CARIBBEAN - DOC by sofiaie

VIEWS: 74 PAGES: 32

									FRANCE

Ingredients and dishes

Bifteck au poivre: Steak with pepper sauce

Blanquette de Veau: Veal stew

Bouillabaisse: Fish and shellfish stew—specialty of Provence

Boeuf Bourgignon: Beef stewed in red wine

Caneton a l'Orange: Roasted duck with orange sauce

Cassoulet: Beans stewed with chicken, sausage, and goose, or any variety meats

Champignon: Mushrooms

Clafoutis aux Cerises: Cherry cake similar to a dense, upside-down cake

Coq au Vin: Chicken cooked in wine

Creme Caramel: Egg custard with caramel sauce (caramelized sugar)

Crepes Suzette: Dessert crepes (thin pancakes) drenched in orange sauce and flamed
with cognac and Grand Marnier

Crudites: Variety of fresh, raw vegetable salads

Escargots a la Bourgignonne: Snails in garlic butter

Fines Herbes: A dried herb mixture of chervil, tarragon, parsley and savory

Fromages: Cheeses

Gateau: Cake

Herbes de Provence: A robust herb mix comprising thyme, rosemary, basil, sage, fennel
and lavender

Lapin: Rabbit

Moules a la Mariniere: Mussels cooked in wine-based broth

Mousse au Chocolat: Rich chocolate dessert made with eggs and cream
Omelette aux fines herbes: Omelet with herbs

Pains: Breads

Pate: Ground meats seasoned with cognac and herbs and baked firm

Poissons: Fish

Pommes Frites: French-fried potatoes (also called frites)

Potage Creme d"Asperges: Asparagus soup

Poulet Roti: Roast chicken

Quiche a Lorraine: Eggs and cream baked in a pie crust topped with cheese and bacon.
A specialty of Alsace

Ratatouille: Provencal vegetable dish based primarily on eggplant, zucchini and
tomatoes

Ris de veau: Sweetbreads (from veal)

Salade Frisee: Endive salad

Savarin: Molded yeasted cake soaked in rum syrup

Sole Meuniere: Sole baked with butter sauce

Sorbet: Fruit-based ice similar to sherbet

Soufle au Fromage: poofy, baked egg custard with cheese

Soup a l'Oignon: Brothy onion soup topped with bread and cheese

Steak Frites: Fried steak typically served with"french-fried" potatoes

Tarte aux Fraise: Strawberry pie

Tarte a l'Oignon: Onion pie—specialty of Alsace

Viandes: Meats
ENGLAND, SCOTLAND, n. IRELAND, WALES

Ingredients and dishes



ENGLAND

"Bangers and Mash" - Sausage and mashed potatoes.

Biscuit - A catchall phrase meaning both cookies ("sweet biscuits") and crackers ("dry
biscuits"). Sometimes they'll call one of those slightly sweet cookies (like graham
crackers) a "digestive biscuit," or merely a "digestive."

Black Pudding - This is blood sausage, not a dessert. Just be thankful it's not Haggis,
okay?

"Bubble and Squeak" - a concoction of cabbage and mashed potatoes.

Cornish Pasty - pie crust with potatoes, meat and turnips

Fish 'n' Chips – battered fish with French fries, used to be sold in newspaper and
sprinkled liberally with malt vinegar

Ploughman's Lunch – a slab of cheese and a hunk of bread, served with pickled onions
and often a small salad.

Scones (with clotted cream) – like biscuits, usually served with jam (jelly), cream as
part of afternoon tea

Shepherd's Pie - Meat pie with mashed potatoes on top.

Spotted Dick - a steamed suet pudding, the ―spots‖ are raisins or currants.

"Toad-in-the-Hole" – sausages cooked in batter.



