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					       Feedback to the EFA MDA
           BANGLADESH




South Asia EFA MDA Capacity Building Workshop, 27 Nov – 01 Dec 2006
1. Introduction

A. Country Background
      Historical
            In 1971 got independence
      Socio-cultural
             Densely populated with 138 millions living in 1.47
             millions sq.km
             Homogeneous population with small tribal groups

      Economic
             Market based transitional economy.
             Growing formal sectors
B. Level of Development

     Human Development Index (ranked 138)
     Millennium Development Goal
          Running with the targets of goal 2 & 3
          Running closely to attain other goals
      Social Indicators
           Life expectancy increased up to 63 years
           IMR & MMR reduced substantially
           Labor market includes more female workforce
           Extended Micro credit and poverty alleviation program
C. Role of education in development

     Education is vital for
           Achieving the targets of MDGs
           Developing productive workforce
           Empowering the poor and the disadvantaged
           Integrating with global market and development

     Education is important to implement development
     strategies for
           Increased social participation
           Balanced development
           Social security and justice
D. Data collection methodology and Management

     Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics
     MIS of Different Line Ministries
     Research Organizations
      NGOs
      Development Partners
      Community Based Organization

       Data collection in Education Sector : main players
            Compulsory Primary Education Unit (CPE)
            Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and
            Statistics (BANBEIS)
            Educational Census of Directorate of Primary
            Education
            University Grants Commission
2. National Education System
  i. Historical Background : major milestones
       Modern education system begun in British Period with the creation
       of Public Instruction Department in 1855
       In 1919 Primary Education made compulsory in municipal areas
       In 1930 District School Boards are setup
       In 1957 Model Primary Schools were introduced
       Establishing a universal system of education and extending free
       and compulsory education to all children and removing illiteracy
       became the Constitutional obligation in 1972
       In 1973 all the primary schools were brought under state
       ownership
       In 1981 creation of separate directorate for primary education
       In 1990 compulsory primary education act was introduced
       In 1992 a separate ministry was established to manage primary
       education sub sector
ii. Expansion of government financed education
  Increasing government budget in education.
  Number of schools doubled from 1971 to 2005
  Government support to private school initiative (Infrastructure,
  salary support)
  Free textbook for all primary level student.
  Demand side financing for disadvantaged group and girls

iii. Development since Jomtien
  Establishment of Compulsory Primary Education in 1991
  Formulation of “National Plan of Action – 1” for EFA
  Systematic approach to address non-formal education
  Creation of separate ministry to focus on primary education
iv. Unreached Groups
  Children with special needs (physically challenged)
  Tribal children
  Residence of remote areas
  Street children
  Working children
  Children of the very poor parents
B. Educational Policy, Laws, and Legislation
 National Plan of Action for EFA – 1 has been implemented and NPA-2 has
 been developed

Primary Education in Bangladesh is Free and Compulsory

Primary Education is the constitutional obligation of the Government

 In 1990 compulsory primary education act was introduced
 Bangladesh is signatory to Child Right Convention
C. Educational Structure

      Formal               Non-formal

      Pre-primary           Basic
                            Education
     Primary
     (grade I-V)
                            Adult Literacy
      Secondary             (11-45 years)c
      (grade VI-X)


     Higher                 Post Literacy
     Secondary              and continuing
     (XI-XII)               education

     Tertiary
Responsible Agencies
 Pre-primary – Ministry of Primary and Mass Education, Ministry of Women
 and Children Affairs, Ministry of Hill Tracts Affairs, Ministry of Religious
 Affairs, NGOs and Private Sector

 Primary – Government, NGOs, Private Providers

 Secondary – Government, Private Providers

  Higher Secondary – Government, Private Providers

  Tertiary – Government, Private Providers

 Non-formal – Government, NGOs, Private
D. Educational Financing
Education is mainly funded by the Government with support from
Development Partners and Private sectors.
2.2% of GDP is allocated for primary education

More than 15% of total Annual Budget is allocated for education

Government budget in education vis-a-vis Private sectors

More than …
Major heads of govt. expenditure
   1.   Books and reading materials
   2.   Teacher salary
   3.   Infrastructure
   4.   Stipends, teachers training and development

40% of total children (very poor) are getting stipend
Innovation Grants Scheme
 School Feeding program
E. Assessment of EFA Coordination
Structure
    National Assessment Group headed by secretary, MOPME
    representation from relevant ministries, departments, NGOs,
    development partners

     Technical Assessment Group headed by National coordinator, and
     members from different departments, UNESCO and experts
 National Action plan drafted with cost estimation for exclusively EFA

SWAP for primary education and NFE program with action plan and budget
address 6 EFA goals
Funding of EFA-
     Budget for achieving EFA goals are distributed in
      Formal Primary- Govt. (63.4%) and DPs (36.6%)
      Non-formal -

Monitoring of EFA program
        •Structured monitoring mechanism for formal and non-formal
        education from community to district level
        •Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Division to analyze and
        develop policy advices
        •The M & E Division is supported by EMIS
        •Using PSQL formats
3. Analysis the EFA goals
  i. Goal 1: ECCE
    Early Childhood Education is targeted to 3-5 years children
   ECCE has been incorporated in National Poverty Reduction
   Strategy and draft NPA-II.
    Joint responsibility of MOPME, MOWCA, MOHFW,
   MORA & MOHTA
    MOPME is responsible for Pre-primary education for 5+
   age group
   Ministry of Women and Children Affairs has the
  coordinating role in ECCD

