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Proposed ENERGY STAR Specificati

VIEWS: 4 PAGES: 63

									    Proposed ENERGY STAR
Specifications for Computer Monitors


        Craig W. Hershberg
  ENERGY STAR Office Equipment and
       Consumer Electronics


                                     1
         www.energystar.gov
                             Agenda


Computer monitor specification
• Objectives

• History

• Specification highlights

• Industry feedback

• Next steps

• Questions from EU - EPA agreement

• Your comments / questions

• Our questions for you               2
               Agenda (cont’d)


• Do you need specifics ?
   – Sleep, Off , On, Non-energy aspects

• Test method

• The time is right - LCDs




                                           3
                Agenda (cont’d)


Logistics and other issues

• How to collaborate when revising the specifications
• Subsequent meetings
• Summary of meeting, including action items and
  schedule for follow-up
• Preliminary plans for other Office Equipment
  Products
   – procedure for collaboration


                                                        4
                Objectives

• Provide understanding and disclosure of draft
  monitor specification

• Provide detailed answers to questions

• Receive constructive feedback from you

• Develop consensus on direction identified
  today

• Agree on next steps
                                              5
                      The history:

• What monitor specs. exist in Europe now ?
   – GEEA
   – TCO

• Reviewed independent monitor research from
  DisplaySearch, IDC, Europeans, and others
• Met with monitor manufacturers at COMDEX, CES,
  DisplaySearch, and one-on-one (HANS-PAUL)
• Analyzed self-reported data from manufacturers in
  STAR database
• Independently measured monitor power use
• Compared data with LBNL, ADL studies
• Made recommendations to EPA. EPA weighed them6
  with others and created draft specification.
 Revising the ENERGY STAR
Computer Monitor Specification:

          Highlights


                                  7
                Terminology

ON:      “active”, “full power”
SLEEP: After x minutes of inactivity,
       monitor goes to lower power
       usage mode. “low power”
OFF:     “Standby”

Remember: ON, SLEEP, AND OFF
                                        8
           Current ENERGY STAR
                Specification

• Sets minimum wattage levels in low-
  power or “sleep” mode.

  – First Sleep Mode:  15 watts

  – Second or “Deep Sleep” Mode  8 watts



                                            9
           Why Revise the Current
               Specification?

• Virtually all monitors meet current ENERGY
  STAR specification.
• Large percentage of monitors are not sleep
  enabled (i.e., we are not getting the energy
  savings we could be).
• Recent NRDC research shows energy use in
  “on” mode is 80 –90% of total kWh/yr.
• For “on” and “off” modes, wide range of
  performance between similar-sized models.
• Broad interest in limiting standby power use.
                                              10
       Goals for Revised Specification

• Incorporate all 3 operating modes:
   – On (active)
   – Sleep (inactive)
   – Off (standby)
• Performance-based specification.
• One specification for all monitors, not one for
  CRTs, one for LCDs, etc.
• Equal or better performance compared to
  non-ENERGY STAR labeled models.
                                                    11
         The Core Requirements


• Maximum allowable power consumption
  levels for each mode: On, Sleep, Off
• Consensus test method for measuring
  active power usage.
• Minimum consumer acceptance criteria
  (brightness, warranty, etc.)
• Product and package labeling.

                                     12
                Why Active Power?

• Feasible without negatively affecting product
  performance; in fact, some manufacturers are
  already meeting the proposed specifications

• Limited additional energy savings potential in sleep
  and off modes; ; 90% of savings with proposed spec
  is from “active”

• Not dependent on enabling rates

• Allows a variety of technologies (e.g., CRT and LCD)
  to qualify
                                                     13
                    LCDs

• Highlight a new technology in the
  marketplace
• Additional benefits:
  – Space
  – Heat
  – Power consumption
  – Useful life
  – Installation
  – Disposal
                                      14
        On Mode: Active Power Use

• Sets maximum allowable active power (W)
     Power as a function of mega pixels:
                W = 30 + 20X


Example: monitor has resolution of:
  1280 x 1024 = 1,310,720 or 1.31 mega pixels
          W = 30 + 20 (1.31) = 56 W

                                            15
               On Mode (cont.)


• Technology neutral, agnostic to monitor
  type (LCD or CRT), size (15”, 17”, etc.).



