders has been open-ended in our view. The absence
of targets, in a context in which they have become widely used, as in the MDGs,
makes it difficult to judge and evaluate the state of progress in the
implementation of the Ouagadougou PoA. The listing of programmes and
activities of MS and RECs gives a picture of what is transpiring but it is not
adequate to reach an analytical conclusion on whether MS X or Y is making
progress towards the objectives outlined in the PoA.


Reporting
180.   There is a provision in the PoA that MS and RECs should report on their
implementation process every two years. As the LSAC has observed at its
meetings of 2006 and 2008, when those reports were due, less than half of MS
had sent in reports. Despite reminders, some MS and RECs have not responded
positively on this matter. One deduction that could be made is that MS attach
little importance to the Ouagadougou process including reporting. Another is that
the responsible national ministry or authority in charge of reporting the
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Ouagadougou PoA have not been coordinated enough to initiate and accomplish
the task.


181.   Finally, there could be a deficit in political will at various levels to actively
pursue the implementation of the Ouagadougou PoA. This was anticipated in the
PoA when it pointed out that a strong political commitment is needed for the
effective implementation of these Summit outcomes. It had gone further to
observe     that   previous   Continental   initiatives   had   not   been   effectively
implemented, amongst others, because of inadequate coordination, lack of
resources and capacity, awareness of the existence of such initiatives and lack of
an effective Follow up mechanism. Whatever the actual reason, there needs to
be a frank exchange of views and experiences when Member States, RECs and
development partners next meet to consider this Report. Progress will be difficult
to make without some introspection and reflection on past performance.


Conclusion
182.   This Report has been compiled in accordance with the Ouagadougou
Declaration and PoA which stipulates that a comprehensive report be presented
after 5 years of implementation. It is part of the Follow up Mechanism and
reporting process that complements the biennial reports by Member States,
RECs and development partners. The Report has thus built upon the Biennial
Reports of 2006 and 2008 and other relevant material particularly - and
understandably- from the ILO. The PoA states that „‟the implementation process
should be reviewed so as to identify progress made as well as obstacles
hindering the full and effective implementation‟‟. This Report has highlighted the
opportunities created by the adoption of the PoA, the progress made and the
constraints experienced. It has sought to be frank about the challenges that
Africa experiences in meeting the ambitious objectives that it set for itself in the
Declaration and PoA.
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183.   Placing employment at the core of economic and social policies is a major
political commitment. Achieving the array of objectives set out in the 11 Priority
Areas requires maximum mobilization of resources. Not only are political
commitment and resource mobilization required but social dialogue with
employer and labour organizations as well as cooperation with development
partners are necessary.


Part 1 spelt out the overall purpose of compilation of this Comprehensive Report.
184.   It is a wide-ranging stock-taking of what Africa has accomplished in
employment creation between 2004 and 2009. The first part of the Report
therefore outlines the principal elements contained in the PoA. It is observed that
the 11 Priority Areas lie at the heart of the PoA. The degree to which the
objectives, strategies and recommended actions in those Priority Areas are being
achieved shows whether progress is being made in the implementation process.
Part 1 of the Report concludes with an outline of the Follow up Mechanism and
the Reporting process. As the Report itself substantiated, there were many
players in the implementation, follow up and reporting processes. They included
Member states, RECs, international partners, the LSAC and the AUC itself.


Part 2 set out the broad context in which the PoA was implemented between
2004 and 2009.
185.   The context had macroeconomic, international, social and labour
dimensions which were spelt out at some length. The period form 2004 and 2007
is described as one of rapid economic growth (of above 5 per cent) with positive
impact on employment creation in most Member States.           However, this was
undermined by a global financial and economic crisis which was precipitated by a
housing and banking crisis in Western countries in the latter part of 2008. This
led to a recession in 2009. The negative spill-over effects of this recession are
still being experienced by most African countries. Employment creation has been
adversely affected. Several scenarios on global unemployment patterns are
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presented largely drawing on ILO projections. The Ouagadougou Summit of
2004 did not foresee this crisis of 2008-09, and there were no contingency plans
for it. Member States need to adjust to the new situation and assess how their
plans for employment creation will be affected.