IRELAND

Barmbrack: one of the few yeast leavened breads made in Ireland. Increasingly more
varieties are being added. This delicious fruited bread is a special treat for Halloween
when tiny charms are often tucked inside, bringing luck to the finder.
Boxty Bread: a flat round bread, made from mashed potatoes, flour, and buttermilk, and
leavened with baking soda.
Brawn: a jellied dish of simmered pig's head and sometimes vegetables. The meat is
chopped and set to gel in the cooking broth.
Brotchan: an oatmeal thickened soup.
Caveach: boned and fried fillets of fish (usually mackerel) stored in a crock covered with
vinegar. This dish is served cold, often with potato salad.
Champ: hot mashed potatoes served with a pool of melted butter. Each spoonful is
dipped in the butter. An Irish favorite.
Colcannon: Scottish dish of hot potatoes mashed with another well-cooked vegetable
(often cabbage or turnips) and served with melted butter.
Corned Beef and Cabbage: pickled brisket is slowly simmered in water. Near the end of
the cooking time, wedges of cabbage are added and cooked till tender. The meat is sliced
and served with the cabbage wedges; the broth is reserved to use as a soup base for
another meal.
Cumberland Pie: a two-crusted pie made with a potato and flout pastry filled with rolls
of bacon and beaten eggs. Cut in wedges after baking.
Curd Cheese: cottage cheese.
Dublin Coddle: slowly baked stew of ham, sausages, onions and potatoes served with
hot soda bread.
Oaten Biscuits: a mixture of lard, oats, flour, and milk (no leavening) that is rolled
thinly, cut in rounds then baked. Thin, crisp, and nourishing, these may be eaten with
morning tea or for a snack.
Scrooch: chunks of beef brisket, mutton, and vegetables boiled together with a little salt
and pepper, served as a soup or a meal.
Singin' Hinnies: hot griddle cakes scented with cinnamon and studded with currants.
These are usually prepared after pig-killing – so extra lard is added.
Skirlie-Mirlie: a mixture of cooked potatoes and turnips whisked with boiling milk and
butter until light and fluffy. Served with toast triangles or fried bread.
Skirts and Bodices: pork trimmings and pickled spare ribs cooked with water, salt,
pepper, and onions. A traditional Cork dish..
Tripe and Onions: English fare adopted by the Irish and served as a Sunday breakfast
specialty. Boiled onions and tripe are drained, mixed in a white sauce, and served over
toast.
Willicks or Willocks: another name for winkles or periwinkles. They are boiled in
seawater then eaten out of their shells with a pin. Sometimes vinegar and salt are
sprinkled over them or they are dunked in fine oatmeal before popping in the mouth.




SCOTLAND
Bannocks (or Oatcakes) - A barley and oat-flour biscuit baked on a griddle.

Scotch Broth or Hotch-Potch - A rich stock is traditionally made by boiling mutton (the
neck is best), beef, marrow-bone or chicken (for a chicken broth) with barley, diced
carrots, garden peas, leeks, cabbage, turnips and a stick of celery.

Black Bun - Black Bun is a very rich fruit cake, made with raisins, currants, finely-
chopped peel, chopped almonds and brown sugar with the addition of cinnamon and
ginger.

Crowdie - A simple white cheese, made from the whey of slightly soured milk seasoned
with salt and a touch of pepper. The seasoned whey is squeezed in a muslin bag to
remove excess water, left aside for two days and then rolled in oats and served.

Scottish Salmon - In recent times, many major fish farms have been established in the
Sea Lochs on the West coast of Scotland. These are major commercial sources of fish,
although the quality is not considered to be the same as wild river-caught salmon.

Today the salmon tends to be smoked, and thinly sliced, served as an entrée.

Bridies - Meat pies

Finnan Haddie: Smoked haddock

Haggis - Haggis is made from sheep's offal (or pluck). The windpipe, lungs, heart and
liver of the sheep are boiled and then minced. This is mixed with beef suet and lightly
toasted oatmeal. This mixture is placed inside the sheep's stomach, which is sewn closed.
The resulting haggis is traditionally cooked by further boiling (for up to three hours)
although the part-cooked haggis can be cooked in the oven which prevents the risk of
bursting and spoiling.

Scotch Eggs – A hard boiled egg, wrapped in sausagemeat, dipped in egg and
breadcrumbs and deep fried.
Porridge - A simple dish, made of boiled oatmeal. It needs to be boiled slowly and
stirred continuously with the traditional spirtle - a wooden stick which is about 30cm (or
12") long - to avoid the formation of lumps.




WALES

Bara Brith - A traditional rich cake that is the centrepiece of many a Welsh tea table

Flummery - Welsh food made from oatmeal steeped in water until it turns sour

Laver bread - A sort of seaweed pancake

Welsh rabbit or rarebit - Cheese melted into a mass, and usually spread over slices of
toasted bread.
GERMANY

Ingredients and dishes
Wurst, sausages- Brunswick Mettwurst (Smoked pork), Weisswurst (veal &
herb), Leberwurst (liver sausage)
Tafelspitz—braised beef with horseradish
Rosti—potato pancakes fried with onion and butter
Himmel und Erde—Heaven and Earth: puréed apples and potatoes topped
with blood sausage
Schwarzwalder—Black Forest Cake, a chocolate cake with cherries,
whipped cream, grated chocolate
Konigsberger Klopse—meatballs in caper sauce
Hackbraten—meatloaf (braten indicates a roast of some kind)
Sauerbraten—beef roast braised in wine or vinegar
Hassenpfeffer—rabbit stew
Schlachtplatte—mixed sausages, sauerkraut and potatoes


SCANDINAVIA
Ingredients and dishes

Smorrebrod – Danish open faced sandwiches.