• If monitor yields more information, allow
  a little more power consumption.



                                          16
                 Sleep Mode


• Just one sleep mode level.


• Maximum allowable power: 4 W


• If multiple sleep modes, all must meet
  4W requirement.

                                           17
     Sleep Mode Advisory Language


• For consideration in updated ENERGY
  STAR computer specification:
    Maximum default time: 15 minutes
    Maximum recovery time: 5 seconds

• Goal – increase likelihood that users
  actually use and are not annoyed by
  energy management features.

                                          18
                   Off Mode

• Synonymous with standby.


• Power consumed when device is plugged in,
  but switched off:  2 W.


• Working to harmonize with US Executive
  Order for Standby Power Consumption (1
  watt executive order)

                                              19
              Non-energy Reqts.

• Must be: bright enough, easy-to-read,
  reliable.
• Brightness: minimum luminance of 100 nits
  (candelas/m2).
• Contrast: minimum contrast ratio of 200:1.
• Defective Pixels:  5 sub-pixel faults per
  million sub-pixels.
• Warranty: at least 2 years.
• User Interface: UI Standard recommended
                                               20
          Labeling Requirements


ENERGY STAR logo must be displayed on:

    • top/front of product,

    • product package,

    • product literature.
                                     21
   Time Line for Revision of Computer
         Monitor Specification


                                                    April    May     June      July      August   Sept.   Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Jan.
                                                    2002     2002    2002      2002       2002    2002    2002   2002   2002   2003
EPA to distribute first draft of specification to
industry and other stakeholders
                                                    18
EPA to meet with industry in San Francisco to
discuss first draft of specification
                                                    29
EPA to work with Test Method Development                    20            24
Committee to refine test method
EPA to work with interested manufacturers on                20                      15
non-energy aspects of specification
EPA to work with ITI and interested                         20                      15
manufacturers on product labeling ideas and
other aspects of Partnership Agreement
Prior to EU meeting, EPA to update the draft
specification per feedback received to date
                                                            20-24
EPA to meet with EU representatives in Nice,
France to present and discuss draft monitor
                                                            27-31
specification
EU to send comments to EPA and EPA to                                01             15
review them
Industry to meter current models based on                            25             15
refined test method
Final day for industry to submit test data to
EPA
                                                                               15
EPA to analyze data and prepare draft two of                                   16          04
the specification
EPA to confer with TCO during the                                              16          04
preparation of draft two
EPA to distribute second draft of specification                                          05
to industry and other stakeholders                                                                                      22
                              Time Line for Revision of Computer
                                Monitor Specification (cont’d.)



Industry and EU to send comments to EPA            06        09
and EPA to review them
EPA to prepare final specification                      10        29
EPA to distribute final specification to
industry and other stakeholders
                                                             30
EPA to work with industry to identify                                  01
potential venues to announce/promote new
specification. Prepare announcement, etc.
Interested manufacturers sign Partnership                              01
Agreement
Tentative effective date of specification                                        01




                                                                            23
What did the monitor industry
   think about our draft
       specification?



                                24
       Key Industry Feedback Regarding
              Draft Specification

• Industry expressed few concerns on having the new
  specification include requirements for all three
  operating modes: on, sleep, and off.

• With few exceptions, industry agreed to a pixel per
  watt approach for on mode


• EPA and industry agreed to define a common test
  method for measuring on mode power consumption.
  Manufacturers to test and submit data once test
  method is finalized                             25
       Key Industry Feedback Regarding
          Draft Specification (cont’d)

• Should ENERGY STAR set one specification (one
  line) that covers all CRT and LCD monitors, or should
  the specification differentiate between CRTs and
  LCDs (2 lines) ?