186.   The rest of the Report is then devoted to the follow up activities
undertaken to fulfill commitments made under each of the 11 Priority Areas. Part
3 assessed the institutional developments that were generated for effective follow
up activities. The AUC and LSAC were themselves instrumental in setting up the
necessary consultative processes at regional level resulting in regional
employment policy workshops. Particular attention was paid to contributions from
sister AUC departments such as Economic Affairs and Rural Economy and
Agriculture. The specific contributions of RECs and of international partners in
employment creation at regional level are elaborated upon in Part 4 of the
Report. The prominent contribution of the ILO is highlighted in acknowledgement
of its contribution to technical capacity building in the AUC as well as its large
role in support of Decent Work country programmes (DWCPs).


187.   The most detailed part of the Report concerns the assessment of the
implementation of the 11 Priority Areas in Part 5. Drawing extensively on Country
Reports of Member States and on other sources, principally again the ILO, this
part of the Report shows that there have been many activities and initiatives
undertaken in pursuit of the objectives of the PoA. There has been considerable
progress and coordination in some areas. In others, progress has been slow or
elusive. The areas where considerable progress can be discerned include :


      formulation of national employment strategies (Priority 1),
      establishment and improvement of social protection schemes (Priority 4),
      youth and women employment (Priority 5), and
      employment intensive investment projects (Priority 7)
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188.   Areas where progress still needs to be made include employment-related
investment in the agricultural sector (Priority 2), building and strengthening the
framework for integration and harmonization (Priority Area 3) as well as resource
mobilization (Priority Area 11).


189.   Thus far the overall outcome of the implementation of the Ouagadougou is
a mixed one. There have been progress and limitations. While political
commitment to employment promotion for poverty reduction has been
demonstrated in some Member States, it has been lacking in others. This partly
accounts for the erratic response from some of them when the AUC requested
them to fill questionnaires in 2006 and 2008.


190.   There are several deficits in the implementation process that should be
noted and addressed in future. First, few Member States set up inclusive
National    Follow     up    institutions   that   included   both    government
ministries/departments and representative bodies of social partners. The
participation of social partners in the process has been quite limited in most
countries. As Part 6 of the Report indicates, other deficits include the absence of
indicators and targets against which to evaluate the implementation process at
national and regional levels. These will need to be defined and integrated into the
PoA in the next phase of implementation.


191.   Finally, we need to ascertain whether there are any useful emerging
lessons from the implementation of the past 5 years. The implementation of AU
Summit Declarations and Plan of Actions is viewed as a largely voluntary
exercise on the part of Member States and RECs. But they freely make the
commitments to undertake implementation. As in such matters in other sectors in
which they make commitments, it has been proposed that such commitments
should be formally adopted and institutionalized in the respective countries. Often
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the commitments remain as „declarations without being translated into laws
domesticated into in the national legal systems in the respective countries (ECA
and AU, 2009). Such formalization would provide a better guarantee that, with
changes in government and transfer of power and duties, adherence to
commitments would continue. It has therefore been recommended that countries
should ratify the commitments by passing them through Parliament and including
them in National Development Plans (Ibid.).


192.   Another lesson relates to the need for regular and innovative
communication between AUC, Member States, RECs and development partners
during the period of implementation. Communication should not be confined to
annual meetings of the LSAC or presentation of biennial reports every two years.
There should be a medium of communication that gives a regular update of
developments in the 11 Priority Areas of the Employment Promotion agenda. A
dedicated website and newsletter could be an effective source and channel of
information about developments in the employment sector. This channel should
be utilized to share information between Member States and the AUC, RECs and
development partners. Good practices in employment promotion would one of
the focal areas of interest and dissemination.
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REFERENCES