Smorgasbord – Swedish buffet of hot and cold dishes

Lingonberries – tart, red berries used in sweet and savory dishes

Nyponsoppa – Swedish fruit soup made with rose hips

Reindeer – used throughout Scandinavia

Lutefisk – dried cod

Lefse – potato pancake

Kringla – sour cream cookies, tied in figure eights or knots

Krumkaker – thin, delicate cookies made with a special iron, then rolled around a wooden
spoon while still warm
Far I Kal – Mutton and cabbage stew (Norway)

Spettekaka, ostkaka – Swedish cakes

Frikadeller – Danish meat patties

Limpa – Swedish rye bread


SPAIN

Ingredients and Foods

Azafron
saffron, an Arab word for yellow. Stigmas of a purple crocus flower.

Bacalao
dried salted codfish.

Butifarra sausage
a white sausage popular in Cataluna.

Cazuelas
glazed earthenware dishes.

Chorizo
the most typical Spanish sausage, heavily scented with paprika and garlic.

Piment—n
paprika, or ground sweet red pepper, from Spain.

Turr—n
an almond and honey candy of Arab origin that comes in a hard bar and in a soft
marzipan-like form.

ITALY

Ingredients and food terms

Al denté: Describes foods, especially pasta, cooked only until soft enough to eat, but not
overdone. The Italian translation is "to the teeth."

Antipasto: refers to appetizers served before the main meal. Antipasto literally means
"before the pasta.
Asiago: a cow's milk cheese made in northern Italy. Mild nutty flavor when young, more
pronounced with age.

Biscotti: Italian cookie often hard in texture and lightly flavored with anise.

Bocconcini: refers to "little fresh Mozzarella balls" Mozzarella cheese is produced in
Albruzzi-Molise and Campania and is made from fresh cows milk. Mozzarella is the
larger of the balls of cheese produced in the process. The smaller balls are the bocconcini.

Bruschetta: Garlic and Olive Oil topped toasted bread sometimes topped with chopped
Tomatoes and Basil.

Cacciatore: is a traditional Italian meal (e.g. Chicken Cacciatore) in which vegetables
are cooked in a hearty sauce with meat.

Calamari: is just another name for Squid (in Italian, of course). Calamari is often served
deep fried.

Capers:flower buds from the Caper Bush which are harvested and pickled in vinegar and
salt brine. Capers are used in cooking as a seasoning.

Capsicum: refers to a bell or green pepper.

Carbonara: traditional Roman sauce consisting of garlic, eggs, and bacon served over
pasta.

Carpaccio: raw beef appetizer topped with a mustard - mayonnaise sauce.

Cazuela de Pescado: a variety of fish in a very spicy sauce.

Cilantro: sometimes called coriander. Whole seed or ground, goes savory and sweet.
Fresh cilantro is tangy and very similar to parsley.

Fennel: licorice flavored bulb used raw or cooked as a seasoning and garnish. Fennel
resembles a head of celery with a bulb at the bottom.

Focaccia: Italian flatbread often topped with olive oil, herbs, garlic, and cheese.

Fontina: semi-soft, high-fat cow's milk cheese that is often used in fondue. Mild taste
and excellent for melting in cream sauces and fillings. Fontina should not be confused
with Fontinella.

Marinara: over-coat or overcoat: i.e.(Coat pasta with a sauce). vegetable sauce
traditionally made with tomatoes, onions, garlic, and olive oil. Variations: Capers, pitted
black olives, crushed red pepper or diced chile pepper.
Mozzarella: hand-stretched cheese made from buffalo milk in Campania. Mild and
creamy in taste.

Prosciutto: salt-cured ham which is air-cured and served in thin slices. It is popularly
used as an appetizer wrapped around melon pieces.

Taleggio: soft, high-fat cow's milk cheese from Lombardia. Rind is reddish-brown and
has a very rich taste. Great table cheese and can be used in fillings and cream sauces.

Tiramasu – a custard and cake dessert flavored with coffee
GREECE

Ingredients and Foods

Arni
lamb

Avgolemono
An egg and lemon mixtures used as a sauce or a soup base.

Baklava
the most famous Greek dessert, made of layers of fila pastry, chopped nuts, and a honey-
flavored syrup

Dolmades
grapevine leaves stuffed with rice or meat

Feta
the classic white goat cheese of Greece

Fila, filo, or phyllo
the paper-thin pastry dough essential for appetizers, entrees, and desserts.