• Specification too stringent for CRTs, particularly for
  the desktop publishing environment (e.g., large
  screen sizes)

• Wake-up time for monitor. Industry wants more
  guidance on how to measure/define wake-up time
                                                           26
       Key Industry Feedback Regarding
          Draft Specification (cont’d)


• Industry supports a single sleep mode specification,
  as opposed to the current sleep and deep sleep
  design

• 4-watt sleep mode specification is agreeable

• off mode of 2 watts may be difficult for LCDs




                                                         27
       Key Industry Feedback Regarding
          Draft Specification (cont’d)

• Several manufacturers questioned non-energy
  requirements

• Specific concerns include:
   – Brightness level will be harder to meet for larger
     CRT monitors.
   – EPA should reference ISO standards for contrast
     ratio; CRTs and LCDs are measured differently.
   – Pixel faults only applies to LCD monitors.
   – Warranties could be a serious challenge with
     retailers, and may not work in international
     markets.
                                                          28
Next Steps...




                29
     Key Next Steps for EPA and
              Industry
• Establish test procedure

• Industry to submit input to EPA on non-energy
  parameters

• Manufacturers to test monitors according to new test
  procedure and submit data to EPA.

• EPA to analyze new data and revise specifications,
  as necessary.


                                                  30
       Changes to specification based on
             Industry Response


• May need to allow more CRTs to qualify

• large screen CRTs issue

• Scale down non-energy attributes

• Monitor wake-up time ?

• Test procedure                           31
Questions ?


Comments ?

              32
             Questions for You...

• Were their questions or comments on the first
  draft?
   – Test procedure, non-energy attributes, etc....

• Like to submit next draft to you first provided
  we receive comments in timely fashion (3
  weeks)

• Can you provide data from European
  manufacturers?
                                                  33
      The Specifics



  Sleep, Off, On Mode
and non-energy attributes




                            34
                   Sleep Mode

Current ENERGY STAR Specification:
• First Sleep:  15 W; Second Sleep:  8W

Proposed Specification:
• Just one level :  4 W; simplifies spec
• Under the new spec, sleep mode power is
  about 10% of active mode power
• Roughly two-thirds of existing models can
  meet the proposed sleep requirement.

                                              35
            Sleep Mode Questions


Verify consensus:
• Only 1 tier (no deep sleep)?
• Maximum power level : 4 W?
• Advisory levels set at right levels?
  -Default time till sleep: < 15 minutes
  -Recovery time: < 5 seconds


                                           36
                  Off Mode


• Current specification: no standby power
  limit.
• Current measured levels: some as high
  as 8-9 W, several at 4-5 W.
• Proposed specification:  2 W.
• Lots of models currently meet the 2W
  limit.
                                         37
            “Off” Mode Questions


• Verify Consensus:
  – Is 2W the right level?
  – Beneficial to have same level set in
    Executive Order (not simply 1W)?
  – Suggestions on how to harmonize with
    European Union. (TCO)



                                           38
On (Active) Mode Discussion




                              39
              What Does The Term
         “Energy Efficient Monitor” Mean?


• Efficiency = Useful Output or Service Provided / Total
  Energy Input
• Useful output or service could be diagonal inches of
  screen size, square inches of screen size, or total
  pixels displayed
• Monitor not displaying information (providing useful
  output) in sleep or standby modes, so minimize
  power use at those times to achieve high overall
  efficiency
• Can account for all energy use in all three modes
  separately or with a duty cycle
• ENERGY STAR seeks to recognize top 25% efficiency 40
                     Estimated Annual Energy Use for
                      Estimated Annual Energy Use for CRTs and LCDs
             350
                                 CRTs and LCDs

             300


                                                                                  Off
             250                                                                  Sleep
                                                                                  On
                                     189 kwh saved/year
Annual kWh




             200




             150



             100
                                                                               79 kwh saved/year


              50



               0
                   19" CRT                    17" LCD     17" CRT                         15" LCD
                             Office Monitor                         Residential Monitor
           The Advantages of Pixels/Watt

