Sustainable food for the future; Social marketing by byt34827


									Sustainable food for the future;
Social marketing – an essential tool for EHPs
Jenny Morris, Principal Policy Officer, CIEH
 Key trends, drivers and issues

Food: an analysis of the issues. Cabinet Office. January 2008
A 21st century food strategy

•      Continuous improvement in food safety
•      Healthier diets
•      A more environmentally sustainable food
•      Fair prices, choice, access to food and
       food security through the promotion of
       open, competitive markets
    Food Matters. Towards a Strategy for the 21st century. Cabinet Office 2008
Food security

Food: an analysis of the issues. Cabinet Office. January 2008
Food choice – positive and
negative outcomes

 Food: an analysis of the issues. Cabinet Office. January 2008
The sustainability context
An environmentally sustainable
food chain
Environmental impacts
• Food production
  Greatest impact from growth and production e.g.
  livestock –water pollution, greenhouse gases etc
• Retail
  Store size, construction and location; transport; influence
  on consumer choice e.g. imported foods; supplier
  standards - environmental and packaging
• Consumers
  Use of transport, storage and preparation; waste; choice
  e.g. seasonality; eating out
Food chain contribution
to GHG emissions
Transport emissions from
food chain
Sustainability components?

• Business partnerships e.g. promoting
  corporate social responsibility
• Encouraging local sourcing, shortened
  food supply chains i.e. “food miles”
• Promoting waste reduction i.e. food and
• Promoting recycling
Sharing good practice
  Food Vision case studies

Lancashire County and District Councils   6 Councils in Cornwall
Barriers to change

Some issues:
• Focus on EH as “regulators”
• Poor recognition of wider EH role/competence
• Need to showcase EH “success”
• Resource constraints – need to balance food
  safety activities with those for diet and health;
  food security and sustainability
A place for environmental health?

•   Contribution to climate change agenda
•   Health effects created
•   Public and private sector partnerships
    required e.g. Regional Directors of
    Public Health initiatives
•   CIEH support materials
Local Area Agreements
 Sustainable Food in LAAs

Outcomes         Environmental sustainability

                 NI 185. CO2 reduction from LA operations
                 NI 190. Achievement in meeting standards for the control
National         system for animal health
Indicators       NI 197. Improved local biodiversity – active management
                 of local sites

                 Delivery of Strategy for Sustainable Farming and Food
Examples of      Encourage sustainable farming practices which improve
interventions    biodiversity of natural environment
and activities   Support Public Sector Food Procurement Initiative (PSFPI)
                 Awareness campaigns to promote local and seasonal food
    Effective communication

Food Matters (2008)
And now - social marketing
What is social marketing?

“the systematic application of marketing and
“ Social marketing is the systematic application of
marketing and other concepts and techniques, to
other concepts and techniques, to achieve
          behavioural goals, for for a social
specific specific behavioural goals, a social oror public
public good”
                          French, Blair-Stevens 2006

     marketing                                         for
    and other            systematic          „social good‟
   concepts and          application
    techniques                               behavioural goals
What is social marketing?

“Social marketing is not about smarter
campaigns or a new function for government
departments – it is about a long term cultural
change agenda built on deep “user” insight
that will deliver significant benefits to society
and the efficient management of public

Ed Mayo, National Consumer Council
Do we need social marketing?
“It would be easy to just give the public (or business) information
and hope they change behaviour but we know that doesn‟t work
very well.
Otherwise none of us would be obese, smoke or break the law”
What is the relevance for
environmental health?
• EH works to improve standards
• Regulation is a limited tool
• Promotion of change is the goal
• Focus on being effective
• Social marketing is on the agenda
Making the distinction between:
Where can social marketing apply?
strategic & operational social marketing


 social           STRATEGY
                                  social marketing
                                    social marketing
To recap social marketing is not:

• Just social communication re-badged
• About telling people what to do
• A panacea or magic bullet
• Evil – it‟s „marketing‟
 How to think about social

