Unit 2 Weather and Climate Chapter 6 Pages 56 to 79 Outcomes 2.1 and 2.2: Weather versus Climate Student Discussion/sharing: 1. What is the difference between weather and climate?........ 2. Identify the atmospheric conditions which make up weather and climate……….. 3. Identify if the following examples given by the teacher are weather statements or climate statements……. 4. Demonstrate your understanding of weather and climate by sharing examples of weather and climate statements with your group members. Outcome 2.3: Dewpoint and Saturated Air 1. What different states can water be in?....... (water vapor, water droplet and solid) 2. What is condensation?.... (water vapor changing to a water droplet) 3. What is dewpoint?..... (temperature at which condensation occurs.) 4. What is saturated air?.... (air which cannot hold any more water vapor at that temperature.) Important Characteristics of Air Which statements about air are TRUE? 1. Warm air is lighter than cooler air and will therefore rise above it. 2. Cooler air can hold less moisture than warmer air. 3. As air ascends (rises above sea level) it will warm. 4. As air descends (falls closer to sea level) it will warm. 5. As air rises and cools, it can hold less moisture. Outcomes 2.4, 2.5, 2.6 and 2.7: Different types of precipitations • Precipitation can fall in the form of rain, hail, sleet and snow. • What are the three types of precipitation? • Orographic or Relief Precipitation • Convectional Precipitation • Cyclonic or Frontal Precipitation Orographic or Relief Precipitation • Watch youtube video and observe diagram of orographic precipitation via internet. • On Educypedia webpage (saved as favorites) view diagram of orographic precipitation under weather images and animations icon. • Student Activities: 1. Alone, or in groups, sketch and label a diagram of orographic precipitation. 2. Where in Canada would you experience orographic or relief precipitation? 3. What is the difference between the windward and leeward side of the mountain, especially in reference to the amount to precipitation received? Convectional Precipitation • Watch youtube video and observe diagram of convectional precipitation. • Google convectional precipitation animation via internet. • Student Activities: 1. Alone, or in groups, sketch and label a diagram of convectional precipitation. 2. Where in Canada would you experience convectional precipitation? 3. Can convectional precipitation occur in Canada during the winter? Explain why or why not. Cyclonic or Frontal Precipitation • Watch youtube video and observe diagram of cyclonic precipitation. • On Educypedia webpage, view diagram of frontal precipitation under. • Student Activities: 1. Alone, or in groups, sketch and label a diagram of cyclonic precipitation. 2. Where in Canada would you experience cyclonic precipitation? 3. Can cyclonic precipitation occur in an area if you only have one air mass? Explain why or why not. 4. What is the most common type of precipitation in our local area? Outcome 2.8: Climatic Regions of Canada • Watch one of the many videos demonstrating Canada’s diversity: “Through the Breadbasket” on Aliant.net. (get pass the flaky production and you will watch some interesting facts) • Complete map activity for the seven climatic regions of Canada. For each region, write two key points on the back of each map. (pg. 68). • Illustrate, through internet maps that there are many variations for the number of climatic zones in Canada. Outcomes 2.11 and 2.12: Temperature Range, Maritime and Continental Climates • Temperature range means…….. • Difference between the high and low temperatures. • -20 and +14 the temperature range is….. • +2 and +30 the temperature range is….. • Maritime Climate is…. • a climate which is influenced by closeness to the ocean (cool summers and mild winters because water cools and heats slowly). • Continental Climate is…. • a climate which is NOT influenced by water because it is located in the interior of the continent, away from the moderating influence of the ocean. (hot summers and cold winters because land cools and heats quickly). • Con’d Temperature Range, Maritime and Continental Climates (Con’d) • Classroom Discussions: • Identify a Canadian location with a maritime climate; a continental climate. • Which climate would have a greater annual temperature range, a maritime climate or a continental climate? Explain why. • Which climate would have greater annual precipitation, a maritime climate or a continental climate? Explain why. Outcome 2.9: Climate Graphs • What is a Climate Graph?........ • Graphical representation of temperature and precipitation for a specific location. Temperature is written on the left hand side and precipitation is written on the right hand side. Temperature is shown by a red line and precipitation is shown by blue bars. • Demonstrate the construction of a climate graph by going through the shockwave flash “tutorial for drawing climate graphs” via the internet. • Con’d Climate Graphs (Con’d) • How do you calculate the average temperature for the year?..... • Add up all of the temperatures and divide by 12. • How do you calculate the total precipitation for the year?..... • Add up all of the precipitation values for each month. • How do you know the season of maximum precipitation?.... • Add up the precipitation totals for each season • Example: Summer would be July, August and September. • Student Group Activity: • Complete the climate graphs worksheet. (handout) Outcome 2.12: Factors Affecting Climate • The following factors work together to influence the weather and climate of Canada: • Latitude • Elevation (altitude) • Ocean Currents • Relief (Mountain Barriers) (already covered with orographic or relief precipitation) • Air masses (wind) • Moderating influence of water (nearness to water) • Con’d Factors Affecting Climate • Latitude: • What do we mean by a high latitude in Canada?...... • Greater distance north of the equator. (equator = 0 latitude and north pole= 90 latitude) • Why do temperatures tend to decrease as latitude increases (ie: Higher latitude)?.... • Curvature of the earth resulting in less direct sunlight. When the sunlight does reach it is more spread out. • Increased distance of travel as you go further north due to the curvature and tilt, resulting in less intense heat. • Illustrate latitude and temperature graphically. (Is there a negative or positive relationship?) Factors Affecting Climate (Con’d) • Elevation (Altitude): • What do we mean by elevation?..... • Height above sea level. (sea level is at 0m elevation) • Why do temperatures tend to decrease as elevation increases?..... • As air rises from sea level, it expands and in this process heat is lost. • Illustrate elevation and temperature graphically. (Is there a negative or positive relationship?) Factors Affecting Climate (Con’d) • Ocean Currents: • What three dominant ocean currents do we experience in Canada?...... • Labrador Current, Gulf Stream and Pacific Current. • What is the influence of each of these currents on temperature?...... • Labrador Current (Cold) • Gulf Stream (Warm) • Pacific Current.(Warm) Factors Affecting Climate (Con’d) • Air Masses (Wind): • What causes air to move?....... • The presence of high (cooler air) and low (warmer air) pressure. • Illustrate how air moves from high to low pressure via internet image • What is meant by a prevailing wind?..... • The dominant or most common wind experienced in an area. • What is the prevailing wind of Canada?..... • westerlies Factors Affecting Climate (Con’d) • Nearness to Large Bodies of Water: • What do you know about the moderating influence of water from summer to winter versus living inland away from water?........ • Water takes longer to heat up in spring/summer and cool down in fall/winter than land. Coastal areas will have cooler summers and milder winters than inland areas due to this reason. • Which area will have a larger, annual temperature range…. Coastal area or inland area?... – Inland area because land cools and heats faster than land. – Illustrate with map of summer and winter temperatures.
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