Presentations - Structure & Org. Conditions

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					        Topic 2-1
Structural and Organisational
     Conditions for KM
• References for the week
• Structural Conditions
    – Codification
    – Taxonomies
•   Organisational Conditions
•   Networks
•   KM Roles and Skills
•   KM Activities
     References for the week
• Working Knowledge – Davenport &

• International Best Practice – Rollo &
Structural Conditions
   Implementation Approach –
         Sydney Water
                           Leadership &

 Infrastructure &
 Technology                                       Content

Smart Products
& Services                                            Processes &

    External Integration
                                          Culture & People
          Structural Conditions
Codification of knowledge:
  Tacit                                                  Articulable

  Not teachable                                          Teachable

  Not articulated                                        Articulated

  Not observable in use                                  Observable in use

  Rich                                                   Schematic

  Complex                                                Simple

  Undocumented                                           Documented
             Source: Working Knowledge - Davenport & Prusak
       Structural Conditions
• Taxonomies
  – Representation of organisation through codification
  – Origin in libraries
  – Application in records and document management
  – Specific to organisation
  – Provides common framework, access paths and
    method of categorisation
  – Requires expertise/understanding
      Structural Conditions
• Challenges of developing taxonomy -
  K-Potential example:
  – Mumbai (HQ), Beijing, Hong Kong,
    Melbourne, Perth, Seoul, Shanghai,
    Singapore, Sydney and Wellington
  – Majority of experts are in Hong Kong
  – Most knowledge is South East Asia-centric
  – Issues re new product development
 Organisational Conditions
Organisational Climate and Networks
    Organisational Conditions –
       Blocks for Learning
• Control and norm systems
    – Do not accept error as a normal effect of learning
      activities (sanction or social pressure)
    – Can limit the autonomy of individuals and teams
•   => Scepticism of human nature
•   => No will to share
•   The history of the organisation is important
•   Attempts to change things can often be
    perceived as manipulation
 Organisational Conditions -
Formal Vs Informal Networks
•   Formal Department           Formal
•   Operational Teams
•   Project Teams
•   Community of Practice
•   Communities of Interest
•   Informal Networks         Informal
                           Types of Networks
              Objective      Who ?           Links            Duration

FORMAL        Problem        Designated      The problem to   Until a solution
TASK-         resolution     employees       be solved        is found

PROJECT       Managing a     Designated      Steps and        Until project is
TEAMS         project        employees       objectives of    completed
                                             the project

INFORMAL      Collect/        The persons    Mutual needs     Permanent
NETWORKS      exchange        you know       (interest) and
              information and                friendship
              practical K