 As „a mind set‟

As a mind set
     - concepts and principles         ‘customer triangle’

As a process and set of

                                 „total process planning model‟
8 Benchmark criteria

•   Customer orientation
•   Behaviour
•   Theory
•   Insight
•   Exchange
•   Competition
•   Segmentation
•   Methods mix
Social marketing customer triangle

3 core concepts
• Insight
• Exchange
• Competition
Gaining insight

      Beliefs                     Knowledge
     Attitudes                   understanding
   Social norms
  Cultural norms

                                          e.g. peers,
                                          family, role
Developing actionable insights

The most important single central fact about a free market is that no
exchange takes place unless both parties benefit
                                                              Milton Friedman

               COSTS                                   BENEFITS
 This means .....

• Using research to pinpoint the problem,
  understand why people do what they do
  and what might help them to change their
• Identifying “incentives” to sustain change
• Identifying and eliminating barriers to
          Both areas the “competition”
• “Outsmarting” contribute valuable expertise,
             skills, techniques and theory
Gaining insight- a short exercise

  Chinese Takeaway                     Small independent retailer
  Behavioural Challenge                Behavioural challenge
  Stores cooked food out of            Fails to remove all products
  temperature control for long         before expiry of Use By date
  periods of time e.g. rice

  Tasks - Draw up a “pen portrait” based on the following questions:
  What are the beliefs, values, cultural norms?
  Who and what are the key influencers?
  What benefits are valued?
  What are the motivations ?
  What are the fears and concerns?
  What/who are the competition and how can they be overcome?
Social marketing customer triangle

3 core principles
• Behavioural goals
• Segmentation
• Intervention and
  marketing mix
A segmentation approach uses

• More than just demographics e.g.
  Geography; Socio-demographics; Psycho-
  graphics (behaviours/attitudes)
• A focus on target audience motivation
• Interventions tailored to specific segments
Segmentation “groups”

YUPPIES Young Upwardly Mobile Professional People
DINKE   Double Income No Kids
DUMP    Destitute Unemployed Mature Professional
PIPPIE  Person Inheriting Parents Property
SCUM    Self Centred Urban Male
SILKY   Single Income Loads of Kids
SINBAD Single Income No Boyfriend Absolutely Desperate
SITCOM Single Income Two Children Outrageous Mortgage
WOOPIE Well-Off Older Person
LOMBARD Loads Of Money But A Right Dickhead
The importance of segmentation

                                           Remove out of date
                                           foods – they could
                                              harm people

  Oh no –                But it‟s really
              what?                         Hmm, they didn‟t say
 how am I                unlikely and
                       they might not         anything about
going to do
                       ... And I‟ve got      drinks though so
                      to make a profit           that‟s ok
The UK “Eating out” market 2005

  Food: an analysis of the issues. Cabinet Office. January 2008
Social marketing
– “a paradigm shift”
Professional „direction‟   Customer led
Selling/telling            Marketing/exchange
Awareness raising          Behavioural change
Adult – Child              Sustained
One off                    Opportunity
Problem                    Segmented audience
General audience           Networks
Central command
Difference in approach
Communications & message based approach

       Crafting                        communicating
 „our messages‟                         the messages
accurate / relevant / clear         creative / clever / funny / impactful /
                                    interesting / attention grabbing / etc

  Customer based social marketing approach

                              understanding                         generating
                               the customer                           „insight‟
                              what „moves & motivates‟
                                                          directly informing intervention options
                                                           (intervention mix & marketing mix)
     Starts with the customer and what‟s important to them
Example: Young people & smoking:
 „Customer based‟ social marketing approach

                            understanding                            generating
                             the customer                              „insight‟
                            what „moves & motivates‟
                                                            directly informing intervention options
                                                             (intervention mix & marketing mix)