AU Commission, (2006) Biennale Report to the 4th Session of the LSAC
AU Commission, (2008) Biennale Report to 6th Session of the LSAC
AU Commission, (2006) Guidelines for Member States, RECs and International
                          Organizations
AU Commission (2008)       Improving the Informal Economy: a Key to Poverty
                           Alleviation,    AU Commission (2008b)
AU Commission              Social Policy Framework
AU Commission (2009)       Programme on Upgrading the Informal Economy
AU Commission (2009b)      „The Impact of the Global Financial and Economic
                           Crisis on Employment in Africa‟ Background Paper to
                           the 7th LSAC,
AU and ILO (2006)          Extraordinary Summit of the Heads of State and
                           Government on Employment and Poverty Alleviation
AU Commission and HAI (2008) Investing in Social Protection in Africa London
African Business, „African Progress Report‟       July 2008
African Business May 2009
African Development Bank (2007)            Africa Development Report Oxford
CAADP (2008) „The 10 Percent that could change Africa, Newsletter
Commission for Africa (Blair) (2005)      Our Common Future    London
Commission for Africa (Rasmussen) (2009) Realizing the Potential of Africa’s
Youth   Copenhagen
P. Develtere, I. Pollet and F. Wanyama (eds.) (2008) Cooperating out of Poverty
Geneva: Coop Africa, ILO and WBI
Department of Social Affairs (DSA) (2009) AU.COMMIT Campaign on
Combating Human Trafficking, 2009-2012, Addis Ababa
ECA (2005) Economic Report on Africa 2005: Meeting the Challenges of
Unemployment and Poverty in Africa
ECA (2006)     Assessing Regional Integration in Africa 11 : Rationalizing RECs
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                                                                            Page 99

ECA and AU (2009a) Economic Report on Africa 2009
ECA and AU (2009b) Overview of Economic and Social Conditions in Africa
in 2008
Economist (2009)      „Land Deals in Africa and Africa‟ May 21st   London
Ethiopia Government (2008)
ILO (2003) Global Employment Trends Geneva: ILO
ILO (2004) A Fair Globalization Geneva: ILO
ILO (2007) ILO Activities in Africa 2004-2006 Geneva: ILO
ILO (2007) Global Employment Trends for Women Geneva: ILO
ILO (2008ª) Global Employment Trends Geneva: ILO
ILO (2008b) „Rising food prices and their implications for Employment,
Decent Work and Poverty Reduction, a technical note‟ Geneva: ILO (2008c)
ILO Report of the DG (2008) ILO Programme Implementation 2006-07
Geneva
ILO (2009a) Global Employment Trends, January 2009Geneva
ILO (2009b) Global Employment Trends, Update, May 2009 Geneva
International Institute of Labour Studies (IILS) (2009)The Financial and
Economic Crisis: a Decent Work response Geneva
IMF (2009) Regional Economic Outlook: Sub-Saharan Africa , April 2009
Washington
Mail and Guardian (2009) „Malawi‟s Fertile Plan‟ 19 June 2009
R. Meena (2008)     A Study on the Informal Economy in Africa
Paper prepared for the African Union Commission, February 2008
R. Pollin et. al. (2007) An Employment-Targeted Economic Programme for
Kenya Brasilia; IPC
SADC (2008)     Report to the AU Labour and Social Affairs Commission 2008
J. Schwettman (1997) Cooperatives and Employment in Africa Geneva: ILO
J. von Braun and R. Meinzen-Dick (2009) „‟Land Grabbing‟‟ by Foreign Investors
in Developing Countries; Risks and Opportunities, IFRI Policy Brief 13, April 2009
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                                                                         Page 100