Garides
shrimp

Kafes
coffee

Kalamaria
squid

Kalamata
probably the most famous Greek olive

Kasseri
creamy farm cheese with a bitey flavor

Kefalotiri
a hard, salty cheese, good for grating

Kourabiedes
butter cookies topped with powdered sugar

Loukoumades
made-to-order deep-fried honey balls topped with honey; served warm
Mezethes
small savory appetizers

Moussaka
a layered casserole usualy made with eggplant and chopped meat, and topped with a
custard sauce

Orzo
tiny melon seed-shaped pasta

Pastitsio
a layered casserole of macaroni and chopped meat topped with a custard sauce

Pilafi
rice boiled in broth and flavored with onion and spices

Psari
fish

Souvlakia
skewered food

Spanakopeta
spinach fila pastries

Tahini
crushed sesame seed paste

Tarama
fish roe from gtray mullet

Taramosalata
fish roe spread

Tiropita
fila stuffed with Greek cheese

Tsatziki: cucumber yogurt dip
EASTERN EUROPE AND RUSSIA

Ingredients and Foods

Blinis – pancakes usually made with buckwheat and served with caviar

Baklava – almond filled filo dough

Caviar – sturgeon (fish) roe

Blintzes – cream cheese filled crepes served with sweet sauce

Yogurt – dairy product

Bulgar wheat – staple grain made from wheat

Buckwheat – grain used in many breads and pancakes

Goulash – Hungarian meat dish with paprika

Strudel – dessert made with thin pastry and fruit

Kolache – Czech sweet bread similar to Danish pastries

Bigos - stew or casserole made with wild game

Caraway – spice which tastes like aniseed, used in breads and casseroles

Paprika – Hungarian spice made from ground sweet red peppers

Pierogies – potato filled noodle dough, can be steamed or fried

Stroganov – Russian dish made with high quality beef

Borscht – soup made with beets

Samovar – Russian vessel for brewing and serving large quantities of tea
INDIA

Ingredients and dishes

Achar: Any kind of pickle

Aloo: Potato

Biryani: A fancy rice casserole, often containing meat, poultry, seafood or vegetables

Chapati/Roti: Thin bread cooked on the griddle

Dal: Any kind of legume--beans, peas, or lentils

Dosa: Crispy, crepe-like southern Indian specialty filled with potatoes or vegetables

Ghee: Clarified butter

Gosht: Meat

Korma: Braised meats in a thick, mild creamy sauce

Kulcha: Tender, pita-like bread cooked in the tandoor

Lassi: A refreshing, creamy yogurt drink that can be sweet or salty

Masala: Spice blend

Naan: Flat, oval bread cooked in the tandoor

Pakora: Fritter dipped in a spicy chickpea batter; can be made with vegetables, cheese,

chicken or seafood

Paneer: Cheese

Pappadum: Spicy lentil wafers

Paratha: Flaky bread fried on the griddle

Poori: Airy, deep-fried bread

Pulao: An aromatic rice pilaf
Raita: A yogurt-based condiment usually containing vegetables

Rasam: A thin, spicy broth

Saag: Spinach, but can also refer to other greens

Sambar: An extremely spicy broth popular in southern India

Samosa: Flaky, pyramid-shaped pastry stuffed with potatoes or ground meat; a

traditional Indian snack

Tandoor: A deep, clay oven that has very high temperatures

Tandoori: Any dish cooked in a tandoor

Vindaloo: An extremely spicy curry dish that's a regional specialty of Goa
MIDDLE EAST

Ingredients and dishes

Bulgur (Birghil): or Cracked Wheat. It is made from wheat that has been cracked. It is
available in three sizes: large, medium, and small (fine). The small variety is used in this
book as the ingredient for recipes such as Tabuli and Kibba. Bulgur is available in our
online store

Cardamom (Hale): Due to the Arabic trade with India this spice is a common ingredient
in recipes from the Middle East and Eastern Europe.

Couscous: Couscous is a Moroccan staple. It is eaten with many meals, and almost every
day. It is made from durum-wheat semolina with salt and water.

Cream of Rice is a staple ingredient in many middle Easten Cuiinses

Cream of Wheat: it is made of ground-up wheat pearls.

Curry (Karry): many Middle Easten cuiisnes have developes their own blends of spices
that are mainly Indian but to local tastes.

Fava Beans (Bajilla): This bean variety can be found in health-food and Middle Eastern
stores in a dehydrated or canned form. Fresh Fava Beans can sometimes be found in
supermarkets during the summer season.