What‟s going on? „what moves & motivates‟:                       Basic insights:
- Own views not those received from „authority‟                  Selling of „health‟ and longer
- Self-perception of maturity: „an adult‟ not „a child‟ -        term benefits, or „being good‟
Move away from parents influence and teachers -                  very unmotivating – avoid
Importance of peer views & approval                   -          (can be counter motivating)
Fun, social benefits, enjoying attention & „causes‟ -
                                                                 Connect to „own views‟, not
Questioning, challenging, rebellion, streetwise        -
                                                                 being conned, link to a cause &
Living in „the now‟ less concern for distant future
                                                                 rebellion, ensure social & fun
                                                                 benefits are strong

                                                 eg: „Truth‟ campaign approach
Identifying the intervention mix
Formative research
• What is the problem?
• What is the context?
• Who will be the target audience?
• How do they think and behave about the problem?
• What „product‟ will appeal?
• How can you best reach the audience?
• What messages and materials would work best?
• What is the best intervention mix?
Influencing behaviour –
four key elements
Education                Design
• Inform and advise      • Environmental and physical
• Build awareness          context
• Persuade and inspire   • Design and engineer
                           “bespoke” systems
                         • Increase availability
                         • Improve distribution

Control                  Support
• Legislate, regulate    • Toolkits
• Enforce                • Business support
• Set standards          • Recognise success eg
Starting from “where the
customer is at”
unaware or        attempting but      contemplating but   actively resisting
not considering   not succeeding       not yet acting     or entrenched

                         SOCIAL MARKETING
                    Tailoring interventions to take
                      full account of where the
                      customer is starting from

                    SUPPORT               DESIGN
A social marketing intervention mix
Social marketing
considers how to                CONTROL
utilise each area &
get an appropriate
or „mix‟ between

different ways to
behaviour, based on
different needs and
wants of different
consumers, driven by
consumer insight

  This means ...

• Being clear about the change sought and
  how it will be measured
• Identifying specific groups with common
  behaviours, culture, knowledge, norms etc
  (segmentation) in order to create targeted
• Creating an “offer you can‟t refuse”
• Doing more than communication and
           Both areas contribute valuable expertise,
  awareness raising
                 skills, techniques and theory
“The Chitterlings story”

The problem
• Traditional seasonal product (Nov/Dec)
• Home prepared by African American
 community (US)
• Severe diarrhoea outbreaks (infants
“The Chitterlings story” (2)

• The solution
  - Pre-boil for 5 minutes
• “The old approach”
   - Leaflets, campaigns, posters
• The outcome
  - No change
The social marketing approach

 • Understand the barriers
   - Not the way we do it traditionally
   - Might not taste so good
 • Overcome the barriers
   -   Find the community “power” i.e. the matriarchs
   -   Use community channels to pass the message
   -   Show it still tastes good
   -   Promote the message widely
 • New outcome
   - Year on year reduction in cases
Superficial adoption won‟t deliver
  Three traps we need to avoid

• Using the language of social
  marketing without applying
  its disciplines
• Only applying social marketing
  principles to operational issues
• Getting a few practitioners
  to take up social marketing
Future action

• Provision of centralised resources eg
  links to research information
• Case studies of effective practice
• Planning tools
• Practitioner training
• Evaluation tools
Ongoing developments

National Social Marketing Centre
•   Planning tools
•   Evaluation tools
•   Case studies of effective practice
•   One stop shop for research
FSA/NSMC/CIEH partnership
• Development of training course
• Wider training needs review
Support available from NSMC

• Resources and presentations
• Links to other social marketing projects – evidence
  and best practice via case study database
• Training and workshops
• Project management and advice
• Research and evaluation – „one stop shop‟
• Commissioning support and resources
• Regional Development and Support Managers
Social marketing support

  National Social Marketing Centre

“If we continue to do what we‟ve always
done, we will only get what we‟ve always
“Currently we are missing a trick by
failing to fully realise the potential of
social marketing.”
                                  (NSMC 2005)

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