UNCTAD (2008) The Least Developed Countries Report, 2008 Geneva: UNTAD
UNDESA (2006)         National Action Plans on Youth Employment New York
UNECA (2007) Fifth Meeting of the Africa Committee on Sustainable
Development, Regional Implementation Meeting Addis Ababa
World Bank (2007) Africa Development Indicators Washington
E. Zepede (2007) Addressing the Employment-Poverty Nexus in Kenya
Brasilia: IPC
SADC (2008)       Report to the AU Labour and Social Affairs Commission 2008
J. Schwettman (1997) Cooperatives and Employment in Africa Geneva: ILO
J. von Braun and R. Meinzen-Dick (2009) „‟Land Grabbing‟‟ by Foreign Investors
in Developing Countries; Risks and Opportunities, IFRI Policy Brief 13, April 2009
UNCTAD (2008) The Least Developed Countries Report, 2008 Geneva:
UN DESA (2006)        National Action Plans on Youth Employment New York
UNECA           (2007) Fifth Meeting of the Africa Committee on Sustainable
Development, Regional Implementation Meeting Addis Ababa
World Bank (2007)      Africa Development Indicators Washington
E. Zepede (2007) Addressing the Employment-Poverty Nexus in Kenya
Brasilia: IPC
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Contents

Boxes and Tables

Part 1
  Background ………………………………………………………………… 2
  Principal Elements in the Plan of Action..……………………………… 3
  Follow up Mechanism and Reporting Process ………………………. 5

                                Part 1
  The Broad Context of the Report ……………………………………….. 7
        - Macroeconomic Context ……………………………………… 7
        - The International Context …………………………………….. 10
        - The Labour and Social Context……………………………….14

                              Part 2

  Institutional Developments and Follow up ……………………………..16
         - Consultative Meeting…………………………………..………..16
         - Guidelines and Reporting Format ……………………………17
         - Regional Follow up Meetings in 2006 ………………..………18
         Other Activities undertaken by the AU Commission
         - Department of Social Affairs ………………………………….
         - Informal Economy Study……………………………….……….20
         - Migration ………………………………………………………….21
         - Towards a Continent wide Regional
             Employment Network ………………………………………….23
         Activities by other departments in AUC
         - Department of Economic Affairs……………………………....24
         - Department of Rural Economy and Agriculture…………….25
         - Department of Education, Science and Technology……….26
         - Department of Peace and Security…………………………....27

                              Part 3

   Activities by Regional Economic Communities (RECs) ……………29
            -ECCAS ……………………………………………………………. 29
            -ECOWAS…………………………………………………………...29
            -EAC…………………………………………………………………30
            -IGAD………………………………………………………………...30
            -SADC……………………………………………………………….32
. Role and Activities of International Partners …………………………….33
       - ECA……………………………………………………………………… 33
       - ILO……………………………………………………………………......33
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                                  Part 4

Activities by Member States and Stakeholders in the 11 Priority Areas

   Priority Area 1: Ensuring political leadership and commitment……36

   Priority Area 2: Promotion of the Agricultural
                    Sector and Rural Sector……………………………….. 41

   Priority Area 3: Framework for Integration
                    and harmonization……………………………………… 44

   Priority Area 4: Establishing and strengthening
                    Social protection schemes…………………………….48

   Priority Area 5: Empowerment of Women by
                    Integrating them in Labour markets………………….55

   Priority Area 6: Human and Institutional Capacity
                    Building for employment creation……………………60

   Priority Area 7: Key sectors with high employment
                    Potential………………………………………………….. 66

   Priority Area 8: Building international cooperation and
                    fair and equitable globalization………………………. 72

   Priority Area 9: Promotion of regional and economic
                    Cooperation among RECs……………………………. 75

   Priority Area 10: Targeting and empowering vulnerable groups…... 80

   Priority Area 11: Mobilization of resources at national
                     and international levels……………………………… 86

                                  Part 5

The Ouagadougou Process in Retrospect………………………………….90

       - Indicators…………………………………………………………….... 92
       - Targets …………………………………………………………………92
       - Reporting……………………………………………………………… 92
       - Role of RECs and International Partners………………………....
       - National Level Dialogue and the Ouagadougou Process ……..

