A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

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A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE Powered By Docstoc
					   A BRIEF HISTORY OF
THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
Henry, M. (1990). Words: Integrated decoding
     and spelling instruction based on word
     origin and word structure. Austin: PRO-ED.
Facts
   Over ____ million people speak English
    (__________ the population of the world)
   When we learn English, we are actually
    learning ____ languages- each with its
    own phonology and structure.
   HERE’S WHY!
Germanic Influence
   English is classified as a ____________
    language
       However, less than ___% of the words are Germanic
   The _______, _________, and _________
    came from northern _________________
    bringing their language with them
   Later, the ______________ (known as the
    Danes) invaded the land and spoke a northern
    branch of Germanic
Germanic Words
   Relatively few in number
   Common, everyday words in the language
   Includes all words on the _______ list
   All words on any lists of the
    “_____________________” are Germanic
Features of Germanic Words
   Short because over time, the endings dropped off
   Most of our _____________ words are Germanic
       Examples: the, but, cold, sit
   ___________________ words in the language
   Least ____________________
   Most difficult to ____________
       Examples: they, could, was, write, old, most, thought
   ___________, ___________, and
    _____________________ of vowels are
    characteristics of the Germanic strain of language
Latin Words
   Over ___________ the words in the
    English language are based on Latin
   A handful of Latin words entered during
    the language during the __________ era
   Most of the Latin words came by way of
    _____________ (a _______ language)
       Ex. glamour
Vikings
   Some of the _________ had settled in Northern
    France (i.e., Normandy which means “north
    men”) and adopted the French language
   In ______, they invaded England
   For the next 300 years, no king of England
    (keep in mind: every English king was also king
    of France at that time) spoke English but instead
    spoke ___________ (the language of the
    _________ and ________________)
Latin
   Later, __________ in England borrowed words
    directly from Latin itself
   _________________ (with its center in Rome)
    adopted Latin for its services)
   As Christianity spread over western Europe, the
    people attending services learned Latin words
   Latin was also the required language at _________
    and _____________
       Ex. calculus
Characteristics of Latin Words
   Consist of a _________, __________, and _______
       Examples: pre dic tion, in somni a
   Seldom use vowel pairs
   Use ____________ or vowel ____________ for
    long sound
       Examples: invade, denote
   Never uses sh for /sh/; instead, the sound is spelled
    ti, ci, si, or xi
       Examples: invention, social, permission, complexion
    Greek Words
    _________% of the English vocabulary is
     based on Greek
    Greek words came into the language from 2
     sources:
    1.   _______ (as every educated Roman knew
         Greek)
    2.   Borrowed by ____________
    Characteristics of Greek Words
   Recognized by their spelling and structure
   Use ___ for /f/ (Example: physics)
   Use ____ for /k/ (Example: chemistry)
   Use ___ for /i/ (Example: gym, type)
   Often consists of 2 elements joined by a
    connecting ___ (Example: hydrogen, photograph)
   Scientists use Greek when they want a new word
    for a __________ or _____________
       Examples: neutron, electron, cardiogram
       Greek has become the language of _________
                     GREEK
                  Specialized words used
            mostly in science, though some
             (i.e., television) are common



                  ROMANCE
    Technical, sophisticated words used primarily in
  more formal settings such as literature & textbooks




               ANGLO-SAXON
Common, everyday, down-to-earth words used frequently in
   ordinary situations and found in school primers
More Influences
   Crusaders and the trade with medieval
    __________ brought words such as tea,
    sofa, and sherbet
   From ______: calico, bungalow, jungle
   From _________: dingo, outback,
    kangaroo
   From __________: safari
Move to the New World
   Foreign words flooded into the language
   The Dutch were among the first _________
    which is why we have so many Dutch words
    (Example: cookie, landscape, coleslaw)
   French explorers who settled in ____________
    added chowder, pumpkin, prairie, levee, and
    others to the list
   ____________________ contributed banana,
    cola, goober, yam, gorilla, tote, and okra
Influence of the Native Americans
   Place names of rivers, mountains,
    landmarks, and names of over half the
    states
       Can you think of some of these?
   Other native words include: caribou,
    toboggan, papoose, raccoon, tobacco
    Other Changes Cause New
    Words to Enter
   Potato famine (1845) brought ____________ immigrants
   1848 revolution caused Germans to settle in ______________
    and the __________________
   After the American Civil War came the Spanish, Italians, and
    Scandinavians
   Czechs, Slovaks, and Poles followed
   Chinese were hired to build the ____________ (and they
    remained)
   Japanese settled on the _____________________
   Refugees from all over Europe fled from World War II
   Also, there followed a huge influx from Puerto Rico, China,
    Hong Kong, Korea, & Thailand
Anglo-Saxon Layer of Language
   Beginning readers start out reading words from the
    Anglo-Saxon base of language
   _________________ used short words typical in
    early readers
   __________ are also of Anglo-Saxon origin
   In addition, prefixes and suffixes are added but
    many of the Anglo-Saxon prefixes are __________
    (forget, without, became, overlook, unhappy,
    understand, inside, befriend)
   Anglo-Saxon suffixes: ed, er, ing, ly, s (es), able,
    hood, ful, less, ness, ship, ish)
 Anglo-Saxon Letter-Sound
 Correspondences
                                  CONSONANTS
        Single                        Blends                    Diagraphs
b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l,   bl, cl, fl, gl, pl, sl       ch,     sh     th    wh
m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w,   br, cr, dr, fr, gr, pr, tr   chat ship this when
x, y, z                      sc, sk, sl, sp, st, sw …                   thin
                             Final: ft, lk, lt, mp, nd…   (-ck, -tch, -dge, -ng)
                                    VOWELS
   Single Letter              -r & -l Controlled                Diagraphs
      (Short/Long)
cap - cape                             er, ir, ur         1 sound:
pet - Pete
                                        ar, or               ee; oy, oi; oa; ai, ay;
pinning - pining
rob - robe                             arr, err               aw, au
cutter – cuter                            all             2 sounds:
(y)                                        al                ea, ow, ou, ie, ei, ew
Latin Layer of Language
   Students encounter these words in ____rd grade
   Knowledge of consonants & vowels transfers
    directly to these words
   None of the complex Anglo-Saxon digraphs are
    included
   _______________ sound is the most notable
    feature (unaccented vowel sound found in
    unaccented syllables) ~ Letter-sound
    correspondences are otherwise the same as
    Anglo-Saxon
       machine, soda, ahead, about, magazine
    Latin Layer
   Root words: usually stressed & contain the major
    meaning of the word
       spect, rupt, vis, aud, vent, flect, script, gress, dict, tract, lit,
        duct, struct, pend, ped
   Prefixes: pre, re, bi, pro, mid, sub, dis, inter, intro,
    intra, il, extra, per, ultra, trans
       Many prefixes have the schwa sound
            aggressive, appearance, connect, collect, attach

