Waste Diversion Ontario and Stewardship Ontario have updated the

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Waste Diversion Ontario and Stewardship Ontario have updated the Powered By Docstoc
					   Waste Diversion Ontario and Stewardship
Ontario have updated the residential waste audit
protocol. The protocol developed by the Interim
Waste Diversion Organization is therefore out of
   date and WDO recommends that Ontario
municipalities planning to undertake residential
   waste audits utilize the updated protocol.

     To access the updated protocol, refer to
http://www.stewardshipontario.ca/funding/e&e/w
aste_audit.htm or from the Stewardship Ontario
   home page, follow Funding, Efficiency and
 Effectiveness Fund, Approved Projects, Waste
                 Audit Program.

Page down to view the Interim Waste Diversion
 Organization residential waste audit protocol.
Residential Curbside
 Waste Audit Guide




       Revision 2

       June 2002
Ontario Waste Diversion Organization
Residential Curbside Waste Audit Guide                                                                                    June 2002


                                                   TABLE OF CONTENTS


Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 1

Purpose of Study .................................................................................................................. 1

Length of Study ..................................................................................................................... 2

Study Area and Household Selection .................................................................................... 2

Preparing for Collection ........................................................................................................ 3

Collection .............................................................................................................................. 3

Sorting of Waste Materials.................................................................................................... 4

Equipment and Safety Precautions........................................................................................ 5

Sort Categories ..................................................................................................................... 6

Summary Report.................................................................................................................... 6


Appendices (four Excel worksheets):

Collection Log

Waste Sort Worksheet

Results Table

Waste Audit Summary Description
Ontario Waste Diversion Organization
Residential Curbside Waste Audit Guide                                                        June 2002



INTRODUCTION

This waste audit guide has been developed to assist municipalities undertaking residential
curbside waste composition and quantification studies. The document outlines a standardized
residential waste audit methodology, which will enable a municipality to compare their results
with studies conducted by other municipalities.

This guide shows you how to conduct a residential waste audit. It comes with a series of
worksheets for use during the waste audit. The worksheets include:

        1)   a Collection Log for keeping track of the households sampled and set-out rates;
        2)   a Waste Sort Worksheet for recording the weights of the materials sampled;
        3)   a Results Table for reporting the results, and;
        4)   a Waste Audit Description form for recording general details about the audit.

Although other waste audit guides are available (e.g. Recommended Waste Characterization
Methodology for Direct Waste Analysis Studies, Canadian Council of Ministers of the
Environment, 1999) this one is more useful because it presents straight forward and easy-to-
follow audit procedures.

By following the methods outlined below, a waste audit crew should be able to collect, sort,
weigh, record, and dispose of the waste from 30 households in one day. Procedures for
collecting and categorizing all residential household waste1, including garbage, food and yard
waste organics, and Blue Box recyclables from a selected group of households are provided.

It is anticipated that this document will be updated and improved. Please ensure you are using
the latest edition.


PURPOSE OF STUDY

Waste audits are used by municipalities to provide a wide range of useful information
including:

        residential waste generation rates and composition by material types (e.g. newspapers,
        food wastes, glass containers, garbage, etc);
        waste generation rates and composition by material collection streams (e.g. blue box
        recyclables, organics, garbage, etc);
        recovery rates for blue box materials and/or organic collection programs;
        identification and quantification of low-capture rates of waste materials


1
  This guide does not explain how to collect and categorize waste from apartment buildings, townhouse
complexes, or commercial establishments.

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Ontario Waste Diversion Organization
Residential Curbside Waste Audit Guide                                           June 2002


         identification and quantification of other recyclables or compostable materials that
         could be added to an existing municipal collection program; and
         measurement of the impact of specific waste minimization programs such as user pay,
         grass bans, or fall leaf collection programs.

There are several types of waste audits. This document outlines the details for a full waste
audit only. A full waste audit provides complete information regarding the overall waste
generation, recovery and composition of all waste materials placed out at the curbside for
municipal collection and disposal. Accordingly, all residential waste materials are collected
over a standard period of time and are sorted into standard waste categories to provide a
comprehensive picture of residential curbside waste management practices.


LENGTH OF STUDY

To develop a reliable and consistent information database, the sample material should be
collected over a continuous four-week period. This four-week period will permit those
municipalities with once every other week Blue Box recycling programs to collect two
complete cycles of Blue Box recyclables.