Conclusion and Recommendations………………………………………….93
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                         Acronyms

ADLI        Agriculture-led Industrialization
AfDB        African Development Bank
APERP       Employment Promotion and Poverty Reduction Project
AU          African Union
AUC         African Union Commission
AU.COMMIT   African Union Commission Initiatives against Trafficking
CAADP       Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development
            Programme
CAR         Central African Republic
CSOs        Civil Society Organizations

DRC         Democratic Republic of the Congo
DSA         Department of Social Affairs
DWCPs       Decent Work country programmes

EAC         East African Community
ECA         Economic Commission for Africa
ECCAS       Economic Community of Central African States
ECOWAS      Economic Community of West African States
EPAs        Economic Partnership Agreements
EIIPs       Employment Intensive Investment Programmes
EPZs        Export Processing Zones

FAO         Food and Agricultural Organization
FAWE
FDI         Foreign Direct Investment

GTZ         German Technical Cooperation
HAI         Help Age International

ICT         Information Communication Technology
IGAD        Inter-Governmental Authority on Development
IILS        International Institute of Labour Studies
ILO         International Labour Office
IMF         International Monetary Fund
IOM         International Organization for Migration

KIML        Key Indicators of the Labour Market

LEEP        Liberia Emergency Employment Programme
LASC        Labour and Social Affairs Commission
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                                                           Page 104

LIML     Labour Market Indicators‟ Library
MDGs     Millennium Development Goals
MoU      Memorandum of Understanding
MS       Member State
MSE      Micro and Small Enterprises

NES      National Employment Strategy
NGOs     Non-Governmental Organizations
NEPAD    New Partnership for African Development
NEP      National Employment Policy
NPA      National Plan of Action

ODA      Official Development Assistance

PASDEP   Plan to Accelerate Sustained Development to End Poverty
PoA      Plan of Action
PRS      Poverty Reduction Strategy
PRSPs    Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers

RECs     Regional Economic Communities
REN      Regional Employment Network

SADC     Southern African Development Cooperation
SIYB     Start Your Business
SMEs     Small and Medium Enterprises

TB       Tuberculosis
TVET     Technical, Vocational, Educational and Training

UNCTAD   United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNECA    United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
UNDESA   United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
USD      United States Dollar
UNDP     United Nations Development Programme
UNICEF   United Nations Children and Educational Fund
USAID    United States Agency for International Development

WEDGE    Women Entrepreneurship and Gender Equality
WGDD     Women and Gender Development Directorate
YEN      Youth Employment Network
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Box 1     Eleven Priority Areas of the Ouagadougou Plan of Action
Box 2     Guidelines on Follow up Activities
Box 3     High Political Leadership in Employment Policy
Box 4     Generating Productive Employment in Liberia
Box 5     Malawi Agricultural Success Story


Box 6     AU Social Policy Framework
Box 7     Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme
Box 8     Conclusions of the Dakar Conference on Social Protection
Box 9     Fonds National de l‟Entrepreneuriar Feminins, Senegal
Box 10    Youth Employment Strategies in Senegal and Mali
Box 11    Quest for Labour Market Information
Box 12    Benin National Employment and Training Observatory
Box 13    NAETPI Agency in Djibouti
Box 14    Benin Employment Potential Mapping
Box 15    Employment Generation: the Cameroonian National
          Employment Fund
Box 16    The Self-Employment Programme in Tunisia
Box 17    Member States and Employment Intensive Investment
          Programmes
Box 18    Examples of Coordinating Efforts between Member States
Box 19    Regional Employment Policy Frameworks
Box 20    Regional Employment Policy Frameworks: Principles
Box 21    RECs and Employment Policy Matters
Box 22    Tunisia and Health Coverage of Vulnerable Groups
Box 23    Some Facts and Figures about African Cooperatives


Box 24    Sample of Coops and their Membership in 11 Countries

Box 25    Coop AFRICA ILO
Box 26    Resource Mobilization for Implementation of the
          Ouagadougou PoA



Table 1   Level of Agricultural Investment, 2007
.

				
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