Garbanzo Beans (Hummus): These beans are also known as Ceci beans and Chickpeas
and is a must for a Middle Easten pantry.

Middle Eastern Spice (Boharat): This popular spice is made from blending and
grinding several spices in exact proportions. It gives the Middle Eastern food its
distinctive taste and aroma. It is a mixture of seven spices, including allspice, nutmeg,
cardamom and others.

Mint (Naanaa): This aromatic plant enhances many recipes from this region

Oman Lemon (Noomy Basrah): A variety of the lime family, this plant is unique to the
Middle East region. It looks like a small brown dehydrated lime and has a strong tangy
aroma. It can be found in Middle Eastern stores under a variety of names, such as Basrah
Lemon or Oman Lemon. Sometimes you may find it in plastic bags without a label.

Pita Bread: This variety of bread has become very popular. Middle Eastern people eat it
with meals as well as use it for sandwiches.

Rose Water (My Warid): This is an aromatic water containing the extract of roses.
Saffron (Zaafaran): Saffron is the deep-orange, aromatic, dried stigmas of a purple-
flowered crocus. It is used to colour and flavour foods such as rice. Saffron is very
expensive and is therefore sold in small quantities.

Tahini (Rashi): This tan-coloured substance, made from sesame seeds, is thick in
consistency. The seeds are first toasted and then ground with peanut oil. Because no
emulsifiers are used, the Tahina will separate with time. This is normal; just stir before
using. Its most popular use is in the Hummus Be-Tahina dish.

Tamarind (Tamir Hind): This tangy tropical fruit is available in fruit packs or paste.
MEXICO AND SOUTH AMERICA

Ingredients and Foods

Achiote Yucatan-style paste made from ground annatto seeds, spices and lime juice or
vinegar.

Adobo: A smoky, chile-based sauce with tomatoes, onions, garlic and spices.

Anaheim Long, thin green chile used in the USA to make chile rellenos. In New Mexico,
when they ripen and turn bright red they're dried in ristras, or strands and used in sauces.

Ancho Dried poblano chile.

Annatto Seeds: Small seeds ground up and used in Yucatan's Achiote Paste.

Asada Broiled (as in Carne Asada is meat broiled over hot coals).

Burrito or Burritos Pretty much anything rolled up in a big flour tortilla.

Carne: Meat.

Carne Asada Broiled meat, usually skirt or flank steak cooked fast over hot coals.

Ceviche Raw fish marinated in Mexican lime juice and mixed with tomatoes, onions,
chiles and spices. Served as an appetizer.

Chayote: A type of squash.

Chile rellenos or Chiles rellenos Ancho or Anaheim chiles, with skins removed, dipped
in batter, stuffed with cheese or meat and covered with lightly spiced red sauce.

Chimichanga or chimichangas Deep-fried, meat-filled burrito.

Chipotle or Chipotles Dried, smoked jalapeño chile.

Chorizo: Fresh, highly seasoned sausage flavored with chiles and spices.

Cilantro: Coriander. An herb used all over Mexico for Mexican food seasoning.

Comida: Meal.

Dulce: Sweet or candy.

Empanadas Pastry turnover filled with spicy meat or fruit and sweets. Empanadas are
very popular in Mexico, Argentina, Chile, Peru and Spain.
Enchilada or Enchiladas Lightly fried corn tortilla dipped in red sauce and stuffed with
cheese or shredded chicken or beef.

Flauta: Long corn or flour tortilla filled with beef or chicken and deep fried.

Frijoles: Beans (usually kidney, bayo, pinto or black).

Guacamole: Dip served with tortilla chips of mashed avocado with onions, chiles,
tomatoes, lime juice and spices.

Habanero Hottest Mexican food chile pepper out there.

Jalapeno or Jalapenos Medium hot chile pepper. jalapeño peppers

Jícama: A crunchy, delicious white root, served sliced and sprinkled with lime and chile
powder.

Masa: Dough of ground corn meal and water used to make corn tortillas and tamales.

Mole: Complex dark sauce with chiles, nuts, spices, fruits, vegetables, chocolate and
seasonings.

Poblano: Dark green, rounded fresh chile used for chile rellenos.

Pozole: Robust, medium spicy soup with pork or chicken, hominy, onions and spices.
Also called posole.

Salsa: Sauce.

Serrano: One of northern Mexico's favorite chiles. Small, green and very hot.

Taco: Usually a fried corn tortilla, folded in half and filled with meat, cheese, tomatoes,
lettuce and salsa. Can also be served soft and filled with a variety of ingredients.