• Pixels/watt approach has a number of key
  advantages:
• More technology neutral – avoids difference between
  viewable screen size and total
• Screen area (square inches) unknown to consumers
• Credits CRTs for their present resolution advantage,
  yet allows for very high resolution options like IBM’s
  new 9.1 million pixel LCD
• Emphasizes display quality over physical size
• Avoids difficulty of trying to estimate a representative
  “duty cycle” for all monitors
• Simple, like lumens/watt (lighting) or CFM/watt (fans).
  Can also be characterized as watts/megapixel
                                                        42
Effect of Resolution and Monitor Type on
       Active Power Consumption
Effect of Resolution and Monitor Type on Active
Power Consumption for Monitors 17” and Less
 Effect of Resolution and Monitor Type on Active
Power Consumption for Monitors Greater than 17”
                                   Effect of Resolution and Monitor Size on
                                 Active Power Consumption for LCD Monitors
                       170


                       160

                       150

                       140

                       130

                       120


                       110
Watts in Active Mode




                       100

                       90


                       80

                       70

                       60

                       50

                       40


                       30                                                                                                                   < 16"
                                                                                                                                            16-17"
                       20
                                                                                                                                            18-20"
                                                                                                                                            > 20"
                       10
                                                                                                                                            Proposed Specification
                        0
                         0.00   250000.00   500000.00   750000.00    1000000.00   1250000.00   1500000.00   1750000.00   2000000.00   2250000.00    2500000.00   2750000.00   3000000.00

                                                                    Millions of Pixels (horizontal X vertical resolution)                                            46
                                    Effect of Resolution and Monitor Size on
                                  Active Power Consumption for CRT Monitors
                       170


                       160

                       150

                       140

                       130


                       120

                       110
Watts in Active Mode




                       100

                       90

                       80

                       70

                       60

                       50
                                                                                                                                       < 16"
                       40                                                                                                              16-17"
                                                                                                                                       18-20"
                       30
                                                                                                                                       > 20"
                       20                                                                                                              Proposed Specification

                       10


                        0
                         0.00   250000.00   500000.00   750000.00   1000000.00   1250000.00   1500000.00   1750000.00   2000000.00   2250000.00   2500000.00    2750000.00    3000000.00

                                                                    Millions of Pixels (horizontal X vertical resolution)                                                    47
        Applying Active Power Spec to
            Standard Resolutions


Resolution    Category   Total Pixels   Maximum Power Use
 640 x 480     VGA          307,200          37 watts
 800 x 600     SVGA         480,000          40 watts
1024 x 768     XGA          786,432          46 watts
1280 x 1024    SXGA       1,310,720          57 watts
1600 x 1200    UXGA       1,920,000          69 watts
1800 x 1440               2,592,000          82 watts
2048 x 1536               3,145,728          93 watts

                                                            48
        Need for Consistent Measurement


• STAR database contains self-reported data
  from manufacturers
• Not all monitors measured under identical
  conditions in active or “on” mode
• Depending on user settings and image
  displayed, CRT power variations can be +/-
  30%. LCD variations can be +/- 50%.
• ENERGY STAR has helped develop common
  test methods to the ventilation and lighting
  industries – may be able to bring
  standardization to monitor measurements as
  well.                                        49
                            Effects of User Settings on Power
                                  for a 21” CRT Monitor
              Effects of User Settings on Power for a 21" CRT Monitor


        160



        140



        120



        100
Watts




                  High
         80
                  Low

                  Average
         60



         40



         20



          0
              Resolution     Refresh Rate   Brightness   Contrast   # of Colors   Image Displayed   Extremes
                                                                                                        50
                                                         Setting
                          Effects of User Settings on Power for a
                                      17” LCD Monitor
             Effects of User Settings on Power for a 17" LCD Monitor

