The Peace of Paris by sofiaie


									                                   The Peace of Paris

A. Nature of Agreements

   1. Historical pattern of treaties
         a. Victor used treaty to punish defeated
         b. Victor-vanquished arrangement dominated by the interests of the Great
         c. Woodrow Wilson was viewed as a potential source for change

    2. Motives of Leaders
           a. Realist Camp
                    i.   Preserve European balance of power
                   ii.   France and Italy must not be allowed to occupy the power
                         vacuum left by Germany
           b. Punitive Camp
                    i.   Defeated powers must be punished for the war militarily,
                         economically, and politically
                   ii.   Spoils of war would be divided amongst victors
           c. Idealist Camp
                    i.   Guided by Wilson’s Fourteen Points
                   ii.   Belief that a new pattern of international diplomacy could be
B. Policy Makers
    1. Council of 10
           a. Government leaders and foreign ministers of the victorious 5 Great
           b. Great Britain, France, USA (Big Three) + Italy and Japan
    2. Motives of Great Power Leaders
           a. France (George Clemenceau)
                    i. Punish Germany
                   ii. Preserve French security
                 iii. Increase French influence in Europe
           b. Great Britain (David Lloyd George)
                    i. Punish Germany
                   ii. Restore Belgian neutrality
                 iii. Maintain British naval hegemony
                  iv. Increase British Empire
                   v. Prevent French dominance
           c. USA (Woodrow Wilson)
                    i. Ensure that the Fourteen Points would provide a blueprint for
                       peace settlement
                   ii. Establishment of a League of Nations
           d. Italy and Japan
                    i. Increase Territory
                   ii. Enhance military strength
C. Treaty of Versailles
    1. Territorial Changes
           a. Land was annexed to create new countries
           b. Land was annexed to add to existing states

   2. Punitive Damages
         a. Germany would require to pay for a certain proportion of war costs
         b. Germany was required to admit blame for starting the war “War Guilt”

   3. Military Restrictions
         a. Limits were placed on military’s size
                  i. No conscription
                 ii. Limited reserve strength
         b. Limits were placed on type of military equipment
                  i. No air force
                 ii. No subs or capital ships
                iii. No tanks
         c. Germany devoted efforts to avoid terms of the Treaty

   4. Empire and Expansion
        a. Overseas empire would be divided into mandates (Mandate System)
                i. German colonies divided into readiness for self-government
        b. Forbidden to unite (anschluss) with Austria

D. Fragmentation of Eastern Europe
    1. Gains for existing countries
          a. Italy in Slovenia and Tyrol
          b. Romania in Transylvania

   2. Creation of the Successor States
         a. Finland, Baltic Republics (3) (from Russia)
         b. Poland (from Germany)
         c. Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia (from Austria-Hungary)

   3. End of Empires and Absolute Monarchies
         a. Austria-Hungary was divided
                 i. Austria became democratic until 1938
                ii. Hungary become a dictatorship 1920
         b. Germany became a republic
                 i. Fell to Nazi rule 1933
         c. Republics were formed from Imperial Russia (Ukraine, Belarus, Russia)
                 i. Became Communist dictatorship, 1917
         d. Ottoman Empire lost territory to League of Nations
                 i. Republic of Turkey was created
   4. End of Absolute Monarchies
         a. Rise of dictatorships
                                America and the Interwar

A. Isolation

                           1. Failure to ratify the Paris Treaties
                                  a. Many senators wanted US out of European affairs
                                  b. Republican Senate opposed to Democratic White
                                  c. Wilson’s health failed at critical time
                           2. Republican Victories won on promises of democratic
                                  a. Warren Harding (1920-23) “Return to Normalcy”
                                  b. Calvin Coolidge (1923-24; 1924-28) “the business
                                      of America is business”
                                  c. Herbert Hoover (1928-32) “a chicken in every pot”
                           3. Republicans enacted protectionist legislation 1922-30
                                  a. Trade liberalization under FDR
                                  b. Protect agriculture against overproduction
                                  c. Inflation began to occur in 1920s
                                           i. Wartime price controls were eased
                                          ii. Wartime production levels did not
                                               significantly drop

B. International Finance

                           1. Cycle of foreign loan repayment
                                 a. Britain had financed initial part of war before
                                     borrowing heavily from US
                                 b. Allied countries were all borrowing from US by
                                 c. Allied loan repayment dependent on German
                                     reparation payments