COMMUNITIES Exchange         Open access     Passion,         Undetermined
OF          practical K      but linked to   implication,
PRACTICES                    networks        common
           Formal Networks
•   Organisation charts
•   Hierarchies
•   Project teams
•   Business units
•   Matrix organisations
         Informal Networks
•   Social connections
•   Coffee room meetings
•   Networks
•   Alumni associations
    Why the need for informal
• The objective is to introduce spaces for exchange even
  if the rest of the organisation remains more
• These breaches in the bureaucratic system are spaces
  of freedom and exchange
   – Freedom
       • Autonomy (apart from the hierarchical structure)
       • A right to say the wrong thing or to fail
   – Exchange
       • Acceptance of others and altruism (empathy)
       • Interest
       • A form of trust
• A central vision remains important
     How to develop Informal
• Training programs
• Inter-department visits
• Regular meetings with working groups
• Connection by a manager (for example instead
  of giving a solution)
• Using IT
    – Expertise repositories
    – Project capitalisation with contact information
    – Forums
Organisational Conditions
 Structure of the KM Function
        KM Roles and Skills
•   Four main groups
    1. Knowledge users (knowledge oriented
    2. Knowledge functions (knowledge
       workers, knowledge managers, CKOs)
    3. Management
    4. Support
      1 - Knowledge Users
• Knowledge-Oriented Personnel
  – Includes planning managers, business
    analysts, design and manufacturing
    engineers, marketing professionals,
    secretaries and clerks
  – Organisational culture is key
  – Organisational structure can help
    2 - Knowledge Functions
• Knowledge (Management) Workers
  – Technical functions – web and knowledge base
  – Integrators, librarians, synthesisers, reporters,
  – Combination of “hard” skills (structuring, technical
    and professional) and “softer” traits (cultural,
    political, personal)
  – Knowledge Engineers
  – Technical Writers
    2 - Knowledge Functions
• Managers of Knowledge Projects
  – Typical project management functions
     •   Objective
     •   Team
     •   Expectations
     •   Monitoring
     •   Resolving
  – Requires technical, psychological and business
    skills, “multi-lingual” and a dose of humility
    2 - Knowledge Functions
• Chief Knowledge Officer
  – Advocate or “evangelise”
  – Design, implement and oversee knowledge
  – Manage relationships
  – Critical input to knowledge creation processes
  – Design and implement codification processes
  – Measure and manage value
  – Manager professional knowledge managers
  – Lead KM strategy development
    2 - Knowledge Functions
• Chief Knowledge Officer
  – What Counts?
     • Culture
     • Infrastructure
     • Value
  – Characteristics:
     •   Deep experience in some aspect
     •   Technology familiarity
     •   Highly “knowledgeable”
     •   Comfort/experience with operational processes
            3 - Management
• Line management has an important role to
  play in the stimulation of KM initiatives
• The CEO must support the initiatives
• Managers at all levels must
   – Encourage the capitalisation and diffusion of
   – Encourage learning initiatives
   – Give time to their teams for these endeavours
   – Favour the development of networks (through
     meetings, by their attitude,…)
                    4 - Support
• IT department
   – Supportive capacity dependant of IT climate
• Internal consulting department
   – Can deliver a first diagnostic and support the implementation
     of a KM program
   – Can implement specific internal or external benchmark
     operation or work on documenting some best practices
• Other important links
   – Human resources management
   – Quality management
   – Control and reporting
      High Level KM Activities
       Introducing Knowledge Management into the Enterprise, Wigg
                                        Maximize the Enterprise's
                                          Knowledge -Related
                                             Effectivenes s                                        Realize
                             "Staff"                                                            the Value of
                            Functions                                                            Knowledge
Governance                       Es tabli sh & Update                     Operational         Di stri bute & Appl y
 Functions                            Knowle dge                           Functions           Knowle dge As sets
                                     Infrastru cture                                               Effe ctivel y
                                                                    Cre ate, Re new,
   Moni tor &
                                                                   Bui ld, & O rganiz e            • Al ways Obtain
   Faci li tate
                                                                   Knowle dge As sets                 & Use Be st
 K-R Acti vi ties
                                                                                                      Knowle dge
    • Surve y & Map                     • En terpris e-Wi de        • Di scove r & Innovate              • Embed
     the Knowl edge                      Le ssons-Learne d              -- Cons tantl y --            Knowle dge
       Landscape                              Program                      • Acqui re                 i n Products
       • O ve rs ee                  • Knowle dge Bases                   Knowle dge                  & Servi ces
    Knowle dge As set                  wi th O rgani zed                                           • Col laborate to
      Manageme nt                        O ntologi es                  • Educate & Train           Pool Appropri ate
                                                                                                       Knowl edge
         • Manage
                                          • Knowle dge                    • Mai ntain                    • Reu se
   Inte ll ectual Ass ets
                                          Profe ss ional               Knowle dge Bases               Te chnology
  Imple me nt Ince nti ve s to           Res ource Pool s                                              Whereve r,
    Motivate Knowl edge                                                                                 Whene ver
                                                                         • Automate
  Cre ation , Shari ng, & Us e            • Knowle dge                                                  Possi b le
                                                                     Knowle dge Trans fe rs
                                           Inven tori es
                                                                                                     • Se ll Products
   • Pursu e Knowl edge-
                                    Comprehe nsi ve Mul ti -Path     • Con duct Res earch &             wi th Hi gh
     Focus ed Strategy
                                       Knowle dge Trans fe r             Devel opme nt                  Knowle dge
       • Res tructure                Devel opme nt Capabi li ty                                          Conten t
       O perations &                                                • Trans form & Embed
       O rgani zation                   • Corporate Uni versi ty          Knowle dge
                   Case Study
• Five Stars Case
   – Aim of KM
   – Staffing for KM

   – Consider
      • Codification Vs Personalisation
      • Normative (standardisation) Vs Participative