        40



        35



        30



        25
                      High

                      Low
Watts




        20
                      Average


        15



        10



         5



         0
             Resolution         Refresh Rate   Brightness   Contrast   # of Colors   Image Displayed   Extremes
                                                                                                          51
                                                            Setting
Non-Energy Aspects of the
      Specification




                            52
       Why Include Non-Energy Attributes?


• Goal is to ensure a level playing field – maintain or
  enhance quality while saving energy
• What aspects of product quality or performance could
  be compromised if a manufacturer looked for a “quick
  fix” to meet the new ENERGY STAR spec?
• ENERGY STAR and the utilities that support it want to
  ensure that customers will have a satisfying
  experience with labeled products.
• Reliability -- Saving energy is the product of power
  savings and time (kwh = w*h). An energy efficient
  product that fails early won’t save much energy.
                                                     53
54
        Key Non-Energy Spec Provisions


• Brightness – Minimum of 100 nits at default
  brightness and contrast settings
   – LCDs typically 150 to 250 nits
   – CRTs typically 80 to 120 nits
• Contrast ratio – Minimum of 200:1 (can adjust
  settings to achieve this level)
   – LCDs typically 200:1 to 400:1
   – CRTs typically >400:1
• Without these specs, very dim or low contrast
  screens could more easily meet ENERGY STAR but
  may not satisfy users
                                                   55
                 Other Key Attributes


• Refresh rate – Minimum of 85 Hz for CRTs and 60
  Hz for LCDs – attempt to preserve ergonomic quality
• Pixel faults – No more than 5 sub-pixel faults per
  million sub-pixels (Class II, ISO 13406-2) – seek to
  minimize quality differences between CRT & LCD
• Warranty – At least 2 years - 3 years common from
  many major manufacturers, but spec recognizes
  retailer preference for selling extended warranties




                                                     56
              Other Possible Non-Energy
                      Attributes

• Viewing angle – How far from the horizontal and
  vertical axes of the screen can it still be clearly seen?
• Wake from sleep time – How long before information
  is legible on screen after wakeup? Is there a
  consensus way to measure that?
• Pixel density – pixels per inch (PPI)
• Resolution/Addressability Ratio (RAR) – VESA
  Section 6.6 – ability of a screen to resolve individual
  lines or pixels
• Others?

                                                          57
Test Method Discussion




                         58
             Elements of a Standard Test
                     Procedure

• Identical on-screen image (alternating black and
  white lines 1 pixel in height?) filling full viewable area
  of screen
• Default brightness and contrast settings (balance
  between simplicity and risk of manipulation)
• Highest VESA supported resolution with a refresh
  rate of at least 85 Hz for CRTs, native resolution and
  60 Hz refresh rate for LCDs – is other timing
  language needed?



                                                           59
          Other Test Procedure Elements


• Reference VESA specifications for power
  measurement – true RMS power at 3 combinations of
  voltage and frequency, averaged across at least 5
  test samples
   – 100 VAC, 50 Hz; 117 VAC, 60 Hz; 230 VAC, 50 Hz
• Leave off or disconnect any included peripheral
  features – TV tuner, microphone, speakers, USB
  hubs, etc.
• Others?


                                                      60
Standardized Labeling Information on the Box

    Active Power Use Sleep Power Use Off Power Use
           40 watts                         4 watts                        2 watts
                 Resolution                               Energy Efficiency
           1600 x 1200 pixels                             48,000 pixels/watt
    Energy Efficiency measures how much inf ormation can be displayed per wat t of power used.
                                  Higher numbers are bett er.




                                                                                                 61
 ENERGY STAR Office
 Equipment specification
      revisions…

What does the future hold?


                             62
 Future Specification Revisions
• Other Office Equipment
     • Laptops (initiate research March 2002)
     • Scanners, printers, copiers, MFDs, fax machines
        – (Scanner USB issue; initiate research Sept. 2002)
     • computer (initiate research mid-2003)

• Vision
     • EU-EPA collaboration
     • sleep, active power and standby power
     • energy efficient power supplies
     • USB driven products
                                                         63
     • universal imaging specification

								
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