The study period should not include any holidays (i.e. the Victoria Day Weekend) because
holidays have a marked impact on waste generation and may skew the waste audit results.

Seasonal variations should be considered especially when yard waste is part of the study. The
four basic sampling periods include:

                 Spring ( March, April, May)
                 Summer (June, July, August )
                 Fall ( September, October, November )
                 Winter ( December, January, February)


STUDY AREA AND HOUSEHOLD SELECTION

The study area should include single family houses that are generally representative of the
housing in the greater municipal area. Triplexes and small apartment buildings should be
avoided.

The typical types of houses that should be considered are:

   (1)          street row townhouses
   (2)          small single family houses, including semi-detached homes,
   (3)          large single family houses, and
   (4)          single family houses in a rural area or small community.


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Ontario Waste Diversion Organization
Residential Curbside Waste Audit Guide                                            June 2002


Selected houses should be located consecutively and on the same side of the street. From a
practical point of view, this makes collection easier and helps to ensure only the same houses
are collected from each time and further, no waste is missed. In addition, select houses that
are on the same collection route, preferable ones located at or near the start of the route.

The sample material should come from 30 households, plus one extra household as a
contingency household. This range of households will permit most municipalities to collect,
haul, process, sort, weigh, and dispose of all waste materials properly within one working day.

It is beneficial to involve the waste dispatcher(s) and/or waste hauler(s) in selecting the study
area and houses, as they should be most familiar with the characteristics of the municipality.


PREPARING FOR COLLECTION

Once the houses have been selected, prepare maps of the neighbourhood to clearly show
where the houses are located. An actual drive-by, in an unmarked vehicle, should be
completed in order to enumerate the selected houses by street name and number. Street
names and house addresses should be recorded on the Collection Log form that comes with
this guide.


COLLECTION

The crew should record the number of containers and other items (e.g. bundles of yard waste)
that are set out for collection on the Collection Log form that accompanies this guide.

The audit collection crew should have a letter with them authorizing them to collect the refuse
from the curb for waste audit purposes. If residents ask any questions, the audit collection
crew should reinforce the concept that all the refuse collected is pooled and weighed without
reference to any one household

Contact with residents should be avoided as much as possible prior to and during the waste
audit. This will assist in preventing a change in the normal behavior of residents in the study
area.

A 16-ft cube van is ideal for collection and should be large enough to hold all the sample
material. In order to reduce suspicion, a municipal collection vehicle should be used, when
possible. Ideally, one crewmember should drive the vehicle and two others should load the
material. This approach reduces the exposure time in front of each household and helps avoid
contact with curious residents.

Coordination between the waste audit crew, the garbage collector, the organics collector, and
the recycling collector is essential.


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Ontario Waste Diversion Organization
Residential Curbside Waste Audit Guide                                              June 2002


A designated supervisor should oversee the entire operation to ensure that all waste materials
(garbage, compostables, recyclables, & special wastes) in the study area gets collected.

Try to collect the sample material at approximately the same time that it is normally picked up
so that nothing gets missed. As a precaution, however, the collection crew should stay in the
study collection area until they are sure that they have not missed any late setouts. It may
require more than one pass to get everything.

The collection crew should wear heavy-duty gloves, safety footwear, traffic vests and
coveralls.

The standard procedure for collecting waste materials from different setout containers is as
follows:

         Garbage - if garbage is setout in garbage bags, these should be deposited directly into
         the van. The waste in garbage cans and other items should be transferred into heavy-
         duty garbage bags, roll-out carts or any other suitable container.

         Recyclables materials - should be placed into clear plastic garbage bags, roll-out
         carts, blue boxes or any other suitable container. If time permits, the recyclables can be
         sorted into broad categories (e.g. glass, other containers, paper, cardboard, etc.) as they
         are being collected.

         Yard Waste & Organics - Material set out in bags or bundles should be deposited
         directly into the van. Organic waste in cans or carts should be transferred into clear,
         heavy-duty garbage bags, roll-out carts or any other suitable container.

It is important to keep the individual waste streams (i.e. garbage, recyclables, organics)
separate from one another. For example, garbage and recyclables could be stored along
opposite sides of the van.


SORTING OF WASTE MATERIALS

The sorting area should be made available for a period of two full days. Although it should be
possible for a crew of three people to collect, sort, and dispose of all residential waste materials
from 30 houses in one day, some material may inevitably need to be left for final sorting the
following day. Restricted access to the sorting area and lockup measures should be arranged.