Tamale or Tamales Corn tortilla dough filled with masa, meat, vegetables or fruit,
wrapped up in a corn husk and steamed.

Tomatillo: Relative of the gooseberry family. Resembles a small green tomato. Very
flavorful and used in many sauces.

Tortilla: Flat, thin, circular unleavened bread made of masa for corn tortillas or harina
for flour tortillas. Most important item in Mexican cooking.

Tostada: Fried corn tortilla, often topped with beans, meat, tomatoes, lettuce and salsa.
CARIBBEAN
Ingredients and dishes

Adobo: A basic seasoning mix used in Spanish-based
dishes.

Annato: Also called achiote - small red seeds used for
flavor and bright yellow color.

Arroz con Pollo: Chicken and rice - a Spanish specialty.

Black Bean Soup or Sopa de Frijol Negro: Thick, black
bean soup served over rice that is a specialty of Cuba.

Cabrito: Young goat, used in Jamaica's Kid Curry.

Callaloo: Both a vegetable (greens similar to spinach) and the name of a soup made with
callaloo.

Casabe: Bread made with cassava, dates back to the Arawaks.

Cassareep: Juice from the cassava root used for seasoning.

Chorizo: Spicy Spanish sausage usually made from pork.

Coconut Shrimp: Appetizer of deep-fried shrimp with light coconut sauce.

Conch: Spiral-shaped edible mollusk used in appetizers, salads, and stews.

Coo-Coo: Dense cornmeal bread, sometimes cooked with okra or flavored with coconut.

Coconuts: Hard, round fruits of the palm tree - flesh and milk used for desserts, sauces,
and drinks - some traditional dishes use coconut oil for deep frying.

En Escabeche: Pickled.

Flan: Egg custard that can also be made with fruits, pumpkin, or coconut cream.

Hearts of Palm: Tender, inner leaves of the palmetto (palm) tree.

Jerk Pork: Signature Jamaican dish - pork seasoned with chilies, herbs, and spices.

Langouste or langosta: Lobster.

Pepper pot: Classic Caribbean stew made with meat and sometimes vegetables.
Picadillo: Pork cubes cooked with peppers, raisins, and olives in a spicy sauce.

Plantain: Like a banana but starchier, and used more like a vegetable - as it ripens, it
turns from green to yellow to brown.

Salt fish: Dried preserved codfish.

Sofrito: A spicy vegetable mixture used to season other dishes.

Stamp and Go: Deep-fried codfish patties named after nautical command.

Yuca: Also known as cassava or manioc - a long potato-like tuber with starchy flesh used
to make tapioca, or ground and made into bread.
AFRICA

Ingredients and dishes

Baobab - tree, fruit, juice, leaves, and seeds used

Berbere - red pepper spice paste used in Ethiopia

Cassava - a tuber which is the source for manioc and tapioca

Cola nut - flat seed from a West Africa native tree, flavoring for colas. Used in Africa to
lessen thirst

Efo = multipurpose name for greens, including cassava, sorrel, mustard, collards, chard,
and turnip

Elubo - yam flour

Foofoo - mashed yam, or yam, corn, and plantain pudding

Groundnuts - the African name for peanut, introduced by the Portuguese from Brazil

Gombo = the West African word for Okra, American derivative of any stew using okra is
called a gumbo

Garden eggs - term for a small green skinned African eggplants

Gari - starch from the cassava. Used in Ghana, in porridge breads

Joloff rice - spicy chicken and rice

Mealie and Mealie meal = maize of American Indian corn, a drier type of field corn.
Stone ground white cornmeal substitutes

Millet = grain bearing grass, a smaller version is called Teff

Niter Kibbeh - Ethiopian spiced butter oil. Clarified butter to which nutmeg, cinnamon,
and cardamom seeds are added with turmeric for color, browned, strained and uses as
seasoning and cooking oil in Ethiopia

Okra - native to Africa, pods are gelatinous, adding a thickening agent to soups and
stews. available frozen throughout the year, fresh seasonally
Palm nut oil and butter - from the palm nuts in Ghana. Almost impossible to find in the
United States, highly saturated

Plantain - a starchy banana, cooked like a root vegetable

Sorghum = cane like grass with a small cereal grain (similar to millet)

Yam - all purpose term for yellow-orange tubers.
AUSTRALIA

Ingredients and Foods

Anzac Crispies - crisp oatmeal cookies. Beetroot: common name for beets.

Biscuits: - common name for cookies, many of which are also known as Kiwi Crisps,
Maori Kisses, Hokey Pokey Biscuits, Moomba Fingers, and so on.