                           2. Inflation occurred in early 1920s
                                  d. Normal pattern following postwar
                                  e. Production increased with demand for more
                                      reparation payments

 Price and wage               High            Low Taxes         “Fast”        Salary
  controls end             Production                           Money         Raises

   3. Paper currency became worthless
         a. Division of society into rich and poor
         b. Creditors repaid in worthless money; debtors paid worthless money

C. Ruhr Crisis and Dawes Plan
    1. Germany defaulted on payments
          a. Belgium and France invaded Ruhr, 1923
          b. German workers (backed by government) refused to work and destroyed
                   i. Unemployment increased
                  ii. Tension increased
    2. American intervention (Dawes Plan): 1924
          a. US prosperity dependent on repayments and war debt
          b. Short-term loans to Germany and refinancing of reparation payments
          c. Introduction of a new German currency
          d. Ruhr was evacuated

D. Young Plan
   1. Further scaled down war reparations
   2. Encouraged repayment over 60 years from 1929
   3. Depression led to suspensions of payments;
          a. Payments were regularity defaulted upon
          b. Nazi government eventually cancelled payments
                                The League of Nations

A. League Covenant

   1. 26 articles that defined the aim of the League
   2. enshrined many “Wilsonian” principals
          a. national self-interest
          b. peaceful conflict resolution
          c. collective security
          d. humanitarianism

B. Organization
    1. Assembly
          a. Every member country had one vote
          b. Discussion forum meeting once a year
          c. Most decisions had to be unanimous

   2. Council
         a. Comprised of four (later 5 ) Great Powers and four elected nations
                i. British Empire, Japan, Italy, France
               ii. Germany joined Council in 1926
         b. Decided problems put before the League

   3. Secretariat
         a. Administrative arm of the League
         b. Carried out the decisions of the League

   4. Court of International Justice: PCIJ
         a. 15 judges ruling on case of international law
         b. judges were drawn from 15 different countries

C. Conflict Resolution

       Negotiation                Study by Council                Arbitration
       of Dispute                     and PCIJ

                               Trade Sanctions              War                 Peace
D. Relative Success of the League

   1.   It helped solve postwar refugee problem
   2.   It administered German and Turkish colonies under the Mandate system
   3.   It administrated plebiscites in “frontier territories” of Germany
   4.   It established the International Labour Organization
   5.   It did much humanitarian work (Article 23 of Covenant)

E. Failure of the League

   1.   Trade sanctions could not be enforced
   2.   Members would not contribute armed forces
   3.   Did not include USA, Germany, or USSR at the same time
   4.   It was a product of the Paris Peace Conference
   5.   Rarely were members united on great issues
                       The Issue of Reparations
                         Use OWH p. 410 - 411
1. How did the victorious allies place moral guilt on a defeated Germany?

2. How was guilt related to reparations?

3. How did the French government hope to create a will to pay?

4. What were the Dawes and Young Plans?

5. How did the United States and Allies disagree on the question of war
                           Democracies Between the Wars
                             Use OWH p. 415 – 427
1. Describe the social and economic conditions in post war France. What factors
   promoted economic recovery in the 1920s?

2. What were the causes of the world-wide depression of the 1930s?

3. What steps did France take to regain economic stability?

4. Describe the French military policy of the 1930s.

5. What generalizations about British politics in the period 1920-1940 can you make?

6. What were the advantages of being part of the British Commonwealth of Nations?
7. What was the importance of the Statute of Westminster?

8. How did Britain attempt to solve its problems with India?

9. What was Britain’s relationship with Egypt? Palestine? What problems did these
   lands face?

10. How did France, Britain, & the USA differ in their views of national security?

11. Why have the Lacarno Treaties been called the “first appeasement”?

12. What was the significance of the Kellogg-Briand Pact?

13. Why did the Washington & London Pacts fail?
                                 Britain in the Interwar

A. Economy

    1. New York had overtaken London as international centre of finance
            a. Britain owed huge sums to USA
            b. Britain had fought war from 1914-1918; the USA from 1917-1918
    2. Historic markets were lost to US and Japan
            a. Wartime economy ignored export markets
                     i. Shipbuilding was focused on naval SHIPS
                    ii. Clothing / textiles was for militaries
            b. Britain could not recover those markets and had to develop new goods for
                these old markets
    3. War had changed the nature of industry
            a. Coal had been replaced by oil
                     i. Unemployment in coal mining
                    ii. Oil reserves were sought in British Empire
            b. Heavy industry was not as profitable as manufacturing
            c. New technologies emerged during the war
                     i. Optics and telecommunications
                    ii. Automobiles
B. Ireland