The waste audit sorting area should have the following features:

   (1)   Good ventilation and adequate lighting,
   (2)   Enclosure to protection against the weather,
   (3)   Access to electrical outlets,
   (4)   Access to washroom facilities,
   (5)   Access to bins for the deposit of sorted materials after weighing,
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Ontario Waste Diversion Organization
Residential Curbside Waste Audit Guide                                            June 2002


   (6)   Access to water for cleanup,
   (7)   Available sharps container, and
   (8)   Accurate and appropriately sized electronic weigh scale
   (9)   Other equipment includes a cell phone, a dustpan and brush, rain gear, a clip board.

The containers (e.g. blue boxes, roll-out carts, plastic garbage bins) into which the sorted
materials will be placed should be arranged around the sorting table within arms reach of the
sorters. The tare weight (weight of the empty container) should be clearly marked on the side
of each container.

A waste sorting table can be set up, by placing large sheets of plywood on top of several 45-
gallon drums.

To minimize cross contamination, all the material from one stream (e.g. recyclables) should be
sorted before starting on another (e.g. garbage). Bags should be opened one at a time on the
table and the waste items identified and hand-sorted into the proper container. If the number of
containers is limited, sort into broader categories first.

Weigh the containers as they fill up and record the net weight of each of the materials on the
Waste Sort Worksheet that accompanies this guide. The net weight is the scale weight minus
the weight of the container. Once the material has been sorted, weighed, and the net weight
calculated, it can be deposited into a garbage bin or set aside for recycling or composting, as
appropriate.


EQUIPMENT AND SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

All effort should be taken to maximize the safety of the waste sorting crew. The crew should
be equipped with appropriate safety gear. This includes heavy-duty gloves (preferably glass-
handling gloves or otherwise cotton-lined, rubberized gloves), one-piece Tyvek type suits or
rubber aprons (ankle length), waterproof safety boots, safety glasses, and organic vapour masks
with replacement filters.

Assurance should be made that each member of the waste sorting crew has all the appropriate
immunization shots (tetanus).

Bags that are found to contain hypodermic needles or other highly hazardous waste should be
set aside and excluded from the study. A sharps container can be used for individual finds.




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Ontario Waste Diversion Organization
Residential Curbside Waste Audit Guide                                          June 2002



SORT CATEGORIES

The sort categories are listed on the Results Table worksheet that accompanies this guide

For those municipalities that wish to undertake a more detailed waste audit by subdividing the
existing standardized waste categories into additional sub-sorts, do so. However, upon the
completion of the waste audit, add up the sub-sort material net weights by category and record
the total weight in the appropriate place in the Results Table provided with this document.


SUMMARY REPORT

Upon completion of the waste audit, it is important to accurately complete the Results Table
worksheet as follows:

       Insert the number of households sampled during one week, and the number of weeks
       the survey was conducted in the boxes provided in the title block. Overwrite the
       existing numbers, as these cells are used for many calculations shown on the Results
       Table.

       Insert the name of the Municipality, and the month and year of the survey in the header
       section of the excel worksheet.

       Insert the net weights of the sorted materials in the appropriate spaces. All weights
       should be in kilograms and entered under in the appropriate waste collection stream
       column (i.e. Organics, Garbage, Recyclables).

       Insert a “BB” under the “Div?” (short for Diverted) column beside a waste category
       only if the designated material is accepted in the municipal Blue Box recycling
       program. Insert a “CO” under the “Div?” column beside a waste category only if the
       designated material is an official part of the municipal composting organics program.


Please do not alter the worksheet format or the formulas.

General details about the audit should be recorded on the Waste Audit Description form and
should be submitted along with the Results Tables. This reporting procedure should ensure
consistency and permit municipalities to compare their results.

A copy of the Summary Report (Waste Audit Description and Results Tables) should be
submitted to the Ontario Waste Diversion Organization.




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Ontario Waste Diversion Organization
Residential Curbside Waste Audit Guide                                          June 2002


APPENDICES

There are four Excel worksheets that accompany this guide:

       1)   a Collection Log for keeping track of the households sampled and set-out rates;
       2)   a Waste Sort Worksheet for recording the weights of the materials sampled;
       3)   a Results Table for reporting the results, and;
       4)   a Waste Audit Description form for recording general details about the audit.

You can find these worksheets on the WDO website (http://www.wdo.on.ca/) in a file titled
WDO Waste Audit Worksheets




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