Brawn - a jelled mix of cooked cubed beef, veal, and pork.

Capsicums - common name for red and green sweet peppers.

Castor Sugar - finely granulated white sugar.

Chiko Rolls - snack food similar to small Chinese egg rolls.

Chooki - chicken.

Cofa - solidified block of coconut oil used mainly in desserts.

Cream Sponge - a light sponge cake, split and filled with whipped cream and fresh fruit.

Cumquats - a variety of tiny oranges, sour in taste and used especially in sugary
preserves.

Damper - quick bread, mixed with a knife, and made with self-rising flour and milk or
water. It may be baked in the oven or directly on coals (the outer crust would then be
scraped off and discarded).

Egg and Bacon Pie - a quick luncheon or supper dish prepared by lining a piecrust with
bacon strips, then breaking in the desired number of eggs, and finally topping with an
egg/milk-glazed pastry, and baking till set.

Floater - a meat pie served floating in soup – usually pea soup.

Goanna - large fatty lizard, often eaten grilled.

Granny Smith - a variety of apple, bright green and crisp.

Hogget (or Two-Tooth) - name given to sheep from nine to twenty months old, having
passed the lamb stage but not yet matured.
Kabobs - meats that are sliced or cubed and threaded on skewers for barbecuing or
broiling.

Kromeskies - mixture of diced cooked meats and seasonings, wrapped in bacon then
dipped in fritter batter and deep-fried. These are served as appetizers and eaten dipped
into tomato sauce (ketchup).

Kumera - sweet potatoes or yams.

Lamington Cake - butter cake, usually frosted with chocolate icing and coated with
shredded coconut.

Mince - ground meat, usually beef. This term may also refer to any finely chopped
mixture.

Molehill - a dessert of almond-filled prunes coated and mounded with a light mixture of
gelatin, whipped eggs, and whipped cream, then topped with grated chocolate.

Muesli - dry breakfast cereal of Swiss origin made of toasted oats, nuts, and dried fruits
and served dry or with milk. This mixture is also used in the preparation of many breads
and biscuits.

Mutton - lamb that is more than two years old that has dark red flesh with hard white
fat. Young mutton is twenty months to two years old.

Pavlova - a delicately baked meringue of egg whites and sugar topped with whipped
cream and fresh seasonal fruits. Considered to be the Australian national dessert.

Pikelets - a quickly made mix of eggs, milk, self-rising flour, and sugar, similar to
pancakes. The mixture is dropped by spoonfuls on a hot griddle and browned on both
sides. They are eaten as a cool dessert.

Tohero: a shellfish with a distinctive green color.

Trifle: dessert of English origin prepared by layering fingers of plain cake with custard
sauce and fruit then garnishing with whipped cream, glaceed cherries, and nuts.

Vegemite: a favorite Australian spread, brown in color and yeasty in taste. Said to be
highly nutritious, it is as popular with Australians as peanut butter is with North
Americans.

Yabbies: freshwater crayfish.
CHINA

Ingredients and dishes

Bamboo Shoots            Cone shaped shoot of tropical bamboo. Usually sold
                         canned, packed in water.

Bean curd                Sometimes called tofu, sold in white cakes that look like
                         soft cheese.

Bean sprouts             Sprouts from the mung bean, from which we also get soy
                         sauce and bean curd or tofu.
                         Use fresh if available, stir fried with vegetables. Also
                         available canned in liquid.

Black beans              Fermented, salted black beans. Sold in cans and used
                         extensively in Szechwan and Cantonese cooking.

Bok Choy                 A cabbage like vegetable, a little like swiss chard. Usually
                         shredded and steamed.

Transparent Noodles      Fine vermicelli noodle made from the starch of the mung
                         bean. They are usually deep fried or soaked in hot water
                         before use.

Chilli Sauce             A hot sauce made from chillies, vinegar and salt. Use
                         sparingly.

Dim Sum                  Chinese dumplings served as an appetizer, often filled with
                         pork, shrimp and vegetables.

Dried Mushrooms          Edible fungi such as shitake or ―cloud ears‖. Sock for at
                         least 30 minutes before using.

Five spice powder        Popular seasoning, a mixture of ground cinnamon, cloves,
                         pepper, fennel and star anise.

Ginger                   Fresh ginger is a knobbly root which is peeled and sliced or
                         grated. Dried ginger can be substituted but the taste will be
                         inferior.

Hoi Sin sauce            Chinese barbecue sauce. Used in cooking as a marinade
                         and as a condiment.
Monosodium Glutamate   aka ―MSG‖ A powder of white crystals used to enhance the
                       flavors. Some people are allergic to it and experience
                       ―Chinese restaurant syndrome‖ – headache etc.