  Different Ministry has separate budget allocation
   Goal 1: ECCE – cont…
 A committee is working to develop policy guidelines
   •For standardization of pre-primary education
   •For better coordination among the service provider to avoid
   duplication and give a systematic approach
   •To prepare a physical mapping
 Budget will be determined accordingly
Pre-primary Education has been provided to 1.1 million
children in the Primary Schools .
 Early Childhood Education program for Tribal group under
Ministry of Hill Tracts Affairs
ECCE Challenges
 Absence on national policy on ECCED

 Resource constraint (financial, human, infrastructure)

 Lack of coordination and equity measures

  Standardization of ECCE program and its assessment
ii. Goal 2: Universal Primary Education

 Target
To increase the enrolment, attendance and the rate of completion of
primary education cycle
 Legal Framework
Constitutional imperatives
 Compulsory primary education act 1990
               Strategic Framework of
            Basic Education in Bangladesh

Universal Primary Education   Compulsory Primary Education
      (Age 6 - 10 years)

Preparedness for school/
ECCE (5 + age)                     Contributing to Basic
                                          EFA

 Non-formal Basic Education
     (Age 10 - 14 years)

      Adult Education
     (Age 15 – 45 years)

 Continuing Education
Goal-2: UPE / UBE – Programs and interventions

   Govt. is providing free primary education (no tuition fees, free text books)
   Stipend program throughout the country to bring the poorest children (40%
    of total students).
   Reaching Out of School Children (ROSC) Project for the disadvantaged
    children in the rural areas;
   Basic Education for Hard to Reach Urban Working Children Project being
    implemented in 6 Divisional cities covering 0.2 million working children;
                                                               Contd. ----

Goal-2: UPE /UBE (programs & interventions)

       45 Children Welfare Trust Schools for street children (7-14 years
        age);
       School Tiffin program in the food unsecured areas.
       Plan for main streaming special needs children plan developed and
       Plan for the education of the tribal children has also been developed
        .
Goal-3 : Promoting Lifelong Learning


   Three Projects on Post Literacy and continuing Education are being
    implemented covering 3.3 million rural people (50% female) of 11 – 45
    years age;
   Skill training for selective children (10-14 yrs) under Hard to
    Reach project
   These progrms include linkage development with micro-credit and
    employment generation program
   A platform for GO-NGO co-operation has been created.
    Goal-4 : Adult Literacy

    Integrated Non-Formal Education Program (INFEP) introduced in 1991
    Following INFEP Project four more projects had been implemented for
     eradicating illiteracy.
    18 million illiterate were made literate under these projects.
    Non-Formal Education Policy Framework developed to implement Non-
     Formal education program in a systematic way.
    Family life Education project for implemented for life skill development
Goal-5: Gender Parity and Equality

   60% posts of teachers in Primary Schools are reserved for female
    candidates;
   Percentage of female teachers at present has reached to 38%;
   Separate toilets are being constructed in Primary Schools for girls;
   Steps taken to raise the residential capacity of women hostels in PTIs
   While students are enrolled, the names of both mother and father are
    registered.
                                                          Contd. ----

Goal-5: Gender Parity and Equality


     Provision of opening bank account in mother’s name for the
      payment of stipend money.
     Massive social mobilization and advocacy program to encourage
      guardians to send their girl child in the schools.
     These steps have contributed to raise boys and girls ratio in
      primary schools to 50:50.
Goal-6: Education Quality


Quality of Primary Education is included as an important component of
 Sector Wide Primary Education Development Program-II (PEDP-II)
 Goal-6: Enhancing Education Quality
 Main Objectives of PEDP-II

   Increase Access, Participation and Completion of Primary Education
    Cycle in accordance with Government’s EFA, MDGs,PRSP and other
    policy commitments;

   Improve the Quality of Students Learning and Performance
    Outcomes.
                                                       Contd. ....
   Goal-6: Enhancing Education Quality

           QUALITY FOCUSED PEDP-II TARGETS

                                                 Targets
        Indicator         Bench Mark 2003
                                             2006          2009

                                              86%
Trained Teachers               81%                         95%
                                            (84.45%)


Students Attendance            65%            75%          80%


Average Performance in                        52%
                               44%                         60%
Scholarship Examination                      (53%)
                                                             Contd. ....
Goal-6: Education Quality is being Enhanced through
Improving physical facilities
   Construction of additional classrooms
   Appointing more teachers to rationalize teacher-student ratio on;
   Making two shift schools into one shift to increase contact hours
   Increasing physical facilities in PTIs to accommodate more
    teachers for training
                                                          Contd. ----
Goal-6: Education Quality through training & management

   Revised and updated curriculum for C-in-ED training and A training
    calendar chalked out to train all untrained teachers within the tenure
    of PEDP-II
   Curriculum for Grade-1-5 were revised;
   Primary schools are being monitored on the basis of Primary School
    Quality Level (PSQL) standards;
   National assessment test of Grade-III and V students and
    countrywide School Completion Examination in class-V are
    introduced;
   Establishment of Upazila Resource Centre for subject based training;
   Financial and administrative decentralization to devolve authority to
    Upazila level
   School Level Improvement Plan (SLIP) is being piloted
Challenges to attaining EFA

   Improving quality in education
   Expanding education facilities for disadvantaged groups
   Coordination and increase the coverage of ECCE program
   Reduce dropout rate and linking education cycle with life skills
   Improvement of capacity for assessment, planning, monitoring.
   Increased allocation of resources.
Thanks to all

				
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