    Vowel diagraphs in the suffixes are ALL pronounced as
     schwas (nation, precious, omission) & initial consonants in
     the suffixes, followed by i, are pronounced as /sh/
Common Latin Prefixes
de- (from, away)         dis- (separation, undo)
re- (back, again)        im- (in, not)
bi- (two)                sub- (under)
tri- (three)             ex- (out)
pre- (before)            trans- (across)
pro- (before, forward)   mis- (wrong, bad)
co- (together, with)     con- (together, with)
                         in- (in, not)
                         non- (not)
Latin Suffixes
   -ist (noun, person)   -t(ure)

   -ive                  -tion

   -age                  -sion
   -ant                  -cian
   -or (noun)
                          -tious
   -ar (adjective)
                          -tial
   -ible
   -ary                  -cial

   -ize                  -cious

   -ance
    Latin Roots
   rupt (to break, to burst)        cred (to believe)
   port (to carry)                  duc, duce, duct (to lead)
   form (to shape)                  pel, puls (to drive, push)
   tract (to pull)                  pend (to hang)
   scrib, script (to write)         fac, fact (to make, do)
   spec, spect (to see, watch)      vert, vers (to turn)
   stru, struct (to build)          jac, jec, ject (to throw, lie)
   dic, dict (to say, tell)
   flect, flex (to bend)
   mit, miss (to send)
Greek Layer of Language
   Same letter-sound correspondences as those in
    Anglo-Saxon words, but adds 3 important
    patterns: ph for /f/, ch for /k/, and the use of y as
    a long vowel /ī/ or short vowel /ĭ/ (i.e., medial
    vowel)
   Usually specialized words in _________, though
    some are ________ (___________)
   Often contain silent _ (pneumonia, pseudonym)
   _______ as in mnemonics
Greek Combining Forms
   Not called prefixes and suffixes but
    ___________________ since there are
    usually 2 parts of equal stress and
    importance
    Greek Combining Forms
              BEGINNING                              ENDING
   auto = self                             graph, gram =
   phono = sound                            written/drawn
   photo = light                           meter = measure
   hydro = water                           ology = study
   tele = distance                         scope = watch, see
   micro = small
                                            sphere, crat, cracy, polis
   therm = heat

   biblio, hyper, chron, chrom, arch,
    phys, pysch, peri, bi, semi, hemi,
    mono, meta, mega, metro, philo,
    soph, theo, techni
Syllable Division Rules
   Anglo-Saxon = VC/CV; V/CV, VC/V
    VC/CCV (consonant l-e) are common
   Latin = Same as Anglo-Saxon but the
    prefixes and suffixes often consist of
    syllables based on these patterns (i ble,
    in tro)
   Greek = Same as Anglo-Saxon (many v/cv
    such as hyper, vc/v such as hemi, also,
    v/cc such as hydro)
    Why Students Need This
    Information
    Students use their knowledge to decode unfamiliar
     words.
    Teach students this process
    1.   See if you can identify the language origin.
    2.   Look for the morpheme units: Anglo-Saxon or Latin
         prefixes, roots, suffixes. Greek combining forms, or single
         words making up Anglo-Saxon compound words.
    3.   If you can’t find a morpheme, or if you find morphemes but
         still can’t read the word, break the word into syllables using
         the common syllable division options.
    4.   If syllable division doesn’t work, or works for only part of
         the work, use letter-sound correspondences.