Oyster Sauce           Delicate flavored sauce made from oysters and soy sauce.

Rice vermicelli        A fine, white noodle made from rice which can be deep
                       fried or soaked.

Sesame Oil             Used as a flavoring NOT as a cooking oil. Add at the last
                       minute to flavor foods.

Soy Sauce              A condiment made from fermented soy beans. Available in
                       light or dark depending on the meat or vegetables used.

Star Anise             An unusual 8 pointed star of the anise plant, flavored a lot
                       like licorice. Used ground in 5 spice powder and
                       marinades.

Water chestnuts        Small white bulbs available canned in water. Used in stir
                       fried dishes.

Won Ton Wrapper        Squares of ready prepared pastry, made with flour and
                       water. Used to make small dumplings for soup, larger
                       versions are used to make spring rolls or dim sum.

Cooking Utensils

Bamboo Steamers
Woks
Cleaver
Chopsticks
Ladles

Fine strainer
SOUTH EAST ASIA

Ingredients and Foods

Tamarind juice is made from block tamarind concentrate sold in Asian stores, some
supermarkets and by mail order. To make tamarind juice, break off a piece of the block
and soak in warm water for 10 to 15 minutes. Squeeze and loosen the remainder of the
flesh from the seeds and strain. Use a ratio of approximately 1:4 tamarind concentrate to
water.

Coconut milk can be found canned at Asian groceries, many supermarkets and by mail
order. Mae Ploy from Thailand is the richest brand available.

Galanga (also known as laos) powder, the ground root of a rhizome related to ginger, can
be found in Asian groceries, some supermarkets and by mail order.

Kemiri or candlenut is ground and used as a thickening agent in Indonesian food. It can
be found at Asian groceries and by mail order. Macadamia nut will provide
approximately the same texture, but not the same flavor. Don't eat kemiri raw! They
contain a mildly toxic substance which is destroyed by cooking.

Kaffir lime leaves can be found frozen and dried at Asian food stores. The frozen ones
are more flavorful.

Lemon grass/lemon grass powder are both found in Asian groceries. Fresh lemon grass,
also found in farmer's markets in cities with large Asian populations, is far superior to the
powder and easy to grow in mild climates. Try rooting some stalks in water and planting
them outdoors.

Terasi or shrimp paste can be found in Asian groceries and by mail order. In a pinch,
substitute Thai or Vietnamese shrimp paste or even Filipino bagoong, all of which may
be more available.

Sambal Oelek or raw chili paste is available in Asian markets and by mail order. Like
many of these ingredients, you can get them from Syamsul and Beverley by ordering on-
line.
JAPANESE FOOD GLOSSARY

Arare: crisp rice crackers seasoned with soy sauce

Azuki: sweetened red or black beans

Daikon: a member of the turnip family (similar to radish)

Kamaboko: fish cake made from white fish

Kanten: gelatin dessert made out of seaweed

Katsudon: fried pork cutlet

Kuromame: black beans

Manju: sweet bean paste buns

Mirin: sweetened rice wine

Miso: thick fermented soybean paste

Mochi: also called sweet or sticky rice (made into cakes)

Musubi: rice ball wrapped in seaweed

Namasu: salad of vegetables in a vinegar sauce

Nishime: vegetables with pork or chicken

Nori: dried, compressed seaweed

Okazu-ya: Japanese delicatessen

Panko: flour meal used for breading

Sake: rice wine

Sashimi: thin slices of very fresh salt water fish

Sekihan: rice and red beans

Senbei: sweet rice crackers

Shabu Shabu: meat and vegetables in a simmering broth
Shiitake: large mushrooms with dark caps

Shira Ae: vegetable and tofu salad

Shumai: small steamed dumplings

Soba: slender buckwheat noodle

Somen: thin and delicate rice noodles

Sukiyaki: meat, bean curd, vegetables cooked in soy sauce and sugar

Sushi: cold vinegar rice garnished with raw fish

Takuwan: pickled daikon or turnip

Tempura: vegetables, meat, or seafood quick-fried in light egg batter

Teppanyaki: style of dining where chefs cook food at your table

Teriyaki: soy based, sweet and salty flavoring used on beef, chicken and other foods

Tobiko: orange-reddish roe of the flying fish

Tofu: white soybean curd

Tonkatsu: breaded, deep-fried pork cutlet

Tsukemono: pickled vegetables

Udon: thick wheat noodles

Wasabi: similar to horseradish but green and hotter

Yaki Tori Kushi: chicken on a stick

								
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