1918 Election
      North – Protestant, Loyalists (Unionists)
      South – Catholic, Nationalists (Sinn Fein)

1919 Dail Eirann (Irish Parliament)
      Proclaimed an Irish Free State
      Irish Republican Army (led by Michael Collins) began violence against
          British targets

1920 Anglo-Irish Guerrilla War
      “Black and Tans” created response to IRA
      Negotiations between Nationalists and British results in a two-state solution
      North (6 counties) would remain British
      South (26 counties) would form the Irish Free State
      Treaty is passed by Dail but results in a split of IRA into “Free Staters”
         (under Collins) and “Republicans” (under Eamon de Valera)

1922-3 Irish Civil War
        War occurs between “Free Staters” (moderate) and “Republican” (extremist)
        Ceasefire is accepted after death of Collins

1949 Republic of Ireland Established
C. India

1917        Sovereignty
                Britain promises increased self-government in India

1919        India Act
                 Britain gave control of local matters to India
                 Britain still controls taxation, foreign policy, & justice

1920        Satyagraha
                 Rising dissent in colonies against British rule
                 Police beat and kill Satyagrahists
                 Ghandi jailed with 55,000 Satyagrahists

1922-24     Escalation
                Problems persist through the 1920s through to 1947

1947        Independence
                India partitioned into two republics
                Muslim state of Pakistan
                Hindu state of India
                Migration of people were not peaceful

D. Empire

1919-45     Colonial Dissatisfaction
                Rising dissent in colonies against British rule
                Palestine and India reacted to a lack of self-government
                Some concessions were granted by Britain in face of organized

1926        Imperial Conference
                “British Empire” replaced with “British Commonwealth”
                “White Dominions” given a choice of sovereignty over foreign
                  affairs: Canada, New Zealand, Australia, South Africa,
                  Newfoundland, Ireland
                Did not apply to any colonies

1931        Statute of Westminster
                 Canonized the 1926 decision
                 Dominion parliament decided on whether or not to adopt the Statute
                 Canada in charge of own foreign affairs
                             France’s Search for Security
A. Peace of Paris

   1. Economic state of France
         a. infrastructure decimated
         b. agricultural devastation
         c. debt
                 i. devalued French franc increased debt
                 ii. inflation led to weakened middle-class
         d. postwar unemployment

   2. Security
         a. German population was much larger
         b. German industry was intact
         c. German military confidence was still high
               i. war of revenge was a possibility

   3. Allied Resistance
          a. Britain and US did not want a dominate France
                  i. Germany was only viable counterweight to France
                  ii. French aggression had contributed to WWI
          b. Buffer states could not be created without weakening Germany

B. 1919-1929

   1. Reparation Payments
         a. Viewed as a means to prevent a resurgent
         b. Invasion of Ruhr was to prevent Germany from recovering too quickly

   2. Military Restrictions
         a. Limitations on German offensive equipment
                 i. No air force or tanks
                 ii. No long-range guns
         b. Limitations on deployment of German troops
                 i. Rhineland remained demilitarized
                 ii. Rhineland remained occupied until 1930
         c. Limitations on size of German military
   3. Military Alliances
         a. Diplomatic isolation of Germany by creating an Eastern Front
                  i. Little Entente
         b. Forging close ties with the international community
                  i. League of Nations
         c. Forging diplomatic relationship with Germany
                  i. Locarno Pact (1925)
                            Goal is to prevent dominance by any one power
                            Ultimately fail
                  ii. Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)
                            Outlaws war among signatories
                            Ultimately fail
                  iii. Supporting Germany on League Council

C. 1929-1939

   1. Isolation of global community
          a. Realization that agreements could not replace national security
          b. Britain had demonstrated isolationism during the Ruhr Crisis
          c. Little Entente’s success was greatly dependent on French prosperity

   2. Defeatism in French military
         a. Building of Maginot Line was a defensive gesture
         b. Reflected siege mentality of France, surrounded by 3 fascist states by 1939
             (Germany, Italy, Spain)

   Unit Exam
   Paris Talks = 8
   Wilson’s Points = 8
   League of Nations = 9 (to 1929)
   Agreements of 1920s = 7
   Britain = 7
   France = 5
   USA = 6

   Reading List
   p. 27-30
   p. 30-35
   p. 36-39
   